Its northern boundary is, for the most part, formed by Lake Ontario and the St Lawrence river, which separate it from the province of Ontario, Canada; but north of the Adirondacks the boundary line leaves the St Lawrence, extending in a due east direction to the lower end of Lake Champlain.
From the crest of the dome of the Adirondacks proper the surface slopes in all directions to surrounding lowlands: to the St Lawrence valley on the N.; the ChamplainHudson lowland on the E.; the Mohawk valley on the S.; and Lake Ontario on the W.
Like the Adirondacks, this region is largely forest covered, and is a favourite summer resort; but it is far less a wilderness than the Adirondacks, and in places is cleared for farming, especially for pasturage.
After the continental ice sheet entirely disappeared from the state, local valley glaciers lingered in the Adirondacks and the Catskills.
It occupies the lower portion of the trough between the Adirondacks and the Green Mountains.
A temperature of - 20° or lower is never attained in the southern portion, seldom in the central, but is often passed, by 5 or to degrees, in the Adirondacks and in the higher parts of the plateau.
On the summits of the Adirondacks are a few alpine species, such as reindeer moss and other lichens; on the shores of Long Island, Staten Island and Westchester county are a number of maritime species; and on Long Island are several species especially characteristic of the pine barrens of New Jersey.
Rabbits and squ'rrels are numerous in nearly all parts of the state; skunks, weasels, muskrats and woodchucks are common; there are some racoons; mink are frequently taken in the Adirondacks; and a few otter remain.
Originally white pine was the principal timber of the Adirondacks, but most of the merchantable portion has been cut, and in 1905 nearly one-half of the lumber product of this section was spruce, the other half mainly hemlock, pine and hardwoods (yellow birch, maple, beech and basswood, and smaller amounts of elm, cherry and ash).
Section of the Adirondacks and in the central part of the state, and brown haematites and carbonate ore in the S.E.
In a north-eastern section, practically all of New England is occupied by the older crystalline belt; the corresponding northern part of the stratified belt in the St Lawrence and Champlain-Hudson valleys on the inland side of New England is comparatively free from the ridge-making rocks which abound farther south; and here the plateau member is wanting, being replaced, as it were, by the Adirondacks, an outlier of the Laurentian highlands of Canada which immediately succeeds the deformed stratified belt west of Lake Champlain.
The rivers which most perfectly exemplify this habit are the Delaware, Susquehanna and Potomac; the Hudson, the north-eastern boundary of the middle section, is peculiar in having headwaters in the Adirondacks as well as in the Catskills (northern part of the plateau); the James, forming the south-western boundary of the section, rises in the inner valleys of the stratified belt, instead of in the plateau.
The border of this part of the plateau descends eastward by a single strong escarpment to the Hudson valley, from which the mountains present a fine appearance, and northward by two escarpments (the second being called the Helderberg Mountains) to the Mohawk Valley, north of which rise the Adirondacks; but to the south west the dissected highland continues into Pennsylvania and Virginia, where it is commonly known as the Alleghany plateau.
Region of tile Great LakesThe Palaeozoic strata, already mentioned as lapping on the southern slope of the Superior Olclland and around the western side of the Adirondacks- are but parts of a great area of similar strata, hundreds of feet in thickness, which dec]ine gently southward from the great oldland of the Laurentian highlands of eastern Canada.
When the two lowlands are traced eastward they become confluent after the Niagara limestone has faded away in central New York, and the single lowland is continued under the name of Mohawk Valley, an east-west longitudinal depression that has been eroded on a belt of relatively weak strata between the resistant crystalline rocks of the Adirondacks on the north and the northern escarpment of the Appalachian plateau (Catskills-Helderbergs) on the south; forming a pathway of great historic and economic importance between the Atlantic seaports and the interior.
The Canadian zone crosses from Canada into northern and northwestern Maine, northern and central New Hampshire, northern Michigan, and north-eastern Minnesota and North Dakota, covers the Green Mountains, most of the Adirondacks and Catskills, the higher slopes of the mountains in Pennsylvania, West Virginia, Virginia, western North Carolina and eastern Tennessee, the lower slopes of the northern Rocky and Cascade Mountains, the upper slopes of the southern Rocky and Sierra Nevada Mountains, and a strip along the Pacific coast as far south as Cape Mendocino, interrupted, however, by the Columbia Valley.
Above the lake) commanding a charming view of the city, lake, the Adirondacks and the Green Mountains.
ADIRONDACKS, a group of mountains in north-eastern New York, U.S.A., in Clinton, Essex, Franklin and Hamilton counties, often included by geographers in the Appalachian system, but pertaining geologically to the Laurentian highlands of Canada.
Unlike the Appalachians, the Adirondacks do not form a connected range, but consist of many summits, isolated or in groups, arranged with little appearance of system.
In the Adirondacks are some of the best hunting and fishing grounds in the eastern United States.
GLOVERSVILLE, a city of Fulton county, New York, U.S.A., at the foot-hills of the Adirondacks, about 55 m.
At the head of Lake Placid stands Whiteface Mountain, from whose summit one of the finest views of the Adirondacks may be obtained.
Another impressive feature of the Adirondacks is Indian Pass, a gorge about eleven miles long, between Mt.
For a description of the Adirondacks, see S.
Stoddard, The Adirondacks Illustrated (24th ed., Glen Falls, 1894); and E.
Wallace, Descriptive Guide to the Adirondacks (Syracuse, 1894).