General Orero, successor of Baldissera, pushed offensive action more vigorously, and on the 26th of January 1890 entered Adowa, a city considerably to the south of the Marchan imprudent step which aroused Meneleks suspicions, and had hurriedly to be retraced.
Mangashh made no reply, and Baratieri crossing the Mareb advanced to Adowa, but four days later was obliged to return northwards.
Occupyinf Adigrat and Makall, he reached Adowa on the 1st of April, an~ thence pushed forward to Axum, the holy city of Abyssinia.
During the night the army advanced towards Adowa in three divisions, under Generals Dabormida, Arimondi and Albertone, each division being between 4000 and 5000
In Italy the news of the defeat of Adowa caused deep discouragement and dismay.
The latter, though leader of the Right, had long been intriguing with Cavallotti, leader of the Extreme Left, to overthrow Crispi, but without the disaster of Adowa his plan would scarcely have succeeded.
The negotiations having failed, he marched to relieve the beleaguered garrison of Adigrat; but Menelek, discouraged by the heavy losses at Adowa, broke up his camp and returned southwards Abyssinto Shoa.
Though averse from the policy of unlimited colonial expansion, he provided by a loan for the cost of the Abyssinian War in which the tactics of General Baratieri had involved the Crispi cabinet, but fell with Crispi after the disaster at Adowa (March 5896).
After the treaty of Adis Adowa, recognizing the independence of Abyssinia, had been concluded in 1896, negotiations were opened for defining the Italian-Abyssinian frontier in the Somali regions.
They produced so little effect that the general election of 1895 gave Crispi a huge majority, but, a year later, the defeat of the Italian army at Adowa in Abyssinia brought about his resignation.
ADOWA (properly ADUA), the capital of Tigre, northern Abyssinia, 145 m.
Adowa is built on the slope of a hill at an elevation of 650o ft., in the midst of a rich agricultural district.
And Abyssinia (1887-96) Adowa was on three or four occasions looted and burnt; but the churches escaped destruction.
North-west of Adowa are the ruins of Fremona, the headquarters of the Portuguese Jesuits who lived in Abyssinia during the 16th and 17th centuries.
Such being the condition of public and official sentiment, the crushing defeat of the Italians by the Abyssinians at the battle of Adowa on the 1st of March 1896, and the critical state of Kassalaheld by Italy at British suggestion, and now closely invested by the dervishesmade it not only desirable but necessary to take immediate action.
The crisis consequent upon -the disaster of Adowa (1st March 1896) enabled Rudini to return to power as premier and minister of the interior in a cabinet formed by the veteran Conservative, General Ricotti.
At first the government of the colony was purely military, but after the defeat of the Italians by the Abyssinians at Adowa, the administration was placed upon a civil basis (1898-1900).
Berkeley, The Campaign of Adowa and the Rise of Menelik (London, 1902).
In Tigre there are Adowa or Adua (17 m.
Among the finest frescoes are those in the church of the Holy Trinity at Adowa and those in the church at Kwarata, on the shores of Lake Tsana.
The Jesuits who had accompanied or followed the da Gama expedition into Abyssinia, and fixed their headquarters at Fremona (near Adowa), were oppressed and neglected, but not actually expelled.
Berkeley, The Campaign of Adowa (London, 1902).