Mahommed Abdul Mouneim, the heir-apparent, was born on the 10th of February 1899.
The committee, restored by the Salonica troops, now decided on Abdul-Hamid's deposition, and on the 27th of April his brother Reshid Effendi was proclaimed sultan as Mahommed V.
Tumults and massacres of Christians occurred in 1850 and 1862, accompanied by great destruction of property; but on the whole, since the - consolidation of Ottoman rule over Syria by Abdul Mejid's ministers, Aleppo has been reviving, although its trade is more local than of old.
Its originator, Mahommed Ibn Abdul Wahhab, was born (1691) at Ayana in Nejd, and after studying in Basra and Damascus, and making the pilgrimage to Mecca returned to his native country and settled down at Huremala near Deraiya.
His son and successor, Abdul Aziz, in a rapid series of successful campaigns, extended his dominion and that of the reformed faith far beyond the limits of Nejd.
In 1801 Saud, son of the amir Abdul Aziz, led an expedition to the Euphrates, and on the festival of Bairam, the 10th of April, stormed Kerbela, put the defenders to the sword, destroyed the sacred tomb, scattered the sacred relics and returned laden with the treasures, accumulated during centuries in the sanctuary of the Shia faith.
On the 14th of October 1802 the amir Abdul Aziz, at the age of eighty-two years, was murdered by a Shia fanatic when at prayers in the mosque of Deraiya, and Salad, who had for many years led the Wahhabi armies, became the reigning amir.
On his death in 1897 his nephew Abdul-Aziz, son of the murdered amir Matab, succeeded; during his reign a new element has been introduced into Nejd politics by the rising importance of Kuwet (Koweit) and the attempts R t g P () P history.
The Committee transferred their attention from the Sultan Abdul Hamid to the Ottoman Parliament - which assembled on Dec. 17 1908 - as the new means to power, and continued as active as ever.
The Sultan Abdul Hamid has been charged with being the chief instigator of the counter-revolution of that month; it is more probable that he did nothing except oppose it.
The Committee had ever regarded the Sultan Abdul Hamid with deep suspicion, which the counter-revolution was held to have justified.
These soon ex tended over the whole of Cilicia and, before they had ceased, involved the death of some 20,000 Armenians and a lesser number of Moslems. Both the Government and the Sultan Abdul Hamid have been charged with responsibility for the outbreak; but instigation to the deed, though not perhaps directly from the Government, appears to have come from the Committee.
The principal building, the palace, or Khan-sarai, was originally erected in 1519 by Abdul-Sahal-Ghirai, destroyed in 1736, and restored at Potemkin's command for the reception of Catherine II.
Was in turn deposed in the following August and replaced by his brother, Abdul Hamid II.
In the following February, however, Midhat was dismissed and banished for supposed complicity in the murder of Abdul Aziz.
Meanwhile the district of Khiva, previously subject to Bokhara, was made an independent khanate by Abdul-Gazi Bahadur Khan; and in the reign of Subhankuli, who ascended the throne in 1680, the political power of Bokhara was still further lessened, though it continued to enjoy the unbounded respect of the Sunnite Mahommedans.
The Nischan-i-Imtiaz, or Order of Privilege, was founded by Abdul Hamid II.
In 1879 as a general order of merit in one class; the Nischan-el-Iftikhar, or Order of Glory, also one class, founded 1831 by Mahmoud II.; the Nischan-i-Mejidi, the Mejidieh, was founded as a civil and military order of merit in 1851 by Abdul Medjid.
The Nischan-i-Osmanie, the Osmanieh, for civil and military merit, was founded by Abdul Aziz in 1862; it has four classes.
Their empire, which during the reign of Abdurrahman (761-784) and his son Abdul Wahab (784-823) extended over the greater part of the modern Algeria, was known as the Ibadite Empire from Abdallah ibn Ibad, the founder of the heretical sect to which Abdurrahman belonged.
Seven princes of the Rustamite house succeeded Abdul Wahab at Tiaret, but in 909 the dynasty was overthrown by the Fatimite general al Shi`i.
Aali Pasha was one of the most zealous advocates of the introduction of Western reforms under the sultans Abdul Mejid and Abdul Aziz.
Tusun, Ismail, (iv.) Said, Abdul Halim, Mehemet Ali, b.
ImnLd Abdul, Abdul ~ader, 4 daughters.
- But it is said, There is war between England and Abdul Hamid Khan.
On the ist of July the old sultan died, unconscious of the fatal news, leaving his throne to Abdul-Mejid, a lad of sixteen.
The railway consists of a single line, one-metre gauge, from Teheran to Shah-abdul-Azim, south of TeherAn, and of two branch lines which connect the main line with some limestone quarries in the hills south-east of the city.
The old minister, Hajji Mirza Aghasi, shut himself up in the royal palace with 1200 followers, arid had to take refuge in the sanctuary of Shah Abdul- Azim near Teheran.
Until the reign of Abdul Mejid it was included for administrative purposes in the eyalet of Jezair (the Isles) and not in that of Anadoli.
His army, commanded by the Russian General Chernyayev, was defeated by Abdul-Kerim Pasha, whose advance was stopped by the intervention of Tsar Alexander II.
The sultan Abdul Aziz, thought unequal to the crisis, was hastily deposed; he was either murdered or led to commit suicide; and insurrection in Bulgaria was stamped out by massacre.
Of these tribes the most numerous are the Modaunlu, Khojehvand and Abdul Maleki, originally of Lek or Kurd stock, besides branches of the royal Afshar and Kajar tribes of Turki descent.
The sultan Abdul Hamid, contributed to indicate the near approach of a Russo-Turkish war.
An irade of the sultan Abdul Hamid had in 1906 recognized the existence of the Kutzo-Vlachs as a religious body (millet), forming an integral part of the Rumanian Church.
In the same year (June 25) the first railway in Persia, a small line of 51/8 miles from Teheran to Shah-abdul-Azim, was opened under the auspices of a Belgian company.
On the 1st of May 1896 Nasur d-Din Shah was assassinated while paying his devotions at the holy shrine of Shah-abdul-Azim.