It was captured in 191 by the Romans, but restored to the Aetolian League until 146.
At this point Aratus appealed to Sparta to help the Achaeans in repelling an expected Aetolian attack, and Agis was sent to the Isthmus at the head of an army.
It was, however, recovered for Ptolemy by the Aetolian Scopas.
During the 3rd century it passed into the power of Macedonia and of the Aetolian League, to which in 196 it was definitely annexed.
155b; Hannibal and the Aetolian Thoas take part in the councils of Antiochus III).
The name of the island, Ortygia (6prv, a quail), has, again, been held to point to the possible existence of an Aetolian settlement on the island before Archias came.
Of Macedon and the Epirotes against the Aetolian league (220-205) Ambracia passed from one alliance to the other, but ultimately joined the latter confederacy.
The second league is further interesting as the precursor of the Achaean and Aetolian Leagues.
The last of these attempts resulted in the " Dorian conquest " of the "Achaeans " and " Ionians " of Peloponnese, and in the assignment of Argolis, Laconia and Messenia to the Heracleid leaders, Temenus, Aristodemus and Cresphontes respectively; of Elis to their Aetolian allies; and of the north coast to the remnants of the conquered Achaeans.
One legend made Dorus himself originally an Aetolian prince; the participation of Oxylus, and the Aetolian claim to Elis, appear first in Ephorus (4th century).
The jealousy of the Aetolian militia for the Suliotes, however, prevented the victory being decisive; and Mustai advanced to the siege of Anatoliko, a little town in the lagoons near Missolonghi.
When praetor (193 B.C.) he served with distinction in Spain, and as consul in 189 he completely broke the power of the Aetolian league.
On his Aetolian campaign he was accompanied by the poet Ennius, who made the capture of Ambracia, at which he was present, the subject of one of his plays.
Though enrolled for a short time in the Aetolian League (about 245 B.C.) Boeotia was generally loyal to Macedonia, and supported its later kings against Rome.
It may be ascribed partly to the wealth and influence acquired by Aetolian mercenaries in Hellenistic courts, but chiefly to the formation of a national Aetolian league, the first effective institution of this kind in Greece.
The raids of two Aetolian chiefs in Achaean territory (220) led to a coalition between Achaea and Philip V.
The general assembly, convoked every autumn at Thermon to elect officials, and at other places in special emergencies, shaped the league's general policy; it was nominally open to all freemen, though no doubt the Aetolian chieftains really controlled it.
The Achaean and Aetolian Leagues are independent powers, which the Macedonian can indeed check by garrisons in Corinth, Chalcis and elsewhere, but which keep a field clear for Hellenic freedom within their borders.
Amongst these were the elder Scipio and Fulvius Nobilior, whom he accompanied on his Aetolian campaign (189).
On his way back to Naupactus, Temenus fell in with Oxylus, an Aetolian, who had lost one eye, riding on a horse (thus making up the three eyes) and immediately pressed him into his service.
The chief Greek federations were those of Thessaly, Boeotia, Acarnania, Olynthus, Arcadia, Aetolia, Achaea, the most important as well as the most complete in respect of organization being the Aetolian League and the Achaean League.
This characteristic is curious in the Aetolian tribes which were famous in all time for habitual brigandage; there was, however, among them the strong link of a racial feeling.
The town of Pale was vainly besieged by Philip of Macedon in 218 B.C., because it had supported the Aetolian cause.
Similarly the Achaeans could not check the incursions of Aetolian adventurers in 220-218, and when Philip V.
Similarly the various cities were divided in their allegiance between the Achaean and the Aetolian leagues, with the result that Arcadia became the battleground of these confederacies, or fell a prey to Sparta and Macedonia.
About 244 an Aetolian army overran Laconia, working irreparable harm and carrying off, it is said, 50,000 captives.
In the Hellenistic age the Acarnanians were constantly assailed by their Aetolian neighbours.