The relative pronouns are nominative and accusative a, oblique cases ydd, yr, y.
In the meantime we have proper names to argue from; and these give us at least the significant indication that the Hittite nominative ended in s and the accusative in m.
4 So Aquila, the disciple of `Agiba, translates the accusative particle by ow; see W.
The accusative is often the case represented in Welsh; but we have also the nominative, and sometimes both, as in cawed from civit-as, and ciwdod from civitat-em, now two words, not two cases of the same word.
Infixed genitive and accusative: sing.
Some of their innovations in grammatical terminology have lasted until now: we still speak of oblique cases, genitive, dative, accusative, of verbs active (O p06), passive (157rTLa), neuter (ou&repa), by the names they gave.
It is true that in certain texts (especially metrical, texts) certaic traces of case-endings are to be met with, as, for example Deus and Deu, amors and amor, clans and clan, forti and fo~t, tuyt and tots, abduy and abdos, senyer and senyon, empenaine and emperador; but, since these forms are used convertibly, the nominative form when the word is in the objective, and the accusative form, when the word is the subject, we can only reaognize in these cases a c nfused recollection of the Provenal rules known only to the litCrte but of which the transcribers of manuscripts took no account.
Some nominative formsDis (anciently Dios, and in the Castilian of the Jews Dlo), Cdrias, Mdrcos, sastre (s a r t 0 r) have been adopted instead of forms derived from the accusative, but the vulgar Latin of the Peninsula in no instance presents two forms (subjective and objective case) of the same substantIve.
Each of the personal pronouns (except the 3rd plur.) exists in a longer and a shorter form: the one is used as a nominative and is a separate word, the other is attached to verbs and (in a slightly different form) to nouns to express the accusative or genitive.