The discovery of the aberration of light in 1725, due to James Bradley, is one of the most important in the whole domain of astronomy.
It has been in the past a source of much perplexity to observers of transits, but is now understood to be a result of irradiation, produced by the atmosphere or by the aberration of the telescope.
The aberration is here unsymmetrical, the wave being in advance of its proper place in one half of the aperture, but behind in the other half.
Since then, two elaborate series of observations made with the zenith telescope for the purpose of determining the variation of latitude and the constant of aberration have been carried on by Professor C. L.
The chromatic aberration of the object-glass of one of these telescopes is corrected for photographic rays, and the image formed by it is received on a highly sensitive photographic plate.
The indirect method is based upon the observed constant of aberration or the displacement of the stars due to the earth's motion.
Thus in estimating the intensity at a focal point, where, in the absence of aberration, all the secondary waves would have exactly the same phase, we see that an aberration nowhere exceeding 4X can have but little effect.
When parallel rays fall directly upon a spherical mirror the longitudinal aberration is only about one-eighth as great as for the most favourably shaped single lens of equal focal length and aperture.
James Gregory, in his Optica Promota (1663), discusses the forms of images and objects produced by lenses and mirrors, and shows that when the surfaces of the lenses or mirrors are portions of spheres the images are curves concave towards the objective, but if the curves of the surfaces are conic sections the spherical aberration is corrected.
Both the aberration of axis points, and the deviation from the sine condition, rapidly increase in most (uncorrected) systems with the aperture.
In general, we may say that aberration is unimportant when it nowhere (or at any rate over a relatively small area only) exceeds a small fraction of the wavelength (X).
When all is taken into consideration it is scarcely possible to reduce the secondary colour aberration at the focus of such a double object-glass to less than a fourth part of that prevailing at the focus of a double objective of the same aperture and focus, but made of the ordinary crown and flint glasses.
Hence for the rain to centrally traverse the tube, this must be inclined at an angle BAD to the vertical; this angle is conveniently termed the aberration due to these two motions.
If the surrounding aether is thereby disturbed, the waves of light arriving from the stars will partake of its movement; the ascertained phenomena of the astronomical aberration of light show that the rays travel to the observer, across this disturbed aether near the earth, in straight lines.
Assured that his explanation was true, Bradley corrected his observations for aberration, but he found that there still remained a residuum which was evidently not a parallax, for it did not exhibit an annual cycle.
The application of this observation to the phenomenon which had so long perplexed him was not difficult, and, in 1727, he published his theory of the aberration of light - a corner-stone of the edifice of astronomical science.
Bradley recognized the fact that the experimental determination of the aberration constant gave the ratio of the velocities of light and of the earth; hence, if the velocity of the earth be known, the velocity of light is determined.
Aberration Of Light This astronomical phenomenon may be defined as an apparent motion of the heavenly bodies; the stars describing annually orbits more or less elliptical, according to the latitude of the star; consequently at any moment the star appears to be displaced from its true position.