Trouble now arose between the Americans and the Filipinos under the leadership of Emilio Aguinaldo, for the latter wished to establish a government of their own.
Numerous small battles were fought with Aguinaldo and the insurgents, who were repeatedly defeated only to reappear in other places.
As a result he suspended operations and signed the treaty of Biacabato (Dec. 12, 1897), by which Aguinaldo and thirty-five of his chief followers were allowed to retire to Hongkong with a cash indemnity of 400,000 pesos.
Aguinaldo and his friends were allowed to come to Cavite in an American transport.
With the approval of Commodore Dewey, who allowed arms to be supplied him, Aguinaldo successfully renewed his campaign against the Spaniards until practically all Luzon, except the city of Manila and suburbs, was in his control.
With the capture of Aguinaldo on the 23rd of March 1901, the resistance became little more than that of guerrillas.
Two days before the ratification of the peace treaty, a conflict took place between armed Filipinos under the leadership of Emilio Aguinaldo and the American forces that were in possession of Manila.