He returns to the subject in Stieber's Opuscula academics (1834).
Pupius Piso explains the views of the Academics and Peripatetics.
Catholic in spirit rather than dogmatic, John ranks himself at times among the Academics, " since, in those things about which a wise man may doubt, I depart not from their footsteps."
The term "school," however, has not the same meaning as when applied to the Academics or Peripatetics, the Stoics or Epicureans.
The strongest statement regarding the inviolability of such dogmas is in Cicero's Academics, ii.
But the attitude maintained by the Academics was chiefly that of a negative criticism of the views of others, in particular of the somewhat crude and imperious dogmatism of the Stoics.
In the meantime the Patriotic Society had divided into a White or Moderate party and a Red or Extreme party, which was subdivided into the Academics or Republicans and the Military or Terrorists.
Indeed, according to Ammonius, Plato too had talked as he walked in the Academy; and all his followers were called Peripatetics, until, while the pupils of Xenocrates took the name " Academics," those of Aristotle retained the general name.
But this criterion was open to the persistent attacks of Epicureans and Academics, who made clear (t) that reason is dependent upon, if not derived from, sense, and (2) that the utterances of reason lack consistency.
It is to be observed, however, firstly, that the scientific element occupied a larger place in Plato's later system than is generally supposed,' and, secondly, that other Academics who came into competition with Speusippus agreed with him in his rejection of the theory of ideas.
Xenocrates indeed, identifying ideal and mathematical numbers, sought to ' That Plato did not neglect, but rather encouraged, classificatory science is shown, not only by a well-known fragment of the comic poet Epicrates, which describes a party of Academics engaged in investigating, under the eye of Plato, the affinities of the common pumpkin, but also by the Timaeus, which, while it carefully discriminates science from ontology, plainly recognizes the importance of the study of natural kinds.
The alterations, however, in the metaphysical position of the Academics had little effect on their ethical teach ing, as, even during the period of Scepticism, they appear to have presented as probable the same general view of human good which Antiochus afterwards dogmatically announced as a revival of the common doctrine of Plato and Aristotle.
Cicero (Academics, ii.
His radical scepticism is seen in the first sentence of his IIEpi 01)o€ws, quoted by Cicero in the Academics ii.