In no single act of affirmation of cause or substance, much less in such a primitive act, do we affirm the universality of their application.
In the history of philosophy affirmation precedes negation; dogmatism goes before scepticism.
Against the Church of Rome, however, there was directed the affirmation that the Holy Ghost proceeds from the Father and not from both Father and Son; this rejection of the filioque was not unwelcome to the Turks.
It is that of " identity and diversity ": we cannot be conscious at all without distinguishing, and every affirmation necessarily implies negation.
The Senate would choose its own president, and the House of Representatives its speaker; each house would make its own rules of procedure; in each, one-third of the number of members would form a quorum; the members of each must take oath, or make affirmation of allegiance; and all alike would receive an allowance of £400 a year.
The affirmation that American aborigines believed in an all-pervading, omnipotent Spirit is entirely inconsistent with the very nature of the case.
He immediately adds that, by the combination of these names with one another, affirmation or negation arises.
In a volume of collected essays, Feuilles detachees, published also in 1891, we find the same mental attitude, an affirmation of the necessity of piety independent of dogma.
In (i.) a valid conclusion follows from the affirmation of the antecedent: in (ii.) from denying the consequent, but in neither case conversely.
Again two forms occur: (i.) modus ponendo tollens which by the affirmation of one alternative denies the other (A is either B or C; A is B; therefore it is not C: or either A is B, or C is D; A is B; therefore C is not D: or either A or B is C; A is C; therefore B is not C); (ii.) modus tollendo ponens which by the denial of the one, establishes the validity of the other alternative (A is either B or C; A is not B; therefore it is C: or either A or B is C; A is not C; therefore B is C: or either A is B, or C is D; A is not B; therefore C is D).
No city calls itself either Guelpi or Ghibelline till it has expelled one-half of its inhabitants; for each party is resolved to constitute the state according to its own conception, and the affirmation of the, one programme is the negation of the other.
Really, he urged, there could be only one substance - Descartes himself had dropped a passing hint to that effect - and the bold deductive reasoning of Spinoza's Ethics, in process if not in result, betrays its kinship to the ontological argument, with its affirmation of what must be.
Along with this affirmation, the Church of Rome (if less decisively) has adopted the limitations of the Thomist theory by the condemnation of " Ontologism "; certain mysterious doctrines are beyond reason.
This book, probably published after the death of its author and probably interpolated by his disciples, contains, besides Joachimite principles, an affirmation even clearer than that of Gherardo da Borgo of the elect character of the Franciscan order, as well as extremely violent attacks on the papacy.
Of late years, however, there has been a gradual assimilation of broader views by the leaders of Islam in Turkey, at any rate at Constantinople, and the revolution of 1908, and its affirmation in the spring of 1909, took place not only with their approval, but with their active assistance.
Strauss as the typical "Philistine of culture"; his revolt against the fashion of pessimism to demand a new and more robust affirmation of life, not merely although, but because, it is painful.
His lyrism is vigorous, feeling, austere and almost entirely subjective and personal, while his pamphlets are distinguished by energy of conviction, strength of affirmation, and contempt for weaker and more ignorant opponents.
During the course of the 19th century in Scottish Presbyterianism the affirmation of Christ's atoning death for all men, the denial of eternal punishment, the modification of the doctrine of the inspiration of the Scriptures by acceptance of the results of the Higher Criticism, were all censured as perilous errors.
Majestie to stablysh Christen quietness " (1536), together with the " Injunctions " of 1536 and 1538, are chiefly noteworthy for their affirmation of almost all the current doctrines of the Catholic Church, except those relating to the papal supremacy, purgatory, images, relics and pilgrimages, and the old rooted distrust of the Bible in the vernacular.
The first step is a preliminary affirmation and unification, the second a negation and differentiation, the third a final synthesis.
Erigena argues the question entirely on speculative grounds, and starts with the bold affirmation that philosophy and religion are fundamentally one and the same- "Conficitur inde veram esse philosophiam veram religionem, conversimque veram religionem esse veram philosophiam."
From the judgment viewed as hypothetical we pass by affirmation of the antecedent or denial of the consequent to inference.
Despite the purely spiritual ideas which underlay the Agapemonite view of marriage, a son was born to one of these couples, and when the father endeavoured to carry it away an action was brought which resulted in the affirmation of the mother's right to its custody.
Bradlaugh, who had attained some notoriety for an Bradlan b aggressive atheism, claimed the right to make an affirmation of allegiance instead of taking the customary oath, which he declared was, in his eyes, a meaningless form.
It was objected that, as he had publicly declared that the words of the oath bad no clear meaning for him, he could not be permitted to take it; and after some wrangling the matter was referred to a fresh committee, which supported the view that Bradlaugh could not be allowed to be sworn, but recommended that he should be permitted to niake the affirmation at his own risk.
For, while hitherto the debate had turn.ed on the technical points whether an affirmation could be substituted for an oath, or whether a person who had declared that an oath had no meaning for him could properly be sworn, the end at which Bradlaughs opponents were thenceforward aiming was the imposition of a new religious testthe belief in a Godon members of the House of Commons.
What is of lasting importance is the re-affirmation upon metaphysical grounds of the right of the moral consciousness to state and solve its own difficulties, and the successful repulsion of the claims of particular sciences such as biology to include the sphere of conduct within their scope and methods.
2.) The groundwork of his theory of knowledge is contained in the tract De Veritate, in which, from the consideration of truth as in knowledge, in willing, and in things, he rises to the affirmation of an absolute truth, in which all other truth participates.
Among the works which he translated into Syriac and of which his versions survive are treatises of Aristotle, Porphyry and Galen, 3 the Ars grammatica of Dionysius Thrax, the works of Dionysius the Areopagite, and possibly two or three treatises of Plutarch.4 His own original works are less important, but include a " treatise on logic, addressed to Theodore (of Merv), which is unfortunately imperfect, a tract on negation and affirmation; a treatise, likewise addressed to Theodore, On the Causes of the Universe, according to the Views of Aristotle, showing how it is a Circle; a tract On Genus, Species and Individuality; and a third tract addressed to Theodore, On the Action and Influence of the Moon, explanatory and illustrative of Galen's IIEpi rcptaiµwv r t µepwv, bk.
The chief difference between the two treatises is one which twenty years' experience in affairs could not but bring - the substitution of more cautious and guarded language, less dogmatic affirmation, more allowance for exceptions and deviations.
The Indians of the highlands are the descendants of others who have inhabited that region exclusively for untold ages; and a similar affirmation may be made of the Indians of the plain.
Then, in the light of the affirmation of Christ's full divinity, the problems of His person necessarily received further attention.
And until the determinist can successfully explain to us how in a world obeying throughout its history necessary laws and limited in its nature to the exhibition of causal sequences the consciousness of freedom could ever have arisen, we may be content to trust the immediate affirmation of our moral selves.
But whilst all the organic processes in man go on mechanically, and though by reflex action he may repel attack unconsciously, still the first affirmation of the system was that man was essentially a thinking being; and, while we retain this original dictum, it must not be supposed that the mind is a mere spectator, or like the boatman in the boat.