True, the supply from India had been more than doubled, the adulteration once so rife had been checked, and the improved quality and value of the cotton had been fully acknowledged, but still the superiority of the produce of the United States was proved beyond all dispute, and American cotton was again king.
Being costly, it is much subject to adulteration; but the fraudulent additions may easily be detected by volatilization, which in the case of pure vermilion leaves no residue.
This excessive adulteration quickly worked its own cure by a decreased consumption, and the weighting in practice in 1910 is confined to moderate and safer limits.
In this way curd, mottled or marbled soap is formed, and such mottled appearance was formerly highly valued as an indication of freedom from excess of water or other adulteration, because in fitted soaps the impurities are either washed out or fall to the bottom of the mass in cooling.
Their range in space, including carriage by birds, may be coextensive with the distribution of water, but it is not known what height of temperature or how much chemical adulteration of the water they can sustain, how far they can penetrate underground, nor what are the limits of their activity between the floor and the surface of aquatic expanses, fresh or saline.
Rape oil is the subject of extensive adulteration, principally with the cheaper hemp oil, rosin oil and mineral oils.
This small addition for this specified purpose is recognized as legitimate, but the employment of various cheap materials such as ragstone and blast-furnace slag, sometimes added as diluents or make-weights, is adulteration and therefore fraudulent.
In 1864, owing to the serious aspect of the prevalent adulteration, a union of traders was formed under the name of the " Linseed Association."
Each oil requires almost a special method, but with the progress of chemistry the extensive adulteration that used to be practised with fatty oils has almost disappeared, as the presence of fatty oils is readily detected.
As stated first by Archimedes, the principle asserts the obvious fact that a body displaces its own volume of water; and he utilized it in the problem of the determination of the adulteration of the crown of Hiero.
Now, intentional adulteration is practically non-existent, chiefly because of the fact that in the places of production the price obtainable is so low that any possible adulterant would be too costly to collect.
Great care is now taken to prevent adulteration, and consequently Persian opium can be obtained nearly as rich in morphia as the Turkish drug - on the average from 9-12%.
The drug has naturally always been liable to great adulteration in spite of penalties, the severity of which suggests the surviving tradition of its sacred character.
Administrative law, including the regulation of urban and rural local government, state and local taxation and finance, education, public works, the liquor traffic, vaccination, adulteration, charities, asylums, prisons, the inspection of mines and factories, general laws relating to corporations, railways, labor questions.
The passing of the Food and Drug Acts (1875-1899) in England, and the existence of similar adulteration acts in other countries, have occasioned great progress in the analysis of foods, drugs, &c. For further information on this branch of analytical chemistry, see Adulteration.
- In the earlier days of the tea trade, adulteration, especially prior to importation, was frequent, because the prices obtainable made it remunerative.