Buchanan, United States minister at Buenos Aires, serving as arbitrator, reached a decision on the Atacama line north of 26° 52' 45" S.
Evidence of this is to be found in the altitudes of the stations on the Buenos Aires and Pacific railway running a little north of west across the pampas to Mendoza.
The average elevation of Buenos Aires is about 65 ft.; of Mercedes, 70 m.
The Lujan rises near Mercedes, province of Buenos Aires, is about 150 m.
Region there are many small streams, flowing into the La Plata estuary and the Atlantic; most of these are unknown by name outside the republic. The largest and only important river is the Salado del Sud, which rises in the north-west corner of the province of Buenos Aires and flows south-east for a distance of 360 m.
The province of Buenos Aires has more than 600 lakes, the great majority small, and some brackish.
The two most frequented by ocean-going vessels are Buenos Aires and Ensenada (La Plata).
By sea south of Buenos Aires; here the government is building a naval station and port called Puerto Militar or Puerto Belgrano, and little dredging is needed to render the harbour accessible to the largest ocean-going vessels.
North of Buenos Aires, on the Parana river, is the port of Rosario, the outlet for a rich agricultural district, ranking next to the federal capital in importance.
This university was founded in 1621 and the university of Buenos Aires in 1821, but although Bonpland and some other European scientists were members of the faculty of Buenos Aires in its early years, neither there nor at Cordoba was any marked attention given to the natural sciences until President Sarmiento (official term, 1868-1874) initiated scientific instruction at the university of Cordoba under the eminent German naturalist, Dr Hermann Burmeister (1807-1892), and founded the National Observatory at Cordoba and placed it under the direction of ' There are two distinct statistical offices compiling immigration returns and their totals do not agree, owing in part to the traffic between Buenos Aires and Montevideo.
Dr Burmeister was afterwards placed in charge of the provincial museum of Buenos Aires, and devoted himself to the acquisition of a collection of fossil remains, now in the La Plata museum, which ranks among the best of the world.
Not only has scientific study advanced at the university of Buenos Aires, but scientific research is promoting the development of the country; examples are the geographical explorations of the Andean frontier, and especially of the Patagonian Andes, by Francisco P. Moreno.
Buenos Aires has some excellent daily journals, but the tone of the press in general is sensational.
The number of newspapers published is large, especially in Buenos Aires, where in 1902 the total, including sundry periodicals, was 183.
The names, area and population of the provinces and territories are as follows: The principal towns, with estimated population for 1905, are as follows: Buenos Aires (1,025,653), Rosario (129,121), La Plata (85,000), Tucuman (55,000), Cordoba (43,000), Sante Fe (33, 200), Mendoza (32,000), Parana.
Communications.-The development of railways in Argentina, which dates from 1857 when the construction of the Buenos Aires Western was begun, was at first slow and hesitating, but after 1880 it went forward rapidly.
The principal centres of the system are Buenos Aires, Rosario and Bahia Blanca, with La Plata as a secondary centre to the former, and from these the lines radiate westward and northward.
The Transandine line, designed to open railway communication between Buenos Aires and Valparaiso, was so far completed early in 1909 that on the Argentine side only the summit tunnel, 2 m.
The gauge is broken at Mendoza, the Buenos Aires and Pacific having a gauge of 5 ft.
Those of Buenos Aires, Rosario and La Plata are owned by public companies.
The national lines extend from Buenos Aires north to La Quiaca on the Bolivian frontier (1180 m.), and south to Cape Virgenes (1926 m.), at the entrance to the Straits of Magellan.
The steamships under the national flag are almost wholly engaged in the traffic between Buenos Aires and Montevideo, the river traffic, and port services.
In 1881 President Roca offered for public purchase by auction the lands in the southwest of the province of Buenos Aires, the Pampa Central, and the Neuquen district, these lands having been rendered habitable after the campaign of 1878 against the Indians.
The principal wheat and Indian corn producing districts lie in the provinces of Santa Fe, Buenos Aires, Cordoba and Entre Rios, and the average yield of wheat throughout the country is about 12 bushels to the acre.
The guia tax on the transport of stock from one province to another, which has been declared unconstitutional in the courts, is still enforced, and is a vexatious tax upon the stock-raiser, while the consumption, or octroi, tax in Buenos Aires and other cities is a heavy burden upon small producers.
Electric power generated by steam is now commonly used in Buenos Aires and other large cities for driving light machinery.
The government maintains a naval school at Flores, a school of mechanics in Buenos Aires, an artillery school on the cruiser " Patagonia," and a school for torpedo practice at La Plata.
The naval arsenal is situated on the " north basin " of the Buenos Aires port, and the military port at Bahia Blanca is provided with a dry dock of the largest size, and extensive repair shops.
There is also a dockyard and torpedo arsenal at La Plata, an artillery depot at Zarate, above Buenos Aires, and naval depots on the island of Martin Garcia and at Tigre, on the Lujan river.
Of these colleges four are in Buenos Aires, one in each province, and one in Concepcion del Uruguay.
For the instruction of teachers the republic has 28 normal schools, as follows: three in the national capital; one in Parana, three (regional) in Corrientes, San Luis and Catamarca; 14 for female teachers in the provincial capitals; and seven for either sex in the larger towns of the provinces of Buenos Aires, Santa Fe, Cordoba and San Luis.
For higher and professional education there are two national universities at Buenos Aires and Cordoba, and three provincial universities, at La Plata, Santa Fe and Parana, which comprise faculties of law, medicine and engineering, in addition to the usual courses in arts and science.
To meet the needs of technical and industrial education there are a school of mines at San Juan, a school of viticulture at Mendoza, an agronomic and veterinary school at La Plata, several agricultural and pastoral schools, and commercial schools in Buenos Aires, Rosario, Bahia Blanca and Concordia.
During this period the bank-note circulation was increased to $161,700,000, and two mortgage banks - the National Hypothecary Bank and the Provincial Mortgage Bank (of Buenos Aires) - flooded the country with $509,000,000 of cedulas (hypothecary bonds).
The name of Buenos Aires was given to the country by Sancho del.
In 1542 the settlement of Buenos Aires was re-established by an expedition sent for the purpose from Spain, under a tried adelantado, Cabeza de Vaca.
The second settlement made by his expedition at Buenos Aires was even less successful and long-lived than the first.
In 1620 Buenos Aires was separated from the authority of the government established at Asuncion, and was made the seat of a government extending over Mendoza, Santa Fe, Entre Rios and Corrientes, but at the same time remained like the government of Paraguay at Asuncion, and that of the province of Tucuman, which had Cordoba as its capital, subject to the authority of the viceroyalty of Peru.
The Portuguese were even worse offenders, for in 1680 they made a settlement on the north of the river Plate, right opposite to Buenos Aires, named Colonia, which with one or two short intervals, remained.
From this port foreign merchandise found its way duty free into the Spanish provinces of Buenos Aires, Tucuman and Paraguay, and even into the interior of Peru.
The continual encroachments of the Portuguese at length led the Spanish government to take the important step of making Buenos Aires the seat of a viceroyalty with jurisdiction over the territories of the present republics of Bolivia, Paraguay, Uruguay and the Argentine Confederation (1776).
In July 1807 another British force of eight thousand men under General Whitelock endeavoured to regain possession of Buenos Aires, but strenuous preparations had been made for resistance, and after fierce street fighting the invading army, after suffering severe losses, was compelled to capitulate.
The successful defence of Buenos Aires accentuated the growing feeling of dissatisfaction with the Spanish connexion, which was soon to lead to open insurrection.
On the 25th of May 1810 a great armed assembly met at Buenos Aires and a provisional junta was formed to supersede the authority of the viceroy and carry on the government.
Bolivia, Paraguay and Uruguay rose in armed revolt, and finally established themselves as separate republics, whilst the city of Buenos Aires itself was torn with faction and the scene of many a sanguinary fight.
The combined forces of Buenos Aires and Chile defeated the Spaniards at Chacabuco in 1817, and at Maipu in 1818; and from Chile the victorious general Jose de San Martin led his troops into Peru, where on the 9th of July 1821, he made a triumphal entry into Lima, which had been the chief stronghold of the Spanish power, having from the time of its foundation by Pizarro been the seat of government of a viceroyalty which at one time extended to the river Plate.
A general congress was assembled at Buenos Aires on the ist of March 1822, of representatives from all the liberated provinces, and a general amnesty was decreed, though the war was not over until the 9th of December 182 4, when the republican forces gained the final victory of Ayacucho, in the Peruvian border-land.
This project of closer union met, however, with much opposition both at Buenos Aires and the provinces.
Lavalle, at the head of a division of troops, drove Dorrego from Buenos Aires, pursued him into the interior, and captured him.
Buenos Aires was in 1838 blockaded by a French fleet; but Rosas stood firm.
In 1840 he invaded Buenos Aires at the head of troops raised chiefly in the province of Entre Rios; but he was defeated at Santa Fe, then at Lujan, and finally was captured in Jujuy and shot, 1841.