Of these Alus is evidently the ancient Auzara or Uzzanesopolis, the city of the old Arabic goddess `Uzza; Haditha, an important town under the Abbasids, was earlier known 'as Baia Malcha; while Jibba has not been identified.
The Caliphate under the Omayyads of Damascus, and then the Abbasids of Bagdad, became the principal power in the nearer East.
The last false prophet was M'hammad or Ahmat bar Bisbat (Mahomet), but Anosh, who remained close beside him and his immediate successors, prevented hostilities against the true believers, who claim to have had in Babylonia, under the Abbasids, four hundred places of worship. Subsequent persecutions compelled their withdrawal to `Ammara in the neighbourhood of Wasit, and ultimately to Khuzistan.
Without being intolerant, the Turks were a rougher and ruder race than the Arabs of Egypt whom they displaced; while the wars between the Fatimites of Egypt and the Abbasids of Bagdad, whose cause was represented by the Seljuks, made Syria (one of the natural battle-grounds of history) into a troubled and unquiet region.
It was the disunion of the Syrian amirs, and the division between the Abbasids and the Fatimites, that made possible the conquest of the Holy City and the foundation of the kingdom of Jerusalem.
Moawiya, the first Omayyad caliph, chose Damascus for his residence; but in 750 the capital of the empire was removed by the Abbasids to Bagdad.
In Berthelot's opinion, the Syriac portions represent a compilation of receipts and processes undertaken in the Syrian school of medicine at Bagdad under the Abbasids in the 9th or 10th century, and to a large extent constituted by the earlier translations made by Sergius of Resaena in the 6th century.
He next turned against the Mameluke rulers of Egypt, crushed them, and entering Cairo as conqueror (1517), obtained from the last of the Abbasid caliphs,' Motawakkil, the title of caliph (q.v.) ' After the fall of the caliphs of Bagdad (1258), descendants of the Abbasids took refuge in Cairo and enjoyed a purely titular authority under the protection of the Egyptian rulers.
Under the rule of the Abbasids, Bagdad became the centre of scientific thought; physicians and astronomers from India and Syria flocked to their court; Greek and Indian manuscripts were translated (a work commenced by the Caliph Mamun (813-833) and ably continued by his successors); and in about a century the Arabs were placed in possession of the vast stores of Greek and Indian learning.
When the Omayyads were overthrown in the East by the Abbasids he was a young man of about twenty years of age.
The Abbasids hunted their enemies down without mercy.
It is, however, part of the personal history of Abd-ar-rahman that when in 763 he was compelled to fight at the very gate of his capital with rebels acting on' behalf of the Abbasids, and had won a signal victory, he cut off the heads of the leaders, filled them with salt and camphor and sent them as a defiance to the eastern caliph.
Him,self came to Egypt as a fugitive from the Abbasids, but found that the bulk of the Moslem population had already joined with his enemies, and was defeated and slain in the neighborhood of Giza in July of the same year, The Abbasid general, ~lili b.
The period between the rise of the Abbasids and the quasi-independent dynasties of Egypt was marked by much religious persecution, occasioned by the fanaticism of some of the caliphs, the victims being generally Moslem sectarians.
This did not prevent Bibars from maintaining his policy of appointing an Abbasid for the~ purpose of conferring legitimacy on himself; but he encouraged no further attempts at re-establishing the Abbasids at Bagdad, and his principle, adopted by successive sultans, was that the caliph should not leave Cairo except when accompanying the sultan on an expedition.
ABBASIDS, the name generally given to the caliphs of Bagdad, the second of the two great dynasties of the Mahommedan empire.
The Abbasids still maintained a feeble show of authority, confined to religious matters, in Egypt under the Mamelukes, but the dynasty finally disappeared with Motawakkil III., who was carried away as a prisoner to Constantinople by Selim I.
Abbasids seized the sovereignty and transferred it to Bagdad (750).
The movement triumphed with the elevation of the Abbasids to the throne.
But, that the spiritual nobility was fighting not for principle but for personal advantage was as apparent in Ali's hostilities against Zobair and Talha as in that of the Abbasids against the followers of Ali.
We thus see how the power of the house of Omayya developed itself, and how there arose against it an opposition, which led in the first place to the murder of Othman and the Caliphate of Ali, and furthermore, during the whole period of the Omayyad caliphs, repeatedly to dangerous outbreaks, culminating in the great catastrophe which placed the Abbasids on the throne.
(2) The partisans of Ali, the Shia (Shi`ites), who in proportion as their influence with the Arabs declined, contrived to strengthen it by obtaining the support of the non-Arabic Moslems, aided thereto, especially in the latter period, by the Abbasids, who at the decisive moment succeeded in seizing the supreme power for themselves.
When the Abbasids had occupied the throne, they pursued this policy to its logical conclusion.
From that time the Abbasids began their machinations against the Omayyads in the name of the family of the Prophet, avoiding all that could cause suspicion to the Shiites, but holding the strings firmly in their own hands.
Propaganda of the Shia by the Abbasids was continued in these years with great zeal.
When the other Abbasids left Homaima is not certain.
C. - THE Abbasids We now enter upon the history of the new dynasty, under which the power of Islam reached its highest point.
He asserted that the Abbasids were the real heirs of the Prophet, as the descendants of his oldest uncle Abbas.
Ka`b, and the black standard of the Abbasids was raised over the city of Mansura.
Africa and Spain are omitted from this catalogue, because the Abbasids never gained any real footing in Spain, while Africa remained, at least in the first years, in only nominal subjection to the new dynasty.
Seconded by many of the inhabitants of Kairawan, who had remained faithful to the cause of the Abbasids, he attacked his brother, slew him, and proclaimed himself governor in his stead.
This revolution in favour of the Abbasids was, however, not of long duration.
From the year Boo, it must be added, Africa only nominally belonged to the Abbasids; for, under the reign of Harun al-Rashid, Ibrahim b.
The unfortunate fanatics were hunted down and massacred to the last man, and thereby the ties that bound the Abbasids to the ultra-Shiites were severed.
The empire of the Abbasids was in great jeopardy.
The Abbasids, on the contrary, were a Persian dynasty, under which the Arab tribal system, as regulated by Omar, fell to pieces; the Persians of Khorasan were the real rulers, and the government became despotic as in the days of Chrosroes."
817), under pretence of putting an end to the continual revolts of the partisans of Ali, and acting on the advice of his prime minister Fadl, he publicly designated as his successor in the Caliphate Ali ar-Rida, a son of that Musa al-Kazim who perished in the prison of Mandi, a direct descendant of Hosain, the son of Ali, and proscribed black, the colour of the Abbasids, in favour of that of the house of Ali, green.
At the same time he contrived to elevate the power of the Abna, the descendants of those Persian soldiers who had established the dynasty of the Abbasids, in order to break the supremacy of the Turks and other mercenaries.
From that time there was war between the Abbasids and the Tulunids.
Here, however, he came into conflict with the then mighty prince of Khwarizm (Khiva), who, already exasperated because the caliph refused to grant him the honours he asked for, resolved to overthrow the Caliphate of the Abbasids, and to place a descendant of Ali on the throne of Bagdad.
With him expired the eastern Caliphate of the Abbasids, which had lasted 524 years, from the entry of Abu`l-Abbas into Kufa.
In vain, three years later, did Abu'l-Qasim Ahmad, a scion of the race of the Abbasids, who had taken refuge in Egypt with Bibars the Mameluke sultan, and who had been proclaimed caliph under the title al-Mostansir billah (" he who seeks help from God"), make an effort to restore a dynasty which was now for ever extinct.
Then another descendant of the Abbasids, who also had found an asylum in Egypt, was proclaimed caliph at Cairo under the name of al-Hakim bi amri'llah (" he who decides according to the orders of God").
743), the disorder continued to spread, fanned by the Abbasids and the Shiite preachers.
Thus the Abbasids became masters of Persia and also of the Arab Empire.
Hazm the Abbasids were a Persian dynasty which destroyed the old tribal system of the Arabs and ruled despotically as Chosroes had done.
At the same time the Khorasanians bad fought for the old Alid family, not for the Abbasids, and with the murder of Abu Moslim discontent again began to grow among the Shiites.
Various causesthe weakening of the Arabs by the struggle between the Omayyads and the Abbasids just after the battle of Tours; the alliance of the petty Christian kings of Wars with the Spanish peninsula; an appeal from the northern the Arabs, amirs who had revolted against the new caliphate of Slays and Cordova (755)made Charlemagne resolve to cross ~h1es.
Mansur, the second of the Abbasids, encouraged the appropriation of Greek science; but it was al-Ma ` mun, the son of Harun al-Rashid, who deserves in the Mahommedan empire the same position of royal founder and benefactor which is held by Charlemagne in the history of the Latin schools.
This dynasty lasted about ninety years; it was supplanted by that of the Abbasids, who removed the seat of empire to Mesopotamia; and Damascus passed through a period of unrest in which it was captured and ravaged by Egyptians, Carmathians and Seljuks in turn.