Krebs, Zur Kritik Alberts von Aachen (Munster, 1881); B.
Kugler, Albert von Aachen (Stuttgart, 1885); M.
Aachen, Dutch Aken), a city and spa of Germany, in the kingdom of Prussia, situated in a pleasant valley, 44 m.
See Quix, Geschichte der Stadt Aachen (1841); Pick, Aus Aachens Vergangenheit (Aachen, 1895); Bock, Karts des grossen Pfalzkapelle (Cologne, 1867); and Beissel, Aachen als Kurort (1889).
Geschichte .1-780-90 (1871-72); Historischbiographische Studien (Leipzig, 1878); Ursprung and Beginn der Revolutionskriege 1791-92 (Leipzig, 1875); and Zur Geschichte von Oesterreich and Preussen zwischen den Fri edensschliissen zu Aachen and Hubertusberg (Leipzig, 1875).
According to a calculation made by P. Frech in 1900, on the basis of the then rate of production, the coalfields of central France, central Bohemia, the kingdom of Saxony, the Prussian province of Saxony and the north of England, would be exhausted in 100 to 200 years, the other British coalfields, the Waldenburg-Schatzlar and that of the north of France in 250 years, those of Saarbriicken, Belgium, Aachen and Westphalia in 600 to Boo years, and those of Upper Silesia in more than 1000 years.
In the 10th century learning flourished at Aachen under Bruno, brother of Otto I.
Krabe of Prummern near Aachen, the most scientific and practical of German cultivators, the results of whose experiments have been published in his admirable Lehrbuch der rationellen Weidenkultur (Aix-la-Chapelle, 1886, et seq.) went so far as to assert that willows prefer a dry to a wet soil.
Erdmannsdrffer, Deutsche Geschichte vom WestfoJischei Frieden, his zum Regierungsantritt Friedrichs des Grossen (Berlin 1892-1893); and then follow Ranke, Zur Geschichte von Osterreich uflf Pr6ussen zWischen den Friedensschlssen von Aachen und Hubertus burg (Leipzig, 1875) and Die deutschen Mchte und der Frstenbun, (Leipzig, 1871-1872); K.
Besides going to Aachen for the coronation, he made excursions down the Rhine from Cologne to Nijmwegen, and back overland by 's Hertogenbosch; to Brussels; to Bruges and Ghent; and to Zealand with the object of seeing a natural curiosity, a whale reported ashore.
Charles was crowned at Aachen, 23rd of October 1520, and opened his first German diet at Worms, 22nd of January 15 21.
The " Thelen pan " (thus named from its inventor, a foreman at the Rhenania works near Aachen) is a mechanically worked fishing-pan, which requires considerably less labour and coal than ordinary boat-pans.
In 1248 William of Holland, having become emperor, restored to the Frisians in his countship their ancient liberties in reward for the assistance they had rendered him in the siege of Aachen; but in 1254 they revolted, and William lost his life in the contest which ensued.
William took Aachen in 1248 and was there crowned king; and after Frederick's death in 1250, he had a considerable party in Germany.
The most important are Aix-les-Bains, and a number of springs in the Pyrenees in France, Aachen in Germany, Harrogate in England, Strathpeffer and Moffat in Scotland.