The day was known afterwards as Nicanor's day, for he was found dead on the field (Capharsalama) by the victorious followers of Judas (13th of Adar, March 161 B.C.).
These academies were organized on both scholastic and popular lines; their constitution was democratic. An outstanding feature was the Kallah assemblage twice a year (in Elul at the close of the summer, and in Adar at the end of the winter), when there were gathered together vast numbers of outside students of the most heterogeneous character as regards both age and attainments.
His death occurred in 528 B.C., as we have a Babylonian tablet from the Adar of the tenth year of Cyrus, i.e.
Though almost waterless, it is in fact better wooded and richer in pasture than any part of the Hamad; the sand-hills are dotted with ghada, a species of tamarisk, and other bushes, and several grasses and succulent plants - among them the adar, on which sheep are said to feed for a month without requiring water - are found in abundance in good seasons.
In the spring when the succulent ashub and adar grow plentifully in the desert, they go for weeks without drinking.
Ages before Assur-bani-pal reigned at Nineveh the eighth month (Marchesvan) was known as " the month of the star of the Scorpion," the tenth (Tebet) belonged to the " star of the Goat," the twelfth (Adar) to the " star of the Fish of Ea."
Exactly what modifications were first made in the system under which each month began by simple observation of the new moon we do not know, and opinions are not agreed as to the historical value of the rabbinical traditions; but probably the first step in the direction of astronomical precision would be the rule that no month could consist of less than twenty-nine or more than thirty days - to which appears to have been added, but at what date is uncertain, the further rule that Adar, the month preceding Nisan, was always to be limited to twentynine.
Adar 13, 2 Fast of Esther, 8 In embolismic „ 14, Purim, years.
Thus from the coins of Byblus we learn the names of four kings, 'El-pa'al, 'Az-ba'al (between 360 and 340 B.C.), Adar-melek, `Ain-el; from the coins of the other cities it is difficult 1 The naval expeditions against Greece in 480-449 and Sparta in 396-387 were mainly fitted out by Phoenicia.
PURIM, a Jewish festival held on the 14th and 15th of Adar, the last month of the Jewish calendar.
It is preceded by a fast on the 13th day of Adar, known as the Fast of Esther, based upon Esther iv.
The death of the god, he suggests, is represented by the Fast of Esther on the 13th of Adar, the day before Purim, while the rejoicing on Purim itself, and the licence accompanying it, recall the union of the god and goddess of vegetation, of which he sees traces in the relations of Mordecai and Esther.
This renders it impossible to accept Haupt's suggestion that Purim is connected with the celebration of Nicanor's Day, to celebrate the triumph of Judas Maccabaeus over the Syrian general Nicanor at Adasa (161 B.C.) on the 13th of Adar, since this is the date of the Fast of Esther, and, besides, the Second Book of Maccabees, which refers to Nicanor's Day, speaks of it as the day before Mordecai's Day (2 Macc. xvi.
Thus the Jews of Cairo celebrated Purim on the 28th of Adar in memory of their being miraculously saved from the persecution of Ahmed Pasha in 1524.
The Jews of Frankfort celebrate their special Purim on the 10th of Adar because of their deliverance from persecution by Fettmilch in 1616.
David Brandeis of Jung-Bunzlau in Bohemia was saved from an accusation of poisoning on the 10th of Adar 1731, and instituted a similar family Purim celebration in consequence.
Zimmern indeed connects the Akitu festival with 'that of Purim on the 15th Adar (March); see K.A.T.