Unlike the African species, the Indian elephant charges with its trunk curled up, and consequently in silence.
By Dr Paul Matschie several races of the African elephant have been described, mainly, as already mentioned, on certain differences in the shape of the ear.
The chief African traders are Hausa immigrants.
Cartagena was founded about the year 243 B.C. by the Carthaginian Hasdrubal, and was called Carthago Nova or New Carthage, to distinguish it from the African city of Carthage.
In this respect the Asiatic species differs very widely from its African relative, whose nutriment is largely composed of boughs and roots.
The African elephant is a very different animal from its Asiatic cousin, both as regards structure and habits; and were it not for the existence of intermediate extinct species, might well be regarded as the representative of a distinct genus.
In size the male African elephant often surpasses the Asiatic species, reaching nearly 12 ft.
Further, the skin is stated to be much less rough, with fewer cracks, while a more important difference occurs in the trunk, which lacks the transverse ridges so distinctive of the ordinary African elephant, and thereby approximates to the Asiatic species.
The most important of these are the greater tolerance by the African animal of sunlight, and the hard nature of its food, which consists chiefly of boughs and roots.
The Sicilian-Ionian basin has a mean depth of 885 fathoms, and the Levant basin, 793 fathoms. Deep water is found close up to the coast of Sicily, Greece, Crete and the edge of the African plateau.
The salter waters apparently tend to make their way westwards close to the African coast, and at the bottom the highest salinities have been observed south of Crete.
Both European and African fruit trees grow in the island; there are in places considerable orange groves, especially at Milis, to the north of Oristano.
Numerous objects had been discovered in the course of excavations, but not one of them could be recognized as more than a few centuries old, while those that were not demonstrably foreign imports were of African type.
Their form, however, is not sufficiently characteristic to warrant this identification, though it may be noted that the nearest approximation to phallic worship is found amongst the most typical of African peoples, viz.
The ordinary domesticated cats of Europe are, however, mainly of African origin, although they have largely crossed, especially in Germany (and probably also in Great Britain), with the wild cat.
Cats of the striped type are no doubt descended from the European and North African wild cats; but the origin of cats exhibiting the blotched pattern appears to be unknown.
Another African breed is the Mombasa cat, in which the hair is reported to be unusually short and stiff.
Since then this pest has spread across the African continent and even reached Madagascar.
As a step towards such hypothesis it has been noted that the Antarctic, the South African, and the Australian floras have many types in common.
This work struck de Lesseps's imagination, and gave him the idea of piercing the African isthmus.
While his treaty with Lord Lyons in 1862 for the suppression of the slave trade conceded to England the right of search to a limited extent in African and Cuban waters, he secured a similar concession for American war vessels from the British government, and by his course in the Trent Affair he virtually committed Great Britain to the American attitude with regard to this right.
African antelope, scientifically known as Cephalophus grimmi; the popular name alluding to its habit of diving into and threading its way through thick bush.
The isothermals of mean surface temperature in the South Atlantic are in the lower latitudes of an cn- shape, temperatures being higher on the American than on the African side.
The exterior walls of the castles and palaces named are little damaged and give to Gondar a unique character among African towns.
Imports are mainly from Germany, exports to Germany and to other West African colonies.
Unveiled a fine memorial arch commemorating Royal Engineers who fell in the South African War.
The Tripoli hinterland, however, was in danger of being absorbed by other powers having large African interests; the Anglo-French declaration of the 21st of March 1899 in particular seemed likely to interfere with Italian activity.
In height it stood about the same as a young individual of the ordinary African elephant when about a year and a half old, the vertical measurement at the shoulder being only 4 ft., or merely a foot higher than a new-born Indian elephant.
Nothing was stated as to the probability of an increase in the stature of the French Congo animal as it grows older; but even if we allow another foot, its height would be considerably less than half that of a large Central African bull of the ordinary elephant.
The great interest in connexion with a dwarf West African race of elephant is in relation to the fossil pigmy elephants of the limestone fissures and caves of Malta and Cyprus.
Cypriotes; but since their molar teeth are essentially miniatures of those of the African elephant, it has been suggested by later observers that these animals are nothing more than dwarf races of the latter.
In this connexion it is of interest to note that, both in the Mediterranean islands and in West Africa, dwarf elephants of the African type are accompanied by pigmy species of hippopotamus, although we have not yet evidence to show that in Africa the two animals occupy actually the same area.
It may be added that fossil remains of the African elephant have been obtained from Spain, Sicily, Algeria and Egypt, in strata of the Pleistocene age.
Some of the main differences in the habits of the African as distinct from those of the Asiatic elephant have been mentioned under the heading of the latter species.
Its islands are few and insignificant, the chief being Sokotra, off the African, and the Laccadives, off the Indian coast.
The emu corresponds with the African and Arabian ostrich, the rhea of South America, and the cassowary of the Moluccas and New Guinea.
The best of the New South Wales diamonds are harder and much whiter than the South African diamonds, and are classified as on a par with the best Brazilian gems, but no large specimens have yet been found.
The king of the Belgians having formed an International African Society, de Lesseps accepted the presidency of the French committee, facilitated M.
The heat equator, or line of maximum mean surface temperature, starts from the African coast in about 5° N.
On the outbreak of the South African War in 1899 Grant was at first disposed to be hostile to the policy of Lord Salisbury and Mr Chamberlain; but his eyes were soon opened to the real nature of President Kruger's government, and he enthusiastically welcomed and supported the national feeling which sent men from the outlying portions of the Empire to assist in upholding British supremacy in South Africa.
AARD-WOLF (earth-wolf), a South and East African carnivorous mammal (Proteles cristatus), in general appearance like a small striped hyena, but with a more pointed muzzle, sharper ears, and a long erectile mane down the middle line of the neck and back.