Elastic aeroplanes were advocated by a' .i?
If the ends of the aeroplanes on one side were bent downwards, those on the FIG.
In 1868, in which Wenham's aeroplanes were combined with aerial screws.
He constructed models to fly by three different methods: - (a) by means of screws acting vertically upwards; (b) by aeroplanes propelled horizontally by screws; and (c) by wings which FIG.
It was hoped that when the aeroplanes were wedged forward in the air by vertical screws, or by the body to be flown, each aeroplane would rest or float upon a stratum of undisturbed air, and that practically the aeroplanes would give the same support as if spread out horizontally.
- Wenham's system of Aeroplanes designed to carry a man.
It consisted of the following parts: - (a) A system of aeroplanes arranged like the capital letter T at a certain upward angle to the horizon and bearing a general resemblance to box kites; (b) a pair of very light propellers driven at a high speed; and (c) an exceedingly light and powerful petrol engine.
This accomplished it was hoped that the weight of the machine would gradually be thrown upon the aeroplanes in the same way that the weight of certain birds - the eagle, e.g.
The machine was furnished with two wheels and vertical supports which depended from the anterior parts of the aeroplanes and supported it when it touched the ground FIG.
Wenham, thinking to improve upon Henson, invented in 1866 what he designated his aeroplanes.'
Very good idea of the arrangement - a, b, c representing the superimposed aeroplanes, d the tail, e, f the screw propellers.
Stringfellow, however, stated that it occasionally left the wire and was sustained by its aeroplanes alone.
Once in the air the aeroplanes, it was believed, would become effective in proportion to the speed attained.
They were all constructed on a common principle, and were provided with extensive flying surfaces in the shape of rigid aeroplanes inclined at an upward angle to the horizon, and more or less fixed on the plan advocated by Henson.
The cardinal idea was to force the aeroplanes (slightly elevated at their anterior margins) forwards, kite-fashion, by means of powerful vertical screw propellers driven at high speed - the greater the horizontal speed provided by the propellers, the greater, by implication, the lifting capacity of the aerodrome.
The bodies, frames and aeroplanes of the aerodromes were strengthened by vertical and other supports, to which were attached aluminium wires to ensure absolute rigidity so far as that was possible.
These investigators began their work in 1900, and at an early stage introduced two characteristic features - a horizontal rudder in front for steering in the vertical plane, and the flexing or bending of the ends of the main supporting aeroplanes as a means of maintaining the structure in proper balance.
Aeroplanes are made at Prague and Plzen (Pilsen).
8 and 9 cut out in paper to realize that extensive, inert, horizontal aeroplanes' in a flying machine would be a mistake.
These surfaces may be conferred on artificial wings, aeroplanes, aerial screws or similar structures; and these structures, if we may judge from what we find in nature, should be of moderate size and elastic. The power of the flying organs will be increased if they are driven at a comparatively high speed, and particularly if they are made to reverse and reciprocate, as in this case they will practically create the currents upon which they are destined to rise and advance.
Several inventors succeeded in making models fly by the aid of aeroplanes and screws, as, e.g.
This consisted of a small elastic aeroplane placed aft or behind the principal aeroplane which is also elastic. The two elastic aeroplanes extended horizontally and made a slight upward angle with the horizon, the angle made by the smaller aeroplane (the rudder).
His experiments proved that two elastic aeroplanes united by a central shaft or shafts, and separated by a wide FIG.
Aeroplanes, consisting of six broad.
The aeroplanes are aeronaut attached to main kept in parallel plane by spar.
Its engine represented a third of a horse power, and the weight of the whole (engine, boiler, water, fuel, superimposed aeroplanes and ' " On Aerial Locomotion," Aeronautical Society's Report for 186.7.
45), designed in 1874, consisted of a light, powerful, skeleton frame resting on three wheels; a very effective light engine constructed on a new principle, which dispensed with the old-fashioned, cumbrous boiler; two long, narrow, horizontal aeroplanes; and two comparatively very large aerial screws.
Two of the most famous of the next attempts to solve the problem of artificial flight, by means of aeroplanes, were those of Prof. S.
His aeroplanes were variously shaped, and were, as a rule, concavo-convex, the convex surface being directed upwards.
47) the aeroplanes were concavoconvex, narrow, greatly elongated and square at their free extremities, FIG.
48) consisted of a platform, on which stood a large water-tube boiler, a number of concavo-convex aeroplanes arranged in tiers like shelves, each making a slight upward angle with the horizon, two very large vertical screws placed aft and propelled by steam engines, tanks for the storage of water, naphtha, &c. The boiler was especially noteworthy.
There were also side aeroplanes arranged in tiers, and large aeroplanes in front, which were pivoted and served for vertical steering.
Largely with the view of studying the problem of maintaining equilibrium, several experimenters, including Otto Lilienthal, Percy Filcher and Octave Chanute, cultivated gliding flight by means of aeroplanes capable of sustaining a man.
Fixity of all the parts was secured by a tubular mast extending upwards and downwards through about the middle of the craft, and from its extremities ran stays of aluminium wire to the tips of the aeroplanes and the end of the tubular backbone.
Largely in consequence of this progress, and partly no doubt owing to the stimulus given by the activity of builders of dirigible balloons, the construction of motor-driven aeroplanes began to attract a number of workers, especially in France.
The lever by which they were turned was connected with the device by which the ends of the main aeroplanes could be flexed simultaneously though in opposite directions; i.e.
Again, the practical engineers who are building aeroplanes, and those who are making practical tests by actual flight in those machines, cannot be called "researchers"; that term should be confined to the members, for example, of the scientific committee appointed by the British Government in 1909 to make investigations regarding aerial construction and navigation.
Armour, 2 and elastic aeroplanes, wings and screws by Alphonse Penaud.3 Penaud's experiments are alike interesting and instructive.
The wings, or aeroplanes, four in number, consisted of light frames of tubular aluminium steel covered with china silk.