Successful feuds with the bishops of Strassburg and Basel further augmented his wealth and his reputation; rights over various tracts of land were purchased from abbots and others; and he was also the possessor of large estates in the regions now known as Switzerland and Alsace.
It is a monument of learning and scholarship. The most recent edition is that with notes and introduction by the present writer, u.s. It includes also the History of the Abbots, and the Epistle to Egbert.
Such are that of the London Necropolis Company at Brookwood near Woking, Surrey, and that of the parishes of St Mary Abbots, Kensington, and St George, Hanover Square, at Hanwell, Middlesex.
The second epithet designates its position on a hill, but the first is given it from the market granted to the abbots of St Albans to be kept there, by Henry II.
In the 13th century abbots sue each other in the royal court for advowsons (Selden Soc. Select Civil Pleas, i.
Abbots and religious superiors, who are withdrawn from the ordinary diocesan jurisdiction and themselves possess episcopal jurisdiction (jurisdictio quasi episcopalis).
Mitres are the distinctive headdress of bishops; but the right to wear them, as in the case of the other episcopal insignia, is granted by the popes to other dignitaries - such as abbots or the heads and sometimes all the members of the chapters of cathedral or collegiate churches.
At provincial synods archbishops wear the pretiosa, bishops the auriphrygiata, and mitred abbots the simplex.
From this time onward papal bulls bestowing mitres, together with other episcopal insignia, on abbots become increasingly frequent.
It consisted, in addition to the king, his sons and other relatives, of the bishops and later some abbots, of some under-kings and the ealdormen of the shires or provinces, and of a number of ministri, or king's thegns.
934, were present the two archbishops, four Welsh kings, seventeen bishops, four abbots, twelve ealdormen and fiftytwo ministri.
Crusaders themselves kept diaries or itineraria; while home-keeping ecclesiastics in the West - monks like Robert of Reims, abbots like Guibert of Nogent, archbishops like Balderich of Dol - found a fertile subject for their pens in the history of the Crusades.
The monks appealed against this to the Holy Synod; but the synod declared against them and ordered the abbots to repress the heresy.
The monks thereupon expelled the abbots by force, and their action was approved by the monastery of Vatopedi, the Greek parent house of St.
On the appeal of the abbots the dispute was now referred by the Holy Synod to the court of the Patriarch of Constantinople, and the intervention of the Russian Government was invited.
The Gesta is a history of the abbots of St Albans from the foundation of the abbey to 1381.
Other historical works of Bede are the History of the Abbots (of Wearmouth and Jarrow), and the lives of Cuthbert in verse and prose.
The History of the Abbots and the prose life of Cuthbert were based on earlier works which still survive.
In the History of the Abbots he was much nearer to the facts, and could make additions out of his own personal knowledge.
As regards the development of the form of the pastoral staff, there are four principal types: (I) staves with a simple crook, the oldest form, which survived in Ireland until the 12th century; (2) staves with a ball or knob at the top, a rare form which did not long survive as a pastoral staff; (3) staves with a horizontal crook, so-called Tau-staves, used especially by abbots and surviving until the 13th century; (4) staves with crook bent inwards.
This was done both in the case of bishops' and of abbots' staves, but is now confined to the latter (Cerem.
Church also by archimandrites and abbots, and in the Armenian Church also by the vartapeds (teachers).
The benediction of abbots, of priests at their ordination, of virgins taking the veil, of churches, cemeteries, oratories, and of all articles for use in connexion with the altar (chalices, patens, vestments, &c.), of military colours, of soldiers and of their arms. The holy oil is also blessed by bishops in the Roman Catholic Church; in the Greek Church, on the other hand, the oil for the chrism at baptism is blessed by the priest.
The ordinary minister of orders is a bishop. The tonsure and minor orders are, however, still sometimes conferred by abbots, who, though simple priests, have special faculties for the ordination of their monks.
In 1740 extended the summons to all abbots, provosts and others who held territorial jurisdiction.
He was designated by Gregory as one of four men most worthy to succeed him, and, after a vacancy of more than five months following the decease of Victor III., he was elected pope on the 12th of March 1088 by forty cardinals, bishops, and abbots assembled at Terracina, together with representatives of the Romans and of Countess Matilda.
He admonished the pope, appointed the bishops, watched over the morals and work of the clergy, and took an active part in the deliberations of church synods; he founded bishoprics and monasteries, was lavish in his gifts to ecclesiastical foundations, and chose bishops and abbots for administrative work.
For this purpose a synod of abbots was assembled at Aix-laChapelle in 817, and a series of 80 Capitula passed, regulating the life of the monasteries.
It was decreed that the Benedictine houses of each ecclesiastical province should henceforth be federated for the purposes of mutual help and the maintenance of discipline, and that for these ends the abbots should every third year meet in a provincial chapter (or synod), in order to pass laws binding on all and to appoint visitors who, in addition to the bishops, should canonically visit the monasteries and report on their condition in spirituals and temporals to the ensuing chapter.
In other lands things did not on the whole go so well, and many causes at work during the later middle ages tended to bring about relaxation in the Benedictine houses; above all the vicious system of commendatory abbots, rife everywhere except in England.
He is only Primus inter pares, and exercises no kind of superiority over the other abbots or congregations.
APPENZELL, one of the cantons of north-east Switzerland, entirely surrounded by the canton of St Gall; both were formed out of the dominions of the prince abbots of St Gall, whence the name Appenzell (abbatis cella).
By various grants from the abbots, the town gradually attained the rank of a borough.
Elizabeth in 1562 confirmed the charters which former kings had granted to the abbots, and James I.
Of a headstrong temperament, Saisset as abbot energetically sustained the struggle with the counts of Foix, begun two centuries before, for the lordship of the city of Pamiers, which had been shared between the counts and abbots by the feudal contract of pariage.
Bishops and abbots were to be elected, in accordance with ancient custom, by their clergy.
The town is well built, has many spacious squares and attractive public grounds, and contains a castle, a handsome town-hall, a gymnasium, &c. The old palace of the abbots of Kempten, dating from the end of the 17th century, is now partly used as barracks, and near to it is the fine abbey church.
He also wrote a Vita Abbonis, abbatis Floriacensis, the last of a series of lives of the abbots of Fleury, all of which, except the life of Abbo, have been lost.
Thus there were archbishops, bishops, abbots, dukes, Inargraves, landgraves, countsforming together a large body each of whom claimed to have no superior save the emperor, whose authority they and their predecessors had slowly destroyed.
In many places the lords yielded to these demands, among those who granted conCessions being the elector palatine of the Rhine, the bishops of Bamberg and of Spires, and the abbots of Fulda and of Hersfeld.
It became a town in the 12th century and in 1370 the burghers, having meanwhile shaken off the authority of the abbots, placed themselves under the protection of the landgraves of Hesse.
A distinction is drawn between those who are to be knighted by the king himself or by the sheriffs of counties respectively, and bishops and abbots could make knights in the iith and 12th centuries.