Except for its aquatic adaptations, however, the ephemerid °larva is wonderfully thysanuran in character, and possesses conspicuous and distinct maxillulae.
Although the brain is relatively larger, the bones of the limbs, especially the short, five-toed feet, approximate to those of the Amblypoda and Proboscidea; but in the articulation of the astragalus with both the navicular and cuboid Arsinoitherium is nearer the former than the latter group. It is probable, however, that these resemblances are mainly due to parallelism in development, and are in all three cases adaptations necessary to support the enormous weight of the body.
Such adaptations are the transparency and colourlessness of the tissues, and the modifications of the foot, which still shows in Atlanta the form common in Pectin:branchia (compare fig.
The particularities of the worship, its minute and truly ingenious re-adaptations of sacraments, prayers, reverent signs, down even to the invocation of a New Trinity, need not detain us.
He especially pointed out the laws of the " extinction of the specialized " and " survival of the non-specialized " forms of life, and challenged Darwin's principle of selection as an explanation of the origin of adaptations by saying that the " survival of the fittest " does not explain the " origin of the fittest."
Such adaptations are well seen in the leaf of the holly (Ilex aquifolium).
On the other hand, adaptations, especially those evoked by climatic or edaphic conditions, may only, be shown by the seedling if grown under the appropriate external conditions; here what is hereditary is not the actual adaptation, but the capacity for responding in a particular way to a certain set of external conditions.
From this point of view it is not sufficient, in attempting to map out the earths surface into regions of vegetation, to have regard alone to adaptations to physical conditions.
For later versions and adaptations of the saga see O.
Although many different rotations of crops are practised, they may for the most part be considered as little more than local adaptations of the system of alternating root-crops and leguminous crops with cereal crops, as exemplified in the old four-course rotation - roots, barley, clover, wheat.
They are true Pectinibranchia which have taken to a pelagic life, and the peculiarities of structure which they exhibit are strictly adaptations consequent upon their changed mode of life.
The aquatic habit of many larvae is associated with endless beautiful adaptations for respiration.
Bionomically, metamorphosis may be defined as the sum of adaptations that have gradually fitted the larva (caterpillar or maggot) for one kind of life, the fly for another.
The Corinthian Li LJi and (also at Corcyra) and the of Byzantine coins are other adaptations of the same symbol.
- The lore of the farmer, gardener, sportsman, fancier and field-naturalist, including thremmatology, or the science of breeding, and the allied teleology, or science of organic adaptations: exemplified by the patriarch Jacob, the poet Virgil, Sprengel, Kirby.
This process is known as " direct adaptation "; and there is no doubt that such structural adaptations are acquired by an animal in the course of its life, though such changes are strictly limited in degree and rare rather than frequent and obvious.
On the other hand, he advances too easily from the maxim that function is prior to, and makes, structure to the conclusion that the results of use and disuse are therefore immediately incarnated in structural adaptations capable of hereditary transmission.
And though Spencer's general position - that it is absurd to suppose that organisms after being modified by their life should give birth to offspring showing no traces of such modifications - seems the more philosophic, yet it does not dispose of the facts which go to show that most of the evidence for the direct transmission of adaptations is illusory, and that beings are organised to minimize the effects of life on the reproductive tissues, so that the transmission of the effects of use and disuse, if it occurs, must be both difficult and rare - far more so than is convenient for Spencer's psychology.
It is true that a great variety of evidence is afforded by the composition of the rocks, that glaciers have left their traces in glacial scratchings and transported boulders, also that proofs of arid or semiarid conditions are found in the reddish colour of rocks in certain portions of the Palaeozoic, Trias and Eocene; but fossils afford the most precise and conclusive evidence as to the past history of climate, because of the fact that adaptations to temperature have remained constant for millions of years.
The traces of alternations of adaptations corresponding to these alternations of habitat are recorded both in palaeontology and anatomy, although often after the obscure analogy of the earlier and later writings of a palimpsest.
The law in Scotland is on the same lines, and extends to all nonparliamentary elections, and, as has been stated, the English statutes have been applied with adaptations to all municipal and local government elections in Ireland.
For in the first place there seems to be no good reason for thinking that the Tupaias feed to any considerable extent upon prey of that kind, and in the second place the resemblance is due to characters which may be merely adaptations to a similar mode of life.
Till the appearance of Ennius, Roman literature, although it had produced the epic poem of Naevius and some adaptations of Greek tragedy, had been most successful in comedy.
He thus threw in his lot with the Scottish philosophy, and his first dissertations are, in their leading position, adaptations from Reid's Inquiry.
Empedocles tries to explain the genesis of organic beings, and, according to Lange, anticipates the idea of Darwin that adaptations abound, because it is their nature to perpetuate themselves.
Our world is but one of an infinite number of others, and all the harmonies and adaptations of the universe are regarded as a special case of the infinite possibilities of mechanical events.
Especially in the case of manifest adaptations, organs possessed by creatures far apart genealogically may be moulded into conditions that are extremely alike.
These adaptations tend to lessen the amount of transpiration by protecting the stomata from the movements of the air.
The leaf of the higher plants will be taken as the illustrative case because it is the most plastic of the members, the one, that is, which presents the greatest variety of adaptations, and because it has been most thoroughly studied.
The results are as interesting from a morphological point of view (showing the subtle and gradual modifications of these organs in their various adaptations), as they are sparse in taxonomic value, far less satisfactory than are those of the hind-limb.
It is perhaps on account of this intermediate flavour that the literature of Persia - for instance the adaptations of Omar Khayyam - is more appreciated in Europe than that of other Oriental nations.
The adherence to type, the favourite conception of the transcendental morphologist, was seen to be nothing more than the expression of one of the laws of thremmatology, the persistence of hereditary transmission of ancestral characters, even when they have ceased to be significant or valuable in the struggle for existence, whilst the so-called evidences of design which was supposed to modify the limitations of types assigned to Himself by the Creator were seen to be adaptations due to the selection and intensification by selective breeding of fortuitous congenital variations, which happened to prove more useful than the many thousand other variations which did not survive in the struggle for existence.
It was the application of Fritz Miller's law of recapitulation which gave the chief stimulus to embryological investigations between 1865 and 1890; and, though it is now recognized that " recapitulation " is vastly and bewilderingly modified by special adaptations in every case, yet the principle has served, and still serves, as a guide of great value.
It has been argued that the elaborate structural adaptations of the nervous system which are the corporeal correlatives of Theory complicated instincts must have been slowly built up by the transmission to offspring of acquired ex perience, that is to say, of acquired brain structure.
He himself wrote several plays, including adaptations of Shakespeare.
The flowers are hermaphrodite and regular, with the same number and arrangement of parts as in the order Liliaceae, from which they differ in the inconspicuous membranous character of the perianth, the absence of honey or smell, and the brushlike stigmas with long papillae-adaptations to wind-pollination as contrasted with the methods of pollination by insect agency, which characterize the Liliaceae.
Pfeffer) are designated certain of the regulative adaptations by which such ends are attained.
The extraordinary variety of form and complication of structure exhibited by the appendages of the scolex are adaptations to fix FIG.
But the reprints and editions of Crusoe have been innumerable; it has been often translated; and the eulogy pronounced on it by Rousseau gave it special currency in France, where imitations (or rather adaptations) have also been common.
His most important original works are: Les Vies des poetes Grecs (1665); Methode pour commencer les humanites Grecques et Latines (2nd ed., 1731), of which several English adaptations have appeared; Epistolae Criticae (1659).
Among his published adaptations are an opera, The Fairies (from Midsummer Night's Dream) (1755); an opera The Tempest (1756); Catherine and Petruchio (1758); Florizel and Perdita (1762).
How far such adaptations are produced afresh in each generation, whether or no their effects are transmitted to descendants and so directly modify the stock, to what extent adaptations characteristic of a species or variety have come about by selection of individuals capable, in each generation, of responding favourably, or how far by the selection of individuals fortuitously suitable to the environment, or, how far, possibly by the inheritance of the responses to the environment, are problems of biology not yet definitely solved.
The grandest application of analogy is that observed in the adaptations of groups of animals evolving on different continents, by which their various divisions tend to mimic those on other continents.
The consequences of this principle when applied to the adaptations of animals bring us to the very antithesis of Cuvier's supposed "law of correlation," for we find that, while the end results of adaptation are such that all parts of an animal conspire to make the whole adaptive, there is no fixed correlation either in the form or rate of development of parts, and that it is therefore impossible for the palaeontologist to predict the anatomy of an unknown animal from one of its parts only, unless the animal happens to belong to a type generally familiar.
Their adaptations to parasitic life in vertebrate animals appear to have involved such modifications of structure and development that their affinities are quite problematical.
One extremity, and the absence of any morphologically distinct anterior extremity, are adaptations to the wholly parasitic life of this class.
The reciprocal adaptations of insects and flowers demand attentive observation on the part of the gardener concerned with the growing of grapes, cucumbers, melons and strawberries, or with the raising of new and improved varieties of plants.
Ecological Adapt ations.It is now possible to consider the ecological adaptations which the members of plant cornmunties show in a given geographical district such as western Europe, of which England of course forms a part.
Each of these alternate life phases may leave some profound modification, which is partially obscured but seldom wholly lost; thus the tracing of the evidences of former adaptations is of great importance in phylogenetic study.
All these are adaptations of a stem from which also Erin is descended.
All organs performing the same function and showing similar adaptations are said to be analogous or homoplastic, whatever their morphological nature may be; hence organs are sometimes both homologous and analogous, sometimes only analogous.
The rude symmetry of the feudal system had been long ago destroyed by partial and unskilful adaptations to modern commercial life, effected at various dates and in accordance with various theories.
Many adaptations for the Italian stage were produced between the years 1486 and 1550, the earliest (the Menaechmi) under the direction of Ercole I., duke of Ferrara.
The rotations extending to five, six, seven or more years are, in most cases, only adaptations of the principle to variations of soil, altitude, aspect, climate, markets and other local conditions.
The descendants, and constitute the so-called adaptations in which the external factors acting on the plants are reflected.
He was followed by Christian Konrad Sprengel, whose work Das entdeckte Geheimniss der Natur im Bau and in der Befruchtung der Blumen (Berlin, 1793), contains a description of floral adaptations to.
In external habit these exhibit adaptations to every kind of climatic or physical condition:
In addition to these accidental modes of dispersal, however, there is a series of interesting adaptations on the part of the fungus itself.
The Psaumes of Clement Marot (1538) were curious adaptations of Hebrew ideas to French forms of the epigram and the madrigal.