The fortress was rebuilt, and after 280 served the Aetolians as a bulwark against Celts and Macedonians.
- Aegina passed with the rest of Greece under the successive dominations of Macedon, the Aetolians, Attalus of Pergamum and Rome.
In 192 Antiochus invaded Greece, having the Aetolians and other Greek states as his allies.
Of Macedon gave Naupactus to the Aetolians, who held it till 191, when after an obstinate siege it was surrendered to the Romans.
During the struggle of the Aetolians against Rome it stood a stubborn siege.
The legend of an organized apportionment of Peloponnese amongst the Heracleid leaders appears first in the 5th-century tragedians, - not earlier, that is, than the rise of the Peloponnesian League, - and was amplified in the 4th century; the Aetolians' aid, and claim to Elis, appear first in Ephorus.
To the incorporation of Mantineia into the Achaean League (233) Tegea replied by allying itself with the Aetolians, who in turn made it over to Cleomenes III.
About 235 B.C. Mantineia entered the Achaean League, from which it had obtained protection against Spartan encroachments, but soon passed in turn to the Aetolians and to Cleomenes III.
He fought successfully against the Aetolians (241), and in 228 induced the Macedonian commander to evacuate Attica.
In 220-219 the Aetolians defeated him in Arcadia and harried the Peloponnese unchecked.
In the 4th century the Aetolians began to take a greater part in Greek politics, and, in return for helpingEpaminondas (367) and Philip of Macedon (338), recovered control of their sea-board, to which they annexed the Acarnanian coast and the Oeniadae.
The valour of the Aetolians was conspicuously displayed in 279, when they broke the strength of the Celtic irruption by slaughtering great hordes of marauders.
After annexing Boeotia (by 245) the Aetolians controlled all central Greece.
To check King Demetrius (239-229) the Aetolians joined arms with the Achaeans.
The Aetolians now invited Antiochus III.
Having thus isolated themselves the Aetolians stood at bay behind their walls against the Romans, who refused all compromises, and, after the general surrender in 189, restricted the league to Aetolia proper and assumed control over its foreign relations.
The Aetolians also used the Amphictyonic synod for passing solemn enactments.
In the War of Independence the Aetolians by their stubborn defence, culminating in the sieges of Missolonghi, formed the backbone of the rebellion.
The scheme was crushed by the courage and skill of the Aetolians, who thereupon summoned Spartan and Corinthian aid for a counter attack on Naupactus.
To this point the united forces of the northern Greeks - Athenians, Phocians, Boeotians and Aetolians - had fallen back; and here the Greeks a second time held their foreign invaders in check for many days, and a second time had their rear turned, owing to the treachery of some of the natives, by the same path which had been discovered to the Persians two hundred years before.
They represent a joint invasion of Peloponnesus by Aetolians and Dorians, the latter having been driven southward from their original northern home under pressure from the Thessalians.
But the most frequent votaries were the neighbouring tribes of the Acarnanians and Aetolians, together with the Boeotians, who claimed a special connexion with the district.
The temple of Dodona was destroyed by the Aetolians in 219 B.C., but the oracle survived to the times of Pausanias and even of the emperor Julian.
Under Philopoemen the league with a reorganized army routed the Aetolians (210) and Spartans (207, 201).
About 280 B.C. the Celts gathered a great host at the head of the Adriatic, and accompanied by the Illyrian tribe of Autariatae, they overthrew the Macedonians, overran Thessaly, and invaded Phocis in order to sack Delphi, but they were finally repulsed, chiefly by the efforts of the Aetolians (279 B.C.).
He then turned his attention to the Aetolians, who had persuaded Antiochus to declare war against Rome, and was only prevented from crushing them by the intercession of T.
Later in the same year he and Craterus were engaged in a war against the Aetolians, when the news arrived from Asia which induced Antipater to conclude peace with them; for Antigonus reported that Perdiccas contemplated making himself sole master of the empire.
In the following century the Aetolians gained such dominance in the amphictyony as to convert the council into an organ of their league.
25.8) by controlling the votes of their allies, who - called Aetolians in the inscriptions - were often in the majority.
A band of Dorians united with a body of Aetolians to cross the Corinthian Gulf and invade the Peloponnese from the north west.
The Aetolians settled in Elis the Dorians pushed up to the headwaters of the Alpheus, where they divided into two forces, one of which under Cresphontes invaded and later subdued Messenia, while the other, led by Aristodemus or, according to another version, by his twin sons Eurysthenes and Procles, made its way down the Eurotas valley and gained Sparta, which became the Dorian capital of Laconia.
As also does his dislike of the Aetolians (ii.