The manufactures of this class include aerated waters, beer,.
Produced in non-aerated water it is probably an oxide.
Many substitutes have been proposed for cork as a stoppering agent; but except in the case of aerated liquids none of these has recommended itself in practice.
For aerated water bottles several successful devices have been introduced.
As a river-port and the terminus of railways from Varna and from Sofia via Trnovo, it has much commercial importance; and it possesses tobacco and cigarette factories, soap-works, breweries, aerated water factories, dyeworks, tanneries, sawmills, brick and tile works and a celebrated pottery.
The chief exports are linen, whisky, aerated waters, iron ore and cattle.
A dorsal contractile heart, with symmetrical right and left auricles receiving aerated blood from the ctenidia and mantle skirt, is present, being unequally developed only in those few forms which are inequivalve.
These processes are hollow, and receive the venous blood from, and return it again aerated into, the hollow axis, in which an afferent and an efferent blood-vessel may be differentiated.
The developing eggs are not carried about by the mother, but deposited in her subaqueous burrow, "where they are aerated by the currents of water produced by the abdominal feet of the parent."
Agriculture is the staple, but there are chemical, aerated waters, bricks, terra-cotta and other manufactures.
D, The branchial efferent vessel carrying aerated blood to the auricle, and here interrupting the circlet of gill lamellae.
The more usual method is to take milling soap, neutralize it with sodium bicarbonate or a mixture of fatty acids, and, after perfuming, it is aerated by mixing the hot soap with air in a specially designed crutcher.
In the siphon used as a container for aerated waters a tube passes through the neck of the vessel, one end terminating in a curved spout while the other reaches to the bottom of the interior.
Moreover, where deep-rooting plants are grown the subsoil is aerated and rendered more open and suitable for the development of future crops.
When these processes continue for a long time in deep water shut off from free circulation so that it does not become aerated by contact with the atmosphere the water becomes unfit to support the life of fishes, and when the accumulation of putrefying organic matter gives rise to sulphuretted hydrogen as in the Black Sea below 125 fathoms, life, other than bacterial, is impossible.
The industries include distilling, the making of aerated waters, and woollen manufactures, and the town is important as a market and distributing centre.
Other important manufactories are flour mills, of which there were over 500 in 1904; iron and steel works, of which there are 7 large establishments, including the immense plant at Monterey; 90 smelters for the reduction of precious metals; tanneries, potteries, and factories for the manufacture of hats, paper, linen, hammocks, harness and saddles, matches, explosives, aerated waters, soap, furniture, chocolate and sweetmeats.
Among the products of local industry are leather, tobacco, cement, beer, aerated waters, lime, candles and soap. Fishing is carried on, and there are steam saw-mills and flour-mills.
Aerated Waters >>
The simple distillation of sea-water, and the production thereby of a certain proportion of chemically fresh water, is a very simple problem; but it is found that water which is merely evaporated and recondensed has a very disagreeable flat taste, and it is only after long exposure to pure atmospheric air, with continued agitation, or repeated pouring from one vessel to another, that it becomes sufficiently aerated to lose its unpleasant taste and smell and become drinkable.
The modern distilling plant consists of two main parts termed the evaporator and condenser; in addition there must be a boiler (sometimes steam is run off the main boilers, but this practice has several disadvantages), pumps for circulating cold water in the condenser and for supplying salt water to the evaporator, and a filter through which the aerated water passes.
Hence, essential oils are extensively used for the flavouring of liqueurs, aerated beverages and other drinks.