30 The Ninth Month, Ramadan, Is The Month Of Abstinence Observed By The Moslems.
His remarkable oratorical talents, rich humour, genuine pathos and inimitable power of story-telling, enabled him to do good service to the total abstinence movement.
The time requisite for the several degrees is unknown, and may have been determined by the Patres, who conferred them in a solemn ceremony called Sacramentum, in which the initial step was an oath never to divulge what should be revealed, and for which the mystic had been specially prepared by lustral purification, prolonged abstinence, and severe deprivations.
Then follows Ramadan, the month of abstinence, a severe trial to the faithful; and the Lesser Festival (Al-id as-~aghir), which commences Shawwl, is hailed by them with delight.
But filial feeling and established custom secured a measure of kindly sympathy, shown by precedence yielded at public games, and by the almost invariable abstinence of the colony from a hostile share in wars in which the mother city was engaged.
There is some doubt about the genuineness of an ordinance attributed to Constantine, in which abstinence from public business was enforced for the seven days immediately preceding Easter Sunday, and also for the seven which followed it; the Codex Theodosianus, however, is explicit in ordering that all actions at law should cease, and the doors of all courts of law be closed during those fifteen days (1.
With the growth of the Oxford Movement in the English Church, the practice of observing Lent was revived; and, though no rules for fasting are authoritatively laid down, the duty of abstinence is now very generally inculcated by bishops and clergy, either as a discipline or as an exercise in self-denial.
Both inculcated a peculiar kind of ascetic life; both had a mystical speculative theory of religion, with purificatory rites, abstinence from beans, &c.; but Orphism was more especially religious, while Pythagoreanism, at least originally, inclined more to be a political and philosophical creed.
In the religious world the Seventh-Day Adventists (who are connected with many sanatoria and the manufacture of food specialities) and some Bible Christians, the worshippers of Vishnu and the Swami Narang and Vishnoi sects, amongst others, preach abstinence from flesh food.
RECHABITES, or Sons Of Rechab, a sort of religious order among the Israelites in some respects analogous to the Nazarites, with whom they shared the rule of abstinence from wine.
Their presence is typical of that of the whole people, and the private citizen is required to do no more on festival days than a ceremonial abstinence from work.
The rule laid down by the Order is abstinence so far as possible from all foods which are obtained by the cruel infliction of pain, and the minimum that is set is complete "abstinence from flesh and fowl," while net-caught fish may be used by associate members.
17 seq., neighbourly love and abstinence from vengeance constitute, according to R.
The basis of the life was the Benedictine rule, but the observance of abstinence and silence went beyond it in stringency.
Attached to it all matters concerning indulgences; on the other hand, he transferred to the Congregation of the Council matters concerning the precepts of the Church such as fasting, abstinence and festivals.
Rather see "England free than England compulsorily sober," an utterance which the extreme advocates of total abstinence misquoted and attacked.
He was for many years an advocate of total abstinence, and a well-known speaker on imperial questions.
Just as at the third scrutiny the early catechumen passed a last examination in the Gospels, Creed and Lord's Prayer, so after their year of abstinence the credens receives creed and prayer; the allocution with which the elder "handed on" this prayer is preserved, and of it the Abbe Guiraud remarks that, if it were not in a Cathar ritual, one might believe it to be of Catholic origin.
14-20 (P), but is independent of them: it omits all reference to the "holy convocations" and to the abstinence from labour, and is obviously simpler and more primitive.
In Scandinavia, and perhaps in Italy, the rate may be affected by the emigration of adult males, but the later columns of the table indicate that this is not the cause of the low rate in Ireland, which appears to be mainly due to abstinence from marriage at the ages specified.
In the above countries, therefore, abstinence from matrimony may be said to have been a factor of some importance in the decline.
If abstinence from marriage and the curtailment of the reproductive period by postponement of marriage be insufficient to account for the material change which has taken place in the birth-rate within the last few decades, it is clear that the latter must be attributable to the diminished fertility of those who are married.
Caelibatus, from caelebs, unmarried), the state of being unmarried, a term now commonly used in the sense of complete abstinence from marriage; it originally included the state of widowhood also, and any one was strictly a caelebs who had no existing spouse.
Again not only was the church doctrine itself more or less consciously influenced by the Manichaean tenet of the diabolical origin of all matter, including the human body, but churchmen were also naturally tempted to compete in asceticism with the many heretics who held this tenet, and whose abstinence brought them so much popular consideration.
A fourth was subsequently added, for the sake of symmetry, to make them correspond with the four seasons, and they became known as the jejunium vernum, aestivum, autumnale and hiemale, so that, to quote Pope Leo's words, "the law of abstinence might apply to every season of the year."
Abstinence from flesh was also enjoined, and a good deal of astrological fancy was interwoven with the doctrinal and practical teaching.
Many an earnest heart full of disappointment or enthusiasm has gone through a similar struggle, has learnt to look upon all earthly gains and hopes as worse than vanity, has envied the calm life of the cloister, troubled by none of these things, and has longed for an opportunity of entire selfsurrender to abstinence and meditation.
How severely strict medieval abstinence was may be gauged from the fact that armies and garrisons were sometimes, in default of dispensations, as in the case of the siege of Orleans in 1429, reduced to starvation for want of Lenten food, though in full possession of meat and other supplies.
During the religious confusion of the Reformation, the practice of fasting was generally relaxed and it was found necessary to reassert the obligation of keeping Lent and the other periods and days of abstinence by a series of proclamations and statutes.
The rules of the Orphic life prescribed abstinence from beans, flesh, certain kinds of fish, &c., the wearing of a special kind of clothes, and numerous other practices and abstinences.
Many of them are known as "Jogi," and lay claim to miraculous powers which they declare have become theirs by the practice of abstinence and extreme austerities.
The registrar general for England, indeed, has stated that whilst no more than about 17% of the decline in the birth-rate can be attributed to abstinence or postponement of marriage, nearly 70% should be ascribed to voluntary restriction.
His studied abstinence from fine writing - from "the rhetorical and poetical style fashionable among writers of the present day" - on such subjects as he handled confirmed the idea of his contemporaries that he was only an eccentric I.
Garrison then went to Boston, where, after working for a time as a journeyman printer, he became the editor of the National Philanthropist, the first journal established in America to promote the cause of total abstinence from intoxicating liquors.
The long probation called "abstinence" which led up to it is a survival of the primitive catechumenate with its scrutinies.
The characteristic marks of a Nazarite were unshorn locks and abstinence from wine (Judges xiii.
He practised and pertinaciously advocated total abstinence from spirituous liquors, but did not regard prohibitory laws as always wise.
Abjuring pomps and vanities, its citizens observed the ascetic regime of the cloister; half the year was devoted to abstinence and few dared to eat meat on the fasts ordained by Savonarola.