But when Ahmad Shah returned to Kabul the Sikhs rose once more and re-established their religion.
In return they all received provinces: NO obtained Samarkand; Ahmad, Ferghana; Yahya, Shash; Ilyas, Herat.
Of these Ahmad and his second son Isma`il overthrew the Saffarids (q.v.) and the Zaidites of Tabaristan; and thus the Samanids established themselves with the sanction of the caliph Motamid in their capital Bokhara.
Ahmad, who crossed from series of Arab immigrations, the last two of which are referred to the 13th and 15th centuries.
A force was equipped at Basra under Ahmad Feizi Pasha with the intention of occupying Kuwet; Mubarak thereupon appealed to Great Britain and action was taken which prevented the Turkish designs from being carried out.
Ahmad Feizi Pasha, in command of the Basra column, 4200 strong, crossed the desert and reached the wells of aina, 200 m.
Arrangements were accordingly made with the Wahhabis, and on the 10th of April Ahmad Feizi Pasha left aina, ostensibly with the object of protecting the pilgrim road, and joined the Medina column by the end of the month.
The Persian occupation, which followed that of the Portuguese, came to a end in the middle of the, 8th century, when Ahmad Ibn Said expelled the invaders and in 1759 established the Ghafari dynasty which still reigns in Oman.
Meanwhile, reinforcements under General Ahmad Feizi Pasha reached Hodeda, Manakha was retaken, Sana relieved, and by the end of January 1893 the country with the exception of the northern mountainous districts was reconquered.
The fall of Sana made a deep impression t Constantinople, every effort was made to hasten out reinforcements, the veteran Ahmad Feizi Pasha was nominated to the supreme command, and Anatolian troops in place of the unreliable Syrian element were detailed.
By the end of June, Ahmad Feizi Pasha was in a position to advance on Manakha, where he organized an efficient transport, rallied the scattered remnants of Ali Riza's army, and with the newly arrived troops had by the middle of July a force of some 40 battalions available for the advance on Sana.
While, however, these measures were in early use, they were not systematically analysed or their rules enunciated until the time of Khalil ibn Ahmad in the 8th century.
Khalil ibn Ahmad (718-791), an Arab from Oman, of the school of Basra, was the first to enunciate the laws of Arabic metre and the first to write a dictionary.
Was again captured and plundered by Ahmad Shah with 25,000 Afghan cavalry in 1756.
Sir Sayad Ahmad Khan, K.C.S.I., who died in 1898, founded in 1864 the Aligarh Institute and Scientific Society for the translation into the vernacular of western literature; and afterwards the Mahommedan Anglo-Oriental college, under English professors, with an English school attached.
It will be needless to trace the revolutions and counter-revolutions which have followed each other in quick succession at Herat since Ahmad Shah Durani founded the Afghan monarchy about the middle of the 18th century.
His theological position was conservative and anti-rationalistic; he enjoyed the friendship and respect of Ahmad Ibn IJanbal.
The hostile attitude of Khalaf ibn Ahmad, governor of Seistan, called Mahmud to that province for a short time.
Darby in the following year; and Ahmad ibn Mohammed ibn Abdallah, al Dimashki, al `Ajmi, commonly called Ibn 'Arabshah, author of the Arabic `Ajaibu '1 Makhlnkat, translated by the Dutch Orientalist Golius in 1636.
It was founded by Ahmad Shah in A.D.
Ahmad Shah pulled down Hindu temples in order to build his mosques with the material.
Ahmad ibn Hanbal >>
Mesopotamia fell partly under the power of Ahmad ibn Tulun of Egypt and his son; but before the end of the 9th century the Hamdanids, descendants of the Arab tribe of Taghlib,.
IBN HAZM [Abu Mahommed `Ali ibn Ahmad ibn Hazm] (994-1064), Moslem theologian, was born in a suburb of Cordova.
The tomb of Ahmad Shah is the only attempt at monumental architecture.
This, with its rather handsome cupola, and the twelve minor tombs of Ahmad Shah's children grouped around, contains a few good specimens of fretwork and of inlaid inscriptions.
Nadir Shah was assassinated in 1749, and immediately on hearing the news of his death Ahmad Shah (Abdali) seized Nadir Shah's treasure at Kandahar, and proclaimed himself king, with the consent, not only of the Afghans, but, strange to say, of the Hazaras and Baluchis as well.
Ahmad Shah died in 1773, and was succeeded by his son Timur, who died in 1793, and left the throne to his son Zaman Shah.
JAM- (NUR-ED-DIN ` ABD-UR-RAHMAN IBN AHMAD) (1414-1492), Persian poet and mystic, was born at Jam in Khorasan, whence the name by which he is usually known.
But in 875 the accession of Ibrahim ibn Ahmad in Africa changed the face of things.
The amir in Sicily, Ja`far ibn Ahmad, received strict orders to act vigorously against the eastern towns.
AHMAD SHAH (1724-1773), founder of the Durani dynasty in Afghanistan, was the son of Sammaun-Khan, hereditary chief of the Abdali tribe.
While still a boy Ahmad fell into the hands of the hostile tribe of Ghilzais, by whom he was kept prisoner at Kandahar.
On the assassination of Nadir in 1 747, Ahmad, having failed in an attempt to seize the Persian treasures, retreated to Afghanistan, where he easily persuaded the native tribes to assert their independence and accept him as their sovereign.
Ahmad entered Delhi with his army in triumph, and for more than a month the city was given over to pillage.
The Mahratta chiefs availed themselves of these circumstances to endeavour to possess themselves of the whole country, and Ahmad was compelled more than once to cross the Indus in order to protect his territory from them and the Sikhs, who were constantly attacking his garrisons.
In 1758 the Mahrattas obtained possession of the Punjab, but on the 6th of January 1761 they were totally routed by Ahmad in the great battle of Panipat.
Meanwhile the Sikhs again rose, and Ahmad was now forced to abandon all hope of retaining the command of the Punjab.
The enterprise of a usurper in Syria in the year 872 caused the caliph to require the presence of Ahmad in that country at the head of an army to quell it; and although this army was not actually employed for the purpose, it was not disbanded by Abmad, who on his return founded a fresh city called Kati, the fiefs, S.E.
On the death of Ahmads father-in-law in the same year, when Egypt was given in fief to the caliphs brother Mowaffaq (famous for his defeat of the Zanj), Ahmad secured himself in his post by extensive bribery at headquarters; and in the following year the administration of the Syri,an frontier was conferred on him as well.
A revolt that broke out at Tarsus caused Ahmad to traverse Syria once more in 883, but illness compelled him to return, and on the 10th of May 884 he died at his residence in Ka~i.
Fall3) by whom Damascus was taken, and the C~rmathian leader al-Hasan b Ahmad al-Asam received aid from Bagdad for the purpose of recovering Syria to the Abbasids.
About 1765 the wazir of Ahmad Shah Abdali of Kabul invaded Badakshan, and from that time until now the domination of the countries on the south bank of the Oxus from Wakhan to Balkh has been a matter of frequent struggles between Afghans and Uzbegs.
Three years out of four at Herat it does not freeze hard enough for the people to store ice; yet it was not very far from Herat, and could not have been at a greatly higher level (at Kafir Kala, near Kassan) that, in 1750, Ahmad Shah's army, retreating from Persia, is said to have lost 18,000 men from cold in a single night.
The predominance of the Afghan in Afghanistan dates from the middle of the 18th century, when Ahmad Shah carved out Afghanistan from the previous conquests of Nadir Shah and called it the Durani empire.
Ahmad Shah, the founder of the monarchy, likewise wrote poetry.
Among these was a noble young soldier, Ahmad Khan, of the Saddozai family of the Abdali clan, who after the assassination of Nadir (1747) was chosen by the Afghan chiefs at Kandahar to be their leader, and assumed kingly authority over the eastern part of Nadir's empire, with the style of Dur-i-Durdn, " Pearl of the Age," bestowing that of Durani upon his clan, the Abdalis.
With Ahmad Shah, Afghanistan, as such, first took a place among the kingdoms of the earth, and the Durani dynasty, which he founded, still occupies its throne.
It was probably due to the strength and solidity of the executive administration organized, during his lifetime, by Abdur Rahman that, for the first time in the records of the dynasty founded by Ahmad Shah in the latter part of the 18th century, his death was not followed by disputes over the succession or by civil war.
The victory of Panipat, won by Ahmad Shah Durani over the united Mahratta confederacy in 1761, gave the Mahommedans one more chance of rule.
But Ahmad Shah had no ambition to found a dynasty of his own, nor were the British in Bengal yet ready for territorial conquest.
The tarbush or turki-topi was introduced into India by Sir Sayyid Ahmad (Plate I.
1773 of Ahmad Shah Durani, the founder of Afghan national independence.
Bar Durani is a name sometimes applied to the independent Pathan tribes who inhabit the hill districts south of the Hindu Kush, parts of the Indus valley, the Salt Range, and the range of Suliman, which were first conceded to them by Ahmad Shah.
The year after, Amin placed in the field two new armies commanded respectively by Ahmad b.
Several distinguished doctors, and, among others, the celebrated Ahmad b.
The two successors of Mamun maintained the edicts - Ahmad b.
The ringleader Ahmad b.
He was a man of very feeble character, and a mere puppet in the hands of his vizier Ahmad b.
The Turkish soldiery, now the chief power in the state, chose, by the advice of Ibn Khasib, in succession to Montasir, his cousin Ahmad, who took the title of al-Mosta`in billala (" he who looks for help to God").