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A Sentence Examples

  • It is a little speech that I have written for him.
  • The Keller homestead, where the family lived, was a few steps from our little rose-bower.
  • The little porch was hidden from view by a screen of yellow roses and Southern smilax.
  • He stooped and picked up a bird's nest that had fallen upon the ground.
  • A sudden gust of wind circled them and whispered words in her mind.
  • But I am making a simple statement that life is better now than it has ever been.
  • Analysts declared each successive generation might be "the first to have a lower standard of living than their parents."
  • Suddenly he stopped at the foot of a tree.
  • He was dressed in black, and had a very pleasant face.
  • But what about a reasoned belief based on a balanced look at both history and current reality that leads you to be optimistic?
  • He arched a dark brow "Alexia?"
  • It is a custom in the South to build a small house near the homestead as an annex to be used on occasion.
  • Could a greater miracle take place than for us to look through each other's eyes for an instant?
  • Prince Vasili always spoke languidly, like an actor repeating a stale part.
  • This was a decision she had already made once - but not really.
  • Instead, he drew a leathern case from his pocket and took from it several sharp knives, which he joined together, one after another, until they made a long sword.
  • By the time he had attached a handle to this sword he was having much trouble to breathe, as the charm of the Sorcerer was beginning to take effect.
  • When they passed over a field of grass Jim immediately stretched down his head and began to nibble.
  • "A nice country this is," he grumbled, "where a respectable horse has to eat pink grass!"
  • As a matter of fact, I'm eating rainbow grass.
  • Several Mangaboos came forward with glass spades and dug a hole in the ground.
  • That this democratization of information and opinion would lead to vigorous debate and encourage a young monk to question the church?
  • Let's face it: Futurists as a whole have a pretty poor track record.
  • But in the excitement of carrying me to church my father lost the name on the way, very naturally, since it was one in which he had declined to have a part.
  • Public opinion is a weak tyrant compared with our own private opinion.
  • The incessant anxiety and strain of some is a well-nigh incurable form of disease.
  • "What can one say about it?" replied the prince in a cold, listless tone.
  • I don't like him, she added in a tone admitting of no rejoinder and raising her eyebrows.
  • A middle-aged man, handsome and virile, in the uniform of a retired naval officer, was speaking in one of the rooms, and a small crowd was pressing round him.
  • Glinka, the editor of the Russian Messenger, who was recognized (cries of "author! author!" were heard in the crowd), said that "hell must be repulsed by hell," and that he had seen a child smiling at lightning flashes and thunderclaps, but "we will not be that child."
  • A warm hand rested on her waist.
  • "He will not be a wonderful Wizard long," remarked Gwig.
  • But it took a good many years for them to grow as large and fine as they are now.
  • "A nice country this is," he grumbled, "where a respectable horse has to eat pink grass!"
  • By this time the party had reached a freshly plowed field, and the Prince said to Dorothy:
  • After that other people brought water from a brook and sprinkled the earth.
  • "He will sprout very soon," said the Prince, "and grow into a large bush, from which we shall in time be able to pick several very good sorcerers."
  • There were no stairs in their houses, because they did not need them, but on a level surface they generally walked just as we do.
  • In the center of each plant grew a daintily dressed Mangaboo, for the clothing of all these creatures grew upon them and was attached to their bodies.
  • On some of the bushes might be seen a bud, a blossom, a baby, a half-grown person and a ripe one; but even those ready to pluck were motionless and silent, as if devoid of life.
  • We are quite solid inside our bodies, and have no need to eat, any more than does a potato.
  • She is the Ruler destined to be my successor, for she is a Royal Princess.
  • "That is a matter I have not quite decided upon," was the reply.
  • I think I shall keep this Wizard until a new Sorcerer is ready to pick, for he seems quite skillful and may be of use to us.
  • The beautiful creature passed her hands over her eyes an instant, tucked in a stray lock of hair that had become disarranged, and after a look around the garden made those present a gracious bow and said, in a sweet but even toned voice:
  • But the pulling of them apart and pushing them together again was only a sleight-of-hand trick.
  • The cab-horse, who was browsing near, lifted his head with a sigh.
  • They heard the sudden twittering of a bird, but could not find the creature anywhere.
  • Presently they came to a low plant which had broad, spreading leaves, in the center of which grew a single fruit about as large as a peach.
  • Several squeals and grunts were instantly heard at his feet, but the Wizard could not discover a single piglet.
  • "Why, right beside you," spoke a tiny voice.
  • "No," answered the little man, in a puzzled tone.
  • "It wasn't a peach, Eureka," said Dorothy.
  • It was a pretty place, with vines growing thickly over the broad front porch.
  • The door stood open and a table was set in the front room, with four chairs drawn up to it.
  • The meat was smoking hot and the knives and forks were performing strange antics and jumping here and there in quite a puzzling way.
  • But not a single person appeared to be in the room.
  • A peal of merry laughter answered her, and the knives and forks fell to the plates with a clatter.
  • A peal of merry laughter answered her, and the knives and forks fell to the plates with a clatter.
  • "What do you want?" demanded a third voice, in a stern, gruff accent.
  • "Where do you come from, then?" asked the woman, in a curious tone.
  • "We belong upon the face of the earth," explained the Wizard, "but recently, during an earthquake, we fell down a crack and landed in the Country of the Mangaboos."
  • "They walled us up in a mountain," continued the Wizard; "but we found there was a tunnel through to this side, so we came here.
  • It is a beautiful place.
  • "No! he can kick pretty hard with his heels, and bite a little; but Jim can't 'zactly fight," she replied.
  • "Does the dama-fruit grow on a low bush, and look something like a peach?" asked the Wizard.
  • In front of each place was a plate bearing one of the delicious dama-fruit, and the perfume that rose from these was so enticing and sweet that they were sorely tempted to eat of them and become invisible.
  • "It occurs to me you have a great deal to make you happy, even while invisible," remarked the Wizard.
  • The children were inclined to be frightened by the sight of the small animal, which reminded them of the bears; but Dorothy reassured them by explaining that Eureka was a pet and could do no harm even if she wished to.
  • She placed a plate of food upon the floor and the kitten ate greedily.
  • "The Valley of Voe is certainly a charming place," resumed the Wizard; "but we cannot be contented in any other land than our own, for long."
  • Our greatest Champion, Overman-Anu, once climbed the spiral stairway and fought nine days with the Gargoyles before he could escape them and come back; but he could never be induced to describe the dreadful creatures, and soon afterward a bear caught him and ate him up.
  • The wanders were rather discouraged by this gloomy report, but Dorothy said with a sigh:
  • Just now, my dear, there is not a single warrior in your company.
  • "What the Gargoyles most dread is a noise," said the man's voice.
  • "But tell me," said Dorothy, "how did such a brave Champion happen to let the bears eat him?
  • They now bade farewell to the kind but unseen people of the cottage, and after the man had called their attention to a high, pyramid-shaped mountain on the opposite side of the Valley, and told them how to travel in order to reach it, they again started upon their journey.
  • They followed the course of a broad stream and passed several more pretty cottages; but of course they saw no one, nor did any one speak to them.
  • About noon they stopped to allow Jim to rest in the shade of a pretty orchard.
  • "Oh, there is no need of that," said the voice, which from its gentle tones seemed to belong to a young girl.
  • The next moment a broad-leaved plant was jerked from the ground where it grew and held suspended in the air before the Wizard.
  • It is a secret the bears do not know, and we people of Voe usually walk upon the water when we travel, and so escape our enemies.
  • "Thank you!" cried the Wizard, joyfully, and at once rubbed a leaf upon the soles of Dorothy's shoes and then upon his own.
  • He had nearly finished this last task when a low growling was suddenly heard and the horse began to jump around and kick viciously with his heels.
  • "Run for the river!" shouted the Wizard, and Jim quickly freed himself from his unseen tormenters by a few vicious kicks and then obeyed.
  • As the little Wizard turned to follow them he felt a hot breath against his cheek and heard a low, fierce growl.
  • Once a little fish swam too near the surface, and the kitten grabbed it in her mouth and ate it up as quick as a wink; but Dorothy cautioned her to be careful what she ate in this valley of enchantments, and no more fishes were careless enough to swim within reach.
  • "You'll have to make a dash, Jim," said the Wizard, "and run as fast as you can go."
  • The mountain before them was shaped like a cone and was so tall that its point was lost in the clouds.
  • Directly facing the place where Jim had stopped was an arched opening leading to a broad stairway.
  • At the foot of the stairs was a sign reading:
  • But this enabled them to proceed steadily until they came to a landing where there was a rift in the side of the mountain that let in both light and air.
  • The old horse panted a little, and had to stop often to get his breath.
  • Here one side of the mountain had a great hole in it, like the mouth of a cavern, and the stairs stopped at the near edge of the floor and commenced ascending again at the opposite edge.
  • The opening in the mountain was on the side opposite to the Valley of Voe, and our travellers looked out upon a strange scene.
  • Below them was a vast space, at the bottom of which was a black sea with rolling billows, through which little tongues of flame constantly shot up.
  • Just above them, and almost on a level with their platform, were banks of rolling clouds which constantly shifted position and changed color.
  • He was a very old man, bent nearly double; but the queerest thing about him was his white hair and beard.
  • "Are we only half way up?" enquired the boy, in a discouraged tone.
  • "Have you a factory in this place?" asked the Wizard, who had been examining the strange personage carefully.
  • Well, I make Assorted Flutters for flags and bunting, and a superior grade of Rustles for ladies' silk gowns.
  • "I thought so," said the Wizard, with a sigh.
  • "Yes, indeed; come into my shop, please," and the braided man turned and led the way into a smaller cave, where he evidently lived.
  • Here, on a broad shelf, were several card-board boxes of various sizes, each tied with cotton cord.
  • "This," said the man, taking up a box and handling it gently, "contains twelve dozen rustles--enough to last any lady a year.
  • They are invaluable to make flags flutter on a still day, when there is no wind.
  • But I would like very much a blue hair-ribbon.
  • It is a sad story, but if you will try to restrain your tears I will tell you about it.
  • Finally, I invented a new Adjustable Post-hole, which I thought would make my fortune.
  • Here, then, I made my home; and although it is a lonely place I amuse myself making rustles and flutters, and so get along very nicely.
  • Another breathless climb brought our adventurers to a third landing where there was a rift in the mountain.
  • "What a horrid, savage beast!" exclaimed a piglet; "and after we've been such good friends, too, and played with one another!"
  • "It seems we were mistaken," declared a third, looking at the kitten timorously, "no one with such murderous desires should belong to our party, I'm sure."
  • There are certain things proper for a kitten to eat; but I never heard of a kitten eating a pig, under ANY cir'stances.
  • Let us all be a happy family and love one another.
  • "No one can love a person he's afraid of," asserted Dorothy.
  • I've taken a look at this place, and it's no fit country for real creatures to go to.
  • "It's dangerous," growled Jim, in a stubborn tone.
  • The patches of grass were splinters of wood, and where neither grass nor sawdust showed was a solid wooden flooring.
  • These were very numerous, for the place was thickly inhabited, and a large group of the queer people clustered near, gazing sharply upon the strangers who had emerged from the long spiral stairway.
  • The tops of their heads had no hair, but were carved into a variety of fantastic shapes, some having a row of points or balls around the top, others designs resembling flowers or vegetables, and still others having squares that looked like waffles cut criss-cross on their heads.
  • "Each of their arms is a wooden club," answered the little man, "and I'm sure the creatures mean mischief, by the looks of their eyes.
  • But the noise and clatter seemed as dreadful to them as Jim's heels, for all who were able swiftly turned and flew away to a great distance.
  • The others picked themselves up from the ground one by one and quickly rejoined their fellows, so for a moment the horse thought he had won the fight with ease.
  • "Those wooden things are impossible to hurt," he said, "and all the damage Jim has done to them is to knock a few splinters from their noses and ears.
  • They haven't defeated us yet, and Jim is worth a whole army.
  • They advanced in a great swarm, having been joined by many more of their kind, and they flew straight over Jim's head to where the others were standing.
  • The Wizard raised one of his revolvers and fired into the throng of his enemies, and the shot resounded like a clap of thunder in that silent place.
  • Some of the wooden beings fell flat upon the ground, where they quivered and trembled in every limb; but most of them managed to wheel and escape again to a distance.
  • The top of its head was carved into a crown and the Wizard's bullet had struck it exactly in the left eye, which was a hard wooden knot.
  • Before this crowned Gargoyle had recovered himself Zeb had wound a strap several times around its body, confining its wings and arms so that it could not move.
  • Then a few of them advanced until another shot from the Wizard's revolver made them retreat.
  • "But only for a time," replied the Wizard, shaking his head gloomily.
  • Even the kitten gave a dreadfully shrill scream and at the same time Jim the cab-horse neighed loudly.
  • This daunted the enemy for a time, but the defenders were soon out of breath.
  • The Wizard's sword-blade snapped into a dozen pieces at the first blow he struck against the wooden people.
  • The Gargoyles roughly pushed them into the opening, where there was a platform, and then flew away and left them.
  • As they had no wings the strangers could not fly away, and if they jumped down from such a height they would surely be killed.
  • "They are probably keeping us for some ceremony," the Wizard answered, reflectively; "but there is no doubt they intend to kill us as dead as possible in a short time."
  • From their platform a stair descended into the house, and the children and the Wizard explored it after lighting a lantern to show them the way.
  • Several stories of empty rooms rewarded their search, but nothing more; so after a time they came back to the platform again.
  • In this country, as in all others they had visited underneath the earth's surface, there was no night, a constant and strong light coming from some unknown source.
  • All people need rest, even if they are made of wood, and as there is no night here they select a certain time of the day in which to sleep or doze.
  • "She's gone out for a walk," said Jim, gruffly.
  • My school-teacher said so; and she knows a lot, Jim.
  • "To 'climb down' is sometimes used as a figure of speech," remarked the Wizard.
  • "Well, this was a figure of a cat," said Jim, "and she WENT down, anyhow, whether she climbed or crept."
  • "That," said Zeb, "explains why this house is used by them for a prison.
  • "Yes; it's a good way off, but I can see it," she replied.
  • "No you can't," remarked Jim, with a twinkle in his round eyes.
  • "Well, I'll climb up when I get back, then," said the boy, with a laugh.
  • They can hear a pin drop.
  • "I'm not going to drop a pin," said Zeb.
  • He had fastened one end of the strap to a wheel of the buggy, and now he let the line dangle over the side of the house.
  • Then together they crept away to enter the low doorway of a neighboring dwelling.
  • However, the Wizard went once more to his satchel--which seemed to contain a surprising variety of odds and ends--and brought out a spool of strong wire, by means of which they managed to fasten four of the wings to Jim's harness, two near his head and two near his tail.
  • They were a bit wiggley, but secure enough if only the harness held together.
  • These preparations had not consumed a great deal of time, but the sleeping Gargoyles were beginning to wake up and move around, and soon some of them would be hunting for their missing wings.
  • So the horse gave a groan, flopped its four wings all together, and flew away from the platform.
  • Dorothy was a little anxious about the success of their trip, for the way Jim arched his long neck and spread out his bony legs as he fluttered and floundered through the air was enough to make anybody nervous.
  • The main point, however, was that they flew, and flew swiftly, if a bit unevenly, toward the rock for which they had headed.
  • Our friends had a good start and were able to maintain it, for with their eight wings they could go just as fast as could the Gargoyles.
  • Then he poured over them all the kerosene oil that was left in his oil-can, and lighting a match set fire to the pile.
  • "That will prove a barrier for some time to come," said the little man, smiling pleasantly all over his wrinkled face at the success of their stratagem.
  • But come, my children; let us explore the mountain and discover which way we must go in order to escape from this cavern, which is getting to be almost as hot as a bake-oven.
  • A sort of inclined tunnel led upward for a way, and they found the floor of it both rough and steep.
  • A sort of inclined tunnel led upward for a way, and they found the floor of it both rough and steep.
  • Then a sudden turn brought them to a narrow gallery where the buggy could not pass.
  • "Why, it's a dragon!" he exclaimed.
  • But they've been very scarce for a few years and we usually have to be content with elephants or buffaloes, answered the creature, in a regretful tone.
  • Mother's about two thousand years old; but she carelessly lost track of her age a few centuries ago and skipped several hundreds.
  • She's a little fussy, you know, and afraid of growing old, being a widow and still in her prime.
  • Then, after a moment's thought, she asked: Are we friends or enemies?
  • There was a regretful accent in the creature's voice, and at the words all the other dragonettes sighed dismally.
  • Oh, she is sometimes gone for several weeks on her hunting trips, and if we were not tied we would crawl all over the mountain and fight with each other and get into a lot of mischief.
  • Mother usually knows what she is about, but she made a mistake this time; for you are sure to escape us unless you come too near, and you probably won't do that.
  • "You may be right," replied the Wizard, "but we're a little particular about associating with strangers.
  • "That is not a fair question to ask us," declared another dragonette.
  • But at length they came unexpectedly upon a huge rock that shut off the passage and blocked them from proceeding a single step farther.
  • This rock was separate from the rest of the mountain and was in motion, turning slowly around and around as if upon a pivot.
  • But they knew now that there was a means of escape and so waited patiently until the path appeared for the second time.
  • The children and the Wizard rushed across the moving rock and sprang into the passage beyond, landing safely though a little out of breath.
  • They heard a crunching, grinding sound, a loud snap, and the turn-table came to a stop with its broadest surface shutting off the path from which they had come.
  • But their journey was almost over, for in a short time they reached a small cave from which there was no further outlet.
  • "Almost on earth isn't being there," said the kitten, in a discontented tone.
  • "And there is no way to go back," added Zeb, with a low whistle of perplexity.
  • "Were you ever before shut up in a cave, far under the earth, with no way of getting out?" enquired the horse, seriously.
  • "What's wrong?" asked a piglet.
  • We've been in the dark quite a while, and you may as well explain what has happened.
  • "Well," said another piglet, "you are a wizard, are you not?"
  • "I could if I happened to be a real wizard," returned the master sadly.
  • But I'm not, my piggy-wees; I'm a humbug wizard.
  • Our friend Oz is merely a humbug wizard, for he once proved it to me.
  • But he can't wiz a single thing if he hasn't the tools and machinery to work with.
  • She's a friend of mine, for I met her in the Land of Ev, not long ago, and went to Oz with her.
  • After you went up in a balloon, and escaped us, I got back to Kansas by means of a pair of magical silver shoes.
  • Ozma has it; for its powers won't work in a common, ordinary country like the United States.
  • Of course; in just a jiffy.
  • "Of course; when it is four o'clock," she replied, with a laugh at his startled expression.
  • Is Billina a girl?
  • No; she's a yellow hen, and a great friend of mine.
  • "Your friends sound like a menagerie," remarked Zeb, uneasily.
  • The little man looked at his watch--a big silver one that he carried in his vest pocket.
  • They sat silently thinking for a time.
  • "Only one," replied Dorothy, "and he's a sawhorse."
  • Princess Ozma once brought him to life with a witch-powder, when she was a boy.
  • "Was Ozma once a boy?" asked Zeb, wonderingly.
  • Yes; a wicked witch enchanted her, so she could not rule her kingdom.
  • But she's a girl now, and the sweetest, loveliest girl in all the world.
  • "A sawhorse is a thing they saw boards on," remarked Jim, with a sniff.
  • "A sawhorse is a thing they saw boards on," remarked Jim, with a sniff.
  • One moment Dorothy sat beside them with the kitten in her lap, and a moment later the horse, the piglets, the Wizard and the boy were all that remained in the underground prison.
  • "I believe we will soon follow her," announced the Wizard, in a tone of great relief; "for I know something about the magic of the fairyland that is called the Land of Oz.
  • "Will it hurt?" asked the boy, in a voice that trembled a little.
  • It will all happen as quick as a wink.
  • The cab-horse gave a nervous start and Zeb began to rub his eyes to make sure he was not asleep.
  • For they were in the streets of a beautiful emerald-green city, bathed in a grateful green light that was especially pleasing to their eyes, and surrounded by merry faced people in gorgeous green-and-gold costumes of many extraordinary designs.
  • But I'm afraid you cannot rule the Emerald City, as you used to, because we now have a beautiful Princess whom everyone loves dearly.
  • "Yes," said the soldier; "but I shaved them off long ago, and since then I have risen from a private to be the Chief General of the Royal Armies."
  • It perplexed even Jellia Jamb, for a time, to know what to do with the animal.
  • "Do you mean that I'm a freak?" asked Jim, angrily.
  • This mollified Jim a little, and after some thought the green maiden decided to give the cab-horse a room in the palace, such a big building having many rooms that were seldom in use.
  • So Zeb unharnessed Jim, and several of the servants then led the horse around to the rear, where they selected a nice large apartment that he could have all to himself.
  • He knew the way to it, and a servant followed him, carrying his satchel.
  • Zeb was also escorted to a room--so grand and beautiful that he almost feared to sit in the chairs or lie upon the bed, lest he might dim their splendor.
  • Taken altogether, it was a dreadfully long name to weigh down a poor innocent child, and one of the hardest lessons I ever learned was to remember my own name.
  • When a young man I ran away from home and joined a circus.
  • I used to call myself a Wizard, and do tricks of ventriloquism.
  • I told them I was a Wizard, and showed them some easy tricks that amazed them; and when they saw the initials painted on the balloon they called me Oz.
  • "That is quite a history," said Ozma; "but there is a little more history about the Land of Oz that you do not seem to understand--perhaps for the reason that no one ever told it you.
  • Many years before you came here this Land was united under one Ruler, as it is now, and the Ruler's name was always 'Oz,' which means in our language 'Great and Good'; or, if the Ruler happened to be a woman, her name was always 'Ozma.'
  • One wicked witch named Mombi stole him and carried him away, keeping him as a prisoner.
  • "We owe a great deal to the Wonderful Wizard," continued the Princess, "for it was you who built this splendid Emerald City."
  • So, as you are now too old to wander abroad and work in a circus, I offer you a home here as long as you live.
  • It meant a good deal to him to secure a home like this.
  • "He's only a humbug Wizard, though," said Dorothy, smiling at him.
  • "And that is the safest kind of a Wizard to have," replied Ozma, promptly.
  • Just then a loud cackling was heard outside; and, when a servant threw open the door with a low bow, a yellow hen strutted in.
  • Dorothy sprang forward and caught the fluffy fowl in her arms, uttering at the same time a glad cry.
  • Around Billina's neck was a string of beautiful pearls, and on her legs were bracelets of emeralds.
  • She nestled herself comfortably in Dorothy's lap until the kitten gave a snarl of jealous anger and leaped up with a sharp claw fiercely bared to strike Billina a blow.
  • But the little girl gave the angry kitten such a severe cuff that it jumped down again without daring to scratch.
  • "You have queer friends, seems to me," replied the kitten, in a surly tone.
  • "Ah," said the Wizard; "I'm pleased to meet so distinguished a personage."
  • Jim accepted it as a mere detail, and at his command the attendants gave his coat a good rubbing, combed his mane and tail, and washed his hoofs and fetlocks.
  • Do you take me for a salamander?
  • They obeyed at once, and next served a fine large turbot on a silver platter, with drawn gravy poured over it.
  • "Fish!" cried Jim, with a sniff.
  • Do you take me for a tom-cat?
  • The servants were a little discouraged, but soon they brought in a great tray containing two dozen nicely roasted quail on toast.
  • Do you take me for a weasel?
  • "I'll make it a dinner dish," said Jim.
  • They soon mixed a tub of oatmeal with a little water, and Jim ate it with much relish.
  • Then the servants heaped a lot of rugs upon the floor and the old horse slept on the softest bed he had ever known in his life.
  • For goodness sake, what sort of a being are you?
  • "I'm a Sawhorse," replied the other.
  • "I do not doubt it," the Sawhorse observed, with a tone of pride.
  • But a rickety wooden thing like you has no right to be alive.
  • Ozma sprinkled me with a magic powder, and I just had to live.
  • Oh, not a real one, of course.
  • But I'm a splendid imitation of one.
  • Behold a real horse!
  • The wooden animal gave a start, and then examined the other intently.
  • "Is it possible that you are a Real Horse?" he murmured.
  • You do not know the relief of brushing away a fly that has bitten you, nor the delight of eating delicious food, nor the satisfaction of drawing a long breath of fresh, pure air.
  • But I am glad to meet a last a Real Horse.
  • To be called beautiful was a novelty in his experience.
  • Once in a while I get broken up some, but I am easily repaired and put in good order again.
  • And I never feel a break or a splinter in the least.
  • We've had a good many adventures together, Ozma and I, and she likes me.
  • The cab-horse was about to reply when suddenly he gave a start and a neigh of terror and stood trembling like a leaf.
  • One was an enormous Lion with clear, intelligent eyes, a tawney mane bushy and well kept, and a body like yellow plush.
  • But the Sawhorse introduced the stranger in a calm tone, saying:
  • This, noble Horse, is my friend the Cowardly Lion, who is the valiant King of the Forest, but at the same time a faithful vassal of Princess Ozma.
  • "Is not the Real Horse a beautiful animal?" asked the Sawhorse admiringly.
  • "That is doubtless a matter of taste," returned the Lion.
  • "And dreadfully tough," added the Hungry Tiger, in a sad voice.
  • "I'm glad of that," said Jim; "for I, also, have a conscience, and it tells me not to crush in your skull with a blow of my powerful hoof."
  • "He's a vegetarian," remarked the Tiger, as the horse began to munch the clover.
  • If I could eat grass I would not need a conscience, for nothing could then tempt me to devour babies and lambs.
  • As she entered the great hall a voice called out, in a rather harsh tone:
  • I was then for a time the Head of the finest Flying Machine that was ever known to exist, and we did many wonderful things.
  • Just then the girlish Ruler of Oz opened the door and greeted Dorothy with a good-morning kiss.
  • So don't let us keep it waiting a single minute.
  • After breakfast Ozma announced that she had ordered a holiday to be observed throughout the Emerald City, in honor of her visitors.
  • In the center was a large emerald-green star, and all over the four quarters were sewn spangles that glittered beautifully in the sunshine.
  • Then came Professor Woggle-Bug, with a group of students from the Royal College of Scientific Athletics.
  • The first thing the little humbug did was to produce a tiny white piglet from underneath his hat and pretend to pull it apart, making two.
  • This act he repeated until all of the nine tiny piglets were visible, and they were so glad to get out of his pocket that they ran around in a very lively manner.
  • In the afternoon they all went to a great field outside the city gates where the games were to be held.
  • There was a beautiful canopy for Ozma and her guests to sit under and watch the people run races and jump and wrestle.
  • Such a race would not be fair.
  • "Of course not," added Jim, with a touch of scorn; "those little wooden legs of yours are not half as long as my own."
  • The object of a race is to see who can win it--or at least that is what my excellent brains think.
  • "Once, when I was young," said Jim, "I was a race horse, and defeated all who dared run against me.
  • Why, I feel like a colt today, replied Jim.
  • I only wish there was a real horse here for me to race with.
  • I'd show the people a fine sight, I can tell you.
  • "I suppose I ought to give the wooden dummy a good start of me," growled Jim.
  • An instant later the Tiger crouched and launched its huge body through the air swift and resistless as a ball from a cannon.
  • He has won the race, and won it fairly; but what can a horse of flesh do against a tireless beast of wood?
  • "I ought to be a fairy," grumbled Jim, as he slowly drew the buggy home; "for to be just an ordinary horse in a fairy country is to be of no account whatever.
  • Jellia at once departed on the errand, and she was gone so long that they had almost forgotten her mission when the green robed maiden returned with a troubled face.
  • Hearing this, Dorothy and the Wizard exchanged startled glances, for they remembered how often Eureka had longed to eat a piglet.
  • But not a trace could they find of the tiny creature they sought.
  • "I don't b'lieve Eureka would do such a dreadful thing!" cried Dorothy, much distressed.
  • "I won't," answered the kitten, in a surly voice.
  • "I won't answer such a foolish question," asserted Eureka, with a snarl.
  • Sending for the Tin Woodman the Wizard took him into a corner and whispered:
  • So I intend to prove the kitten's innocence by a trick.
  • And now, at a signal from Ozma, the Woggle-Bug arose and addressed the jury.
  • "Your Royal Highness and Fellow Citizens," he began; "the small cat you see a prisoner before you is accused of the crime of first murdering and then eating our esteemed Ruler's fat piglet--or else first eating and then murdering it.
  • In either case a grave crime has been committed which deserves a grave punishment.
  • "Do you mean my kitten must be put in a grave?" asked Dorothy.
  • "Is this a trial of thoughts, or of kittens?" demanded the Woggle-Bug.
  • "The criminal who now sits before the court licking her paws," resumed the Woggle-Bug, "has long desired to unlawfully eat the fat piglet, which was no bigger than a mouse.
  • And finally she made a wicked plan to satisfy her depraved appetite for pork.
  • "Your Highness," cried the Woggle-Bug, appealing to Ozma, "have I a mind's eye, or haven't I?"
  • Then the Princess spoke in a stern voice:
  • If you can prove I'm guilty, I'll be willing to die nine times, but a mind's eye is no proof, because the Woggle-Bug has no mind to see with.
  • Would such a gentle animal be guilty of eating a fellow creature?
  • No; a thousand times, no!
  • Tell them it would be foolish for me to eat the piglet, because I had sense enough to know it would raise a row if I did.
  • But don't try to make out I'm too innocent to eat a fat piglet if I could do it and not be found out.
  • As for the jury, the members whispered to each other for a few minutes before they appointed their spokesperson.
  • "Your Highness," said he, "see how easy it is for a jury to be mistaken.
  • As the Princess held the white piglet in her arms and stroked its soft hair she said: Let Eureka out of the cage, for she is no longer a prisoner, but our good friend.
  • "In a room of the palace," he answered.
  • "I refuse to be free," cried the kitten, in a sharp voice, "unless the Wizard can do his trick with eight piglets.
  • At this everyone in the Throne Room suddenly became quiet, and the kitten continued, in a calm, mocking tone of voice:
  • I will confess that I intended to eat the little pig for my breakfast; so I crept into the room where it was kept while the Princess was dressing and hid myself under a chair.
  • Instead of keeping still, so I could eat him comfortably, he trembled so with fear that he fell off the table into a big vase that was standing on the floor.
  • The vase had a very small neck, and spread out at the top like a bowl.
  • "This is a fine country, and I like all the people that live in it," he told Dorothy.
  • So, if you can find a way to fix it, we'll be much obliged to you.
  • Then Dorothy wound up Tik-tok and he danced a jig to amuse the company, after which the Yellow Hen related some of her adventures with the Nome King in the Land of Ev.
  • Dorothy held Eureka in her arms and bade her friends a fond good-bye.
  • "Greeting her uncle and aunt in Kansas, by this time," returned Ozma, with a smile.
  • He gave a start and rubbed his eyes.
  • Jim was trotting along the well-known road, shaking his ears and whisking his tail with a contented motion.
  • "Why, in the world, Uncle," answered Zeb, with a laugh.
  • At a place where two roads crossed, they saw a tall gentleman coming to meet them.
  • "Do so, my child," said the Minister; "and I hope that when you grow up you will become a wise man and a great orator."
  • Pray, how shall I, a little lad, In speaking make a figure?
  • He grew up to become a famous man and one of our greatest orators.
  • Some of them thought that "Home" was a good subject.
  • A little girl said she would write about "Summer."
  • The next day, every pupil except one had written a composition.
  • He was only a child.
  • That is the way to write a composition.
  • Quite close to the barn was a garden.
  • And in the garden, Henry saw a turnip.
  • Before the half hour was ended he had written a very neat composition on his slate.
  • Many years after that, some funny little verses about Mr. Finney's turnip were printed in a newspaper.
  • Mr. Finney had a turnip, And it grew, and it grew; It grew behind the barn, And the turnip did no harm.
  • Two hundred years ago there lived in Boston a little boy whose name was Benjamin Franklin.
  • On the day that he was seven years old, his mother gave him a few pennies.
  • Boston is now a great city, but at that time it was only a little town.
  • Should he buy a pretty toy?
  • What a big family it was!
  • And the father was a poor man.
  • No wonder the lad had never owned a toy.
  • He had not gone far when he met a larger boy, who was blowing a whistle.
  • Oh, what a pretty sound it made!
  • "Well, it's a bargain," said the boy; and he gave the whistle to Benjamin, and took the pennies.
  • "See, mother," he said, "I have bought a whistle."
  • You've paid a dear price for this thing.
  • It's only a penny whistle, and a poor one at that.
  • "You might have bought half a dozen such whistles with the money I gave you," said his mother.
  • You are only a very little boy, and you will learn a great deal as you grow bigger.
  • The lesson you have learned to-day is never to pay too dear for a whistle.
  • Benjamin Franklin lived to be a very old man, but he never forgot that lesson.
  • He was a great thinker and a great doer, and with Washington he helped to make our country free.
  • In Scotland there once lived a poor shepherd whose name was James Hogg.
  • It was his business to take care of the sheep which belonged to a rich landholder by the Ettrick Water.
  • One dark night James Hogg was on the hilltop with a flock of seven hundred lambs.
  • Suddenly a storm came up.
  • They had walked a mile or two towards home, when they came to the edge of a narrow and deep ravine.
  • The men hurried down and soon saw that the flock was a large one.
  • By some means, however, he learned to read; and after that he loved nothing so much as a good book.
  • Once upon a time there was a famous Arab whose name was Al Mansur.
  • Sometimes, if a poem was very pleasing, he gave the poet a prize.
  • One day a poet whose name was Thalibi [Footnote: Thal i'bi.] came to the caliph and recited a long poem.
  • There go a hundred gold pieces all at once.
  • He was the builder of a famous and beautiful city called Bagdad.
  • It was a beautiful land lying on both sides of the wonderful river Nile.
  • He sent out among the poor people of the city and found two little babies who had never heard a word spoken.
  • He gave these to a shepherd and ordered him to bring them up among his sheep, far from the homes of men.
  • He took the children far away to a green valley where his flocks were feeding.
  • One day the caliph, Haroun-al-Raschid, [Footnote: Haroun-al-Raschid (_pro._ ha roon' al rash'id).] made a great feast.
  • All the noblest men of Persia [Footnote: Per'sia.] and Arabia [Footnote: A ra'bi a.] were there.
  • All the noblest men of Persia [Footnote: Per'sia.] and Arabia [Footnote: A ra'bi a.] were there.
  • In a wonderful book, called "The Arabian Nights," there are many interesting stories about him.
  • Some of them camped in Charlestown, [Footnote: Charles'town.] a village near Boston.
  • Among the watchers at Charlestown was a brave young man named Paul Revere.
  • One day a friend of his who lived in Boston came to see him.
  • I will stir up all the farmers between here and Concord, and those fellows will have a hot time of it.
  • Watch, and as soon as the soldiers are ready to start, hang a lantern in the tower of the old North Church.
  • The town seemed very still; but now and then he could hear the beating of a drum or the shouting of some soldier.
  • All at once a light flashed out from the tower.
  • Like a bird let loose, his horse leaped forward.
  • The people for miles around were roused as though a fire were raging.
  • At Lexington, not far from Concord, there was a sharp fight in which several men were killed.
  • In France there once lived a famous man who was known as the Marquis de Lafayette. When he was a little boy his mother called him Gilbert.
  • His home was in the country not far from a great forest.
  • Often, when he was a little lad, he took long walks among the trees with his mother.
  • One day word came that a savage wolf had been seen in the forest.
  • Men said that it was a very large wolf and that it had killed some of the farmers' sheep.
  • "Shall we take a walk this morning?" asked his mother.
  • The mother sat down in the shade of a tree and began to read in a new book which she had bought the day before.
  • He looked eagerly around, but saw only a squirrel frisking among the trees and a rabbit hopping across the road.
  • Soon he came to a wilder place.
  • He pushed the bushes aside and went a little farther.
  • He could see a green open space just beyond; and then the woods seemed to be thicker and darker.
  • It was not a wolf.
  • It was only a pet calf that had come there to browse among the bushes.
  • You faced what you thought was a great danger, and you were not afraid.
  • His name is remembered in our country as that of a brave and noble man.
  • One carried a gun, one had a pitchfork, and the third had an ax.
  • "She's been caught in a trap some time, I guess," said Putnam.
  • He says she was a monster; and she was running straight toward the hills with a little lamb in her mouth.
  • They say she has a family of young wolves up there; and that is why she kills so many lambs.
  • "Let us call the neighbors together and have a grand wolf hunt to- morrow," said Putnam.
  • They tracked the beast to the mouth of a cave, far up on the hills.
  • The opening to the cave was only a narrow hole between two rocks.
  • Then he tied a rope around his waist and said to his friends, Take hold of the other end, boys.
  • The wolf gave a low growl and made ready to meet him.
  • Putnam gave the rope a quick jerk and his friends pulled him out in great haste.
  • There was not a sound inside of the cave.
  • After a while, however, he gave the rope a quick jerk.
  • This happened when Israel Putnam was a young man.
  • A blacksmith was shoeing a horse.
  • A blacksmith was shoeing a horse.
  • "Do you think there will be a battle?" asked the blacksmith.
  • From a bar of iron he made four horseshoes.
  • "I have only six nails," he said, "and it will take a little time to hammer out ten more."
  • The horse was lamed on a rock.
  • He shouted, A horse!
  • My kingdom for a horse.
  • For the want of a nail the shoe was lost; For the want of a shoe the horse was lost; For the want of a horse the battle was lost; For the failure of battle the kingdom was lost;-- And all for the want of a horseshoe nail.
  • Henry, the Duke of Richmond, made war upon him and defeated him in a great battle.
  • If a man was obliged to go from one city to another, he often rode on horseback.
  • Instead of a trunk for his clothing, he carried a pair of saddlebags.
  • Instead of sitting at his ease in a parlor car, he went jolting along through mud and mire, exposed to wind and weather.
  • One day some men were sitting by the door of a hotel in Baltimore.
  • As they looked down the street they saw a horseman coming.
  • "Oh, any kind of a place will suit him," answered the landlord.
  • He was dressed plainly, and, with his reddish-brown hair and mud-bespattered face, looked like a hard- working countryman just in from the backwoods.
  • "Have you a room here for me?" he asked the landlord.
  • Now the landlord prided himself upon keeping a first-class hotel, and he feared that his guests would not like the rough-looking traveler.
  • About an hour later, a well-dressed gentleman came into the hotel and said, "I wish to see Mr. Jefferson."
  • Did he have reddish-brown hair, and did he ride a gray horse?
  • A farmer is as good as any other man; and where there's no room for a farmer, there can be no room for me.
  • A farmer is as good as any other man; and where there's no room for a farmer, there can be no room for me.
  • One morning there was a loud knock at Dean Swift's door.
  • A few days afterward the man came again.
  • This time he brought a partridge.
  • Now, Mr. Boyle was a sporting neighbor who spent a good deal of time in shooting.
  • He was a great admirer of Dean Swift, and took pleasure in sending him presents of game.
  • The third time, the man brought a quail.
  • "Here's a rabbit from Mr. Boyle," said the man.
  • "See here," said the Dean in a stern voice, "that is not the way to deliver a message here.
  • I will go out and make believe that I am bringing him a present.
  • I will show you how a messenger ought to behave.
  • Then, taking out his purse, he offered the Dean a shilling.
  • And the Dean also took the hint; for he always remembered to give the man a "tip" for his trouble.
  • Jonathan Swift, often called Dean Swift, was famous as a writer on many subjects.
  • "I should like to be a sailor," said George Washington.
  • And, by and by, I might become the captain of a ship.
  • They said that a bright boy like George would not long be a common sailor.
  • He would soon become a captain and then perhaps a great admiral.
  • George's brothers knew the master of a trading ship who was getting ready to sail to England.
  • He agreed to take the boy with him and teach him how to be a good sailor.
  • His uncle had written her a letter saying:
  • If he begins as a common sailor, he will never be anything else.
  • A boat was at the landing, ready to take him on board.
  • He stood still for a moment, thinking.
  • One day a traveler was walking through a part of Italy where a great many sheep were pasturing.
  • Near the top of a hill he saw a little shepherd boy who was lying on the ground while a flock of sheep and lambs were grazing around him.
  • As he came nearer he saw that the boy held a charred stick in his hand, with which he was drawing something on a flat rock.
  • It was the picture of a sheep, and it was drawn so well that the stranger was filled with astonishment.
  • Bondone was surprised when Cimabue offered to take his little boy to Florence and teach him to be a great painter.
  • One day Cimabue was painting the picture of a man's face.
  • In the morning, when he looked at the picture, he saw a fly on the man's nose.
  • It was only a painted fly.
  • Little Giotto came out from a corner, trembling and ashamed.
  • It was a good place for a fly, and I never thought of spoiling your picture.
  • "There are few men who can draw so good a picture of a fly," he said.
  • There was once a painter whose name was Zeuxis. He could paint pictures so life-like that they were mistaken for the real things which they represented.
  • "I am the only man in the world who can paint a picture so true to life," he said.
  • So he painted a beautiful picture which seemed to be covered with a curtain.
  • I deceived only the birds, but you have deceived me, a painter.
  • It was that of a boy carrying a basket of ripe red cherries.
  • "Ah! this picture is a failure," he said.
  • Well, I have here a puzzle which I think will test your wisdom.
  • The other is made of artificial flowers, shaped and colored by a skillful artist.
  • He remembered that close by his window there was a climbing vine filled with beautiful sweet flowers.
  • A long time ago there lived, in Pennsylvania, a little boy whose name was Benjamin West.
  • A long time ago there lived, in Pennsylvania, a little boy whose name was Benjamin West.
  • But he had never seen any pictures except a few small ones in a book.
  • One day Benjamin's mother had to go to a neighbor's on some errand.
  • The baby was asleep in her cradle, and he must not make a noise and waken her.
  • He began to feel a little lonesome.
  • A fly lighted on the baby's cheek, and he brushed it away.
  • Then he thought what a pretty picture might be made of his sister's sweet face and little hands.
  • He had no paper, but he knew where there was a smooth board.
  • He had no pencil, but there was a piece of black charcoal on the hearth.
  • "It's only a picture of the baby, mother," he said.
  • A picture of the baby!
  • "Benjamin, how did thee learn to draw such a picture?" she asked.
  • Does thee suppose that it is very wrong for Benjamin to do such a thing?
  • Several weeks afterward, there came a visitor to the home of the Wests.
  • It was a good old Friend, whom everybody loved--a-white-haired, pleasant-faced minister, whose words were always wise.
  • The good minister looked at the picture for a long time.
  • This child has a wonderful gift.
  • When Andrew Jackson was a little boy he lived with his mother in South Carolina.
  • Andrew Jackson was then a tall white-haired boy, thirteen years old.
  • He was not old enough to be a soldier, but he could be a scout--and a good scout he was.
  • He was very tall--as tall as a man.
  • He is a brave boy.
  • He deserves to be treated as a gentleman.
  • Andrew was not held long as a prisoner.
  • In time, Andrew Jackson became a very great man.
  • When Daniel Webster was a child he lived in the country, far from any city.
  • He soon learned all that his teacher could teach; for he was bright and quick, and had a good memory.
  • His father hoped that Daniel would grow up to be a wise and famous man.
  • The academy at Exeter was a famous school for preparing boys for college.
  • It is still a famous school.
  • One was Mr. Webster's horse; the other was an old gray nag with a lady's sidesaddle on its back.
  • But I don't want a sidesaddle.
  • I'm not a lady.
  • But our neighbor, Johnson, is sending the nag to Exeter for the use of a lady who is to ride back with me.
  • He does me a favor by allowing you to ride on the animal, and I do him a favor by taking care of it.
  • But won't it look rather funny for me to ride to Exeter on a sidesaddle?
  • Daniel Webster lived to become a famous orator and a great statesman.
  • Then the master thought of a plan.
  • "Children," he said, "we are going to play a new game.
  • "What will the punishment be, Mr. Johnson?" asked a bold, bad boy.
  • "A good thrashing," answered the master.
  • Mary looked around and saw Samuel Miller asking his neighbor for a pencil, and Samuel was called.
  • The other girls felt sorry that she should suffer for so small a fault.
  • Everybody was astonished, for that boy was the best scholar in the school, and he had never been known to break a rule.
  • It lacked only half a minute now.
  • Elihu Burritt was a poor boy who was determined to learn.
  • He worked many years as a blacksmith and studied books whenever he had a spare moment.
  • A thousand years ago boys and girls did not learn to read.
  • Books were very scarce and very precious, and only a few men could read them.
  • Each book was written with a pen or a brush.
  • A good book would sometimes cost as much as a good house.
  • A good book would sometimes cost as much as a good house.
  • There was one such king who had four sons, Ethelbald, Ethelbert, Ethelred, and Alfred. The three older boys were sturdy, half-grown lads; the youngest, Alfred, was a slender, fair-haired child.
  • One day when they were with their mother, she showed them a wonderful book that some rich friend had given her.
  • Now I have a mind to give this book to one of you
  • "I am sure I would rather have a good bow with arrows" said Ethelred.
  • "And I would rather have a young hawk that has been trained to hunt" said Ethelbert.
  • "If I were a priest or a monk" said Ethelbald, "I would learn to read.
  • But I am a prince, and it is foolish for princes to waste their time with such things.
  • A few weeks passed by.
  • Then, one morning, Alfred went into his mother's room with a smiling, joyous face.
  • And every day since you showed me the book, he has given me a lesson.
  • He was a very little boy, but before he was three years old he could read quite well.
  • Long, long ago, there lived in Persia a little prince whose name was Cyrus.
  • Although his father was a king, Cyrus was brought up like the son of a common man.
  • He slept on a hard bed.
  • He therefore gave him many beautiful gifts and everything that could please a prince.
  • One day King Astyages planned to make a great feast for the lad.
  • The king's cupbearer, Sarcas, was very much offended because he was not given a share of the feast.
  • He thinks that he makes a fine figure when he waits on you.
  • He saw that Cyrus had a will of his own, and this pleased him very much.
  • He carried a white napkin upon his arm, and held the cup of wine very daintily with three of his fingers.
  • It is the rule and custom of the cupbearer to pour out a little of the wine and taste it before handing the cup to me.
  • After the guests had drunk quite a little of it, they began to talk foolishly and sing loudly; and some of them went to sleep.
  • When Cyrus became a man, he succeeded his father as king of Persia; he also succeeded his grandfather Astyages as king of Media.
  • He was a very wise and powerful ruler, and he made his country the greatest of any that was then known.
  • There was a caliph of Persia whose name was Al Mamoun. He had two sons whom he wished to become honest and noble men.
  • So he employed a wise man whose name was Al Farra to be their teacher.
  • When Otanes was twelve years old, his parents wished to send him to a distant city to study in a famous school that was there.
  • It would be a long journey and a dangerous one.
  • So it was arranged that the boy should travel with a small company of merchants who were going to the same place.
  • Suddenly, towards evening, a band of robbers swooped down upon them.
  • He had never heard of a boy with so much money as that.
  • "That is a good story" he said.
  • "You are a brave lad to be joking with robbers" said the man; and he also hurried on to a more promising field.
  • No one would have thought that a child like you had gold about him.
  • "If I had answered your questions differently, I should have told a lie," said Otanes; "and none but cowards tell lies"
  • He thought of the number of times that he himself had been a coward.
  • At last, far in the East, he came to a land of which he had never heard.
  • "Very well, then," said the shah, "stay with me a little while and observe what you can."
  • "Well, it is this way," answered the man: "I bought a piece of ground from this neighbor of mine, and paid him a fair price for it.
  • Yesterday, when I was digging in it, I found a box full of gold and jewels.
  • The shah sat silent for a while, as if in thought.
  • Then he said to the first man, "Have you a son?"
  • "Yes, a young man of promise," was the answer.
  • The shah turned to the second man: "Have you a daughter?"
  • "I have," answered the man, "--a beautiful girl."
  • Let the son marry the daughter, if both agree, and give them the treasure as a wedding portion.
  • "Then let me ask you a question," said the shah.
  • He had given them a great deal of trouble, and they wished to destroy him.
  • On a mountain near their city, there was a narrow chasm or hole in the rocks.
  • So a party of soldiers led him up into the mountain and placed him on the edge of the yawning hole in the rocks.
  • Suddenly he was startled by a noise close by him.
  • He watched quietly, and soon saw a large fox coming towards him.
  • It ran into a narrow cleft which he had not seen before, and then through a long, dark passage which was barely large enough for a man's body.
  • At last he saw a ray of light far ahead of him.
  • In a short time he was free and in the open air.
  • One day he was in the midst of a great battle.
  • He called to one of his officers and bade him sit down and write a short order for him.
  • The officer began to write, but just as he finished the first word, a bomb came through the roof of the house and struck the floor close by him.
  • There was a great famine in Rome.
  • Let it be a free gift to them from the city.
  • Soon, at the head of a very great army, he marched toward the city which had once been his home.
  • Give us a few days to learn what sort of laws you will make for us, and then we will say whether we can submit to them or not.
  • Behind them followed a long procession of the women of Rome.
  • For a long time his mother pleaded with him.
  • For a long time his wife begged him to be merciful.
  • There was a ship just ready to sail for Corinth, and the captain agreed to take him as a passenger.
  • The captain himself had been a robber.
  • When they heard that Arion had a large sum of money with him they began to make plans to get it.
  • He took his stand on the forward deck, while the robber sailors stood in a half circle before him, anxious to listen to his song.
  • Then he sang a wonderful song, so sweet, so lively, so touching, that many of the sailors were moved to tears.
  • In a short time they reached Corinth in safety, and the king sent an officer to bring the captain and his men to the palace.
  • He has a mind to spend the rest of his life in that country.
  • Old story-tellers say that he alighted on the back of a large fish, called a dolphin, which had been charmed by his music and was swimming near the ship.
  • Other people think that the dolphin which saved Arion was not a fish, but a ship named the _Dolphin_.
  • They say that Arion, being a good swimmer, kept himself afloat until this ship happened to pass by and rescued him from the waves.
  • The name of Arion is still remembered as that of a most wonderful musician.
  • He lived more than seven hundred years ago in a quaint little town of Italy.
  • Once when a boy gave him a pair of doves which he had snared, St. Francis had a nest made for them, and the mother bird laid her eggs in it.
  • By and by, the eggs hatched, and a nestful of young doves grew up.
  • A long time ago there lived a poor slave whose name was Aesop. He was a small man with a large head and long arms.
  • A long time ago there lived a poor slave whose name was Aesop. He was a small man with a large head and long arms.
  • When Aesop was about twenty years old his master lost a great deal of money and was obliged to sell his slaves.
  • To do this, he had to take them to a large city where there was a slave market.
  • A number of bundles were made up for them to carry.
  • "Aesop is a wise fellow," said his master.
  • The man who buys him must pay a high price.
  • One was a fine gardener; another could take care of horses; a third was a good cook; a fourth could manage a household.
  • An old Cat was in a fair way to kill all the Mice in the barn.
  • Hang a bell to the Cat's neck.
  • The sun rose bright and fair, and the morning was without a cloud.
  • There was not a breath of wind to stir the young leaves on the trees.
  • A black cloud seemed to cover the earth.
  • "I move that we adjourn," said a third.
  • Then with his strong face aglow in their feeble light, he made a speech in favor of a law to help poor fishermen.
  • The people of Connecticut still remember Abraham Davenport, because he was a wise judge and a brave lawmaker.
  • The poet Whittier has written a poem about him, which you will like to hear.
  • When night came on he stopped at a pleasant roadside inn and asked for lodging.
  • A fine supper was prepared, and the innkeeper himself waited upon his guest.
  • But his surly guest said scarcely a word.
  • In the morning a good breakfast was served, and then Mr. Randolph made ready to start on his journey.
  • His horse was led to the door, and a servant helped him to mount it.
  • He paused for a while.
  • "Mr. Randolph," answered the innkeeper, "you have paid your bill and don't owe me a cent.
  • He was famous as a lawyer and statesman.
  • He was a member of Congress for many years, and was noted for his odd manners and strong self- will.
  • He was big and strong and soon became a fine sailor.
  • "I would rather live alone on a desert island than be a sailor on this ship," he said.
  • The very next day they came in sight of a little green island.
  • Give me a few common tools and some food, and I will do well enough, said the sailor.
  • So they filled a small boat with the things that he would need the most--an ax, a hoe, a kettle, and some other things.
  • He built him a little hut for shelter at night and in stormy weather.
  • He planted a small garden.
  • Then, to his great joy, a ship came near and anchored in the little harbor.
  • So he sat down and wrote a wonderful story, which he called "The Adventures of Robinson Crusoe."
  • When only a child he liked to stand by the river and see the ships sailing past.
  • "Oh, I wish I could be a sailor!" he said.
  • As he grew up, his father wished him to learn a trade.
  • "No, no, I am going to be a sailor; I am going to see the world" he said.
  • His mother said to him: A sailor's life is a hard life.
  • His mother said to him: A sailor's life is a hard life.
  • I am going to be a sailor and nothing else.
  • A sailor's life is indeed a hard life.
  • A sailor's life is indeed a hard life.
  • One day there was a great storm.
  • It was a small island, and there was no one living on it.
  • For a long time Robinson Crusoe was all alone.
  • He had only a dog and some cats to keep him company.
  • Then he tamed a parrot and some goats.
  • He built a house of some sticks and vines.
  • He made a boat for himself.
  • He did a great many things.
  • At last a ship happened to pass that way and Robinson was taken on board.
  • Like other kings, he lived in a beautiful palace and had many officers and servants to wait upon him.
  • Among the servants there was a little page whose name was Carl.
  • The king was about to waken him roughly, when he saw a piece of paper on the floor beside him.
  • It was a letter from the page's mother:--
  • _Dearest Carl; You are a good boy to send me all your wages, for now I can pay the rent and buy some warm clothing for your little sister.
  • After a while he rang the bell again, very loudly.
  • Carl awoke with a start, and came quickly to answer the call.
  • He had fought a battle with his enemies, the English.
  • Late one evening he came to a little farmhouse in a lonely valley.
  • A woman was sitting alone by the fire.
  • "May a poor traveler find rest and shelter here for the night?" he asked.
  • Suddenly a great noise was heard outside.
  • They heard the tramping of horses and the voices of a number of men.
  • The door was thrown open and he saw a hundred brave men, all ready to give him aid.
  • If you have a mind to make haste, we may surprise them.
  • So he raised a great army and made war against other countries.
  • For a long time he wandered in fear from place to place.
  • One day he was lying under a tree, thinking of his misfortunes.
  • He had now been a wanderer for twenty days.
  • The ant was carrying a grain of wheat as large as itself.
  • As Tamerlane looked, he saw that there was a hole in the tree only a little way above, and that this was the home of the ant.
  • "You are a brave fellow, Mr. Ant," he said; "but you have a heavy load to carry."
  • A second time it tried to carry its load up the rough trunk of the tree, and a second time it failed.
  • A second time it tried to carry its load up the rough trunk of the tree, and a second time it failed.
  • It tried three times, four times, a dozen times, twenty times--but always with the same result.
  • Slowly, one little step at a time, it crept up across the rough place where it had slipped and fallen so often.
  • You have taught me a lesson.
  • On his arm he carried a small basket.
  • "I wish to get a fowl for to-morrow's dinner," he said.
  • The market man showed him a fat turkey, plump and white and ready for roasting.
  • The market man wrapped a paper round it and put it in the basket.
  • Just then a young man stepped up.
  • He was dressed in fine style and carried a small cane.
  • Fancy me carrying a turkey along the street! said the young gentleman; and he began to grow very angry.
  • "He wished to teach you a lesson," answered the market man.
  • More than a hundred years ago, two boys were fishing in a small river.
  • They sat in a heavy flat-bottomed boat, each holding a long, crooked rod in his hands and eagerly waiting for "a bite."
  • When they wanted to move the boat from one place to another they had to pole it; that is, they pushed against a long pole, the lower end of which reached the bottom of the stream.
  • "This is slow work, Robert," said the older of the boys as they were poling up the river to a new fishing place.
  • The old boat creeps over the water no faster than a snail.
  • I think there ought to be some better way of moving a boat.
  • "Yes, there is a better way, and that is by rowing," said Christopher.
  • "Well, I can make some oars," said Robert; "but I think there ought to be still another and a better way.
  • I am going to find such a way if I can.
  • The next day Robert's aunt heard a great pounding and sawing in her woodshed.
  • "Oh, I have a plan for making a boat move without poling it or rowing it," he answered.
  • After a great deal of tinkering and trying, they did succeed in making two paddle wheels.
  • The rod was bent in the middle so that it could be turned as with a crank.
  • When the work was finished, the old fishing boat looked rather odd, with a paddle wheel on each side which dipped just a few inches into the water.
  • He took something like an oarlock from his pocket and fastened it to the stern of the boat; then with a paddle which worked in this oarlock one of the boys could guide the boat while the other turned the paddle wheels.
  • That night when Christopher went home he had a wonderful story to tell.
  • When Robert Fulton became a man, he did not forget his experiment with the old fishing boat.
  • He kept on, planning and thinking and working, until at last he succeeded in making a boat with paddle wheels that could be run by steam.
  • There was once a caliph of Cordova whose name was Al Mansour.
  • One day a strange merchant came to him with some diamonds and pearls which he had brought from beyond the sea.
  • The caliph was so well pleased with these jewels that he bought them and paid the merchant a large sum of money.
  • The merchant put the gold in a bag of purple silk which he tied to his belt underneath his long cloak.
  • As the merchant was walking along, he came to a river that flowed gently between green and shady banks.
  • Suddenly he heard a rustling noise behind him.
  • A year passed by and then the merchant appeared once more before Al Mansour.
  • A few said that there was one man in their neighborhood who seemed to have had some sort of good luck.
  • This man was a gardener.
  • A year ago he was so poor that he had scarcely clothes for his back.
  • Both he and his family dressed well; they had plenty to eat; he had even bought a horse to help him carry his produce to market.
  • The gardener answered: A year ago, as I was spading in my garden, I saw something fall at the foot of a palm tree.
  • The gardener answered: A year ago, as I was spading in my garden, I saw something fall at the foot of a palm tree.
  • I ran to pick it up and was surprised to find that it was a bag full of bright gold pieces.
  • "There is nothing lacking," he said, "but the ten pieces he has told you about; and I will give him these as a reward."
  • In England there was once a famous abbey, called Whitby.
  • The land around it was rugged, with only a few fields in the midst of a vast forest.
  • It was a place where good people, and timid, helpless people could find shelter in time of war.
  • "Who will sing us a song?" said the master woodman as he threw a fresh log upon the fire.
  • "Yes, a song! a song!" shouted some of the others.
  • Let us have a good old song that will help to keep us warm.
  • Suppose we each sing a song in turn.
  • So he sat there trembling and afraid; for he was a timid, bashful man and did not like to be noticed.
  • At last, just as the blacksmith was in the midst of a stirring song, he rose quietly and went out into the darkness.
  • He soon found a warm corner, and there he lay down, covering himself with the straw.
  • A song from Caedmon!
  • He thought that a wonderful light was shining around him.
  • "Surely," said the abbess, "this is a poem, most sweet, most true, most beautiful.
  • So she called her clerk, who was a scholar, and bade him write the song, word for word, as it came from Caedmon's lips.
  • In the Far East there was once a prince whose name was Gautama.
  • It was the wish of his father and mother that every day of his life should be a day of perfect happiness.
  • So this prince grew up to be a young man, tall and fair and graceful.
  • But one day after he had become a man, he said: Tell me about the great world which, you say, lies outside of these palace walls.
  • It must be a beautiful and happy place; and I wish to know all about it.
  • "Yes, it is a beautiful place," was the answer.
  • Soon the carriage turned into another street--a street less carefully guarded.
  • But suddenly, at a narrow place, they met a very old man, hobbling slowly along over the stony way.
  • Why do his legs tremble under him as he walks, leaning upon a stick?
  • By the door of one of these a sick man was lying upon a couch, helpless and pale.
  • Soon they saw a company of men toiling by the roadside.
  • At one end of the room there was a big fireplace, where the mother did the cooking.
  • And in the middle was a rough table with benches around it instead of chairs.
  • He might be seen every day with a bag of charcoal on his back, carrying it to some of his customers.
  • "There is to be a great feast at the queen's palace to-night," said the mother."
  • Throw on some chips and make a blaze.
  • They did so, and as the flames lighted up the room, they saw their father enter with a child in his arms.
  • But first get a blanket and warm it, quick.
  • "What a beautiful child!" said the mother, as she hurried to do his bidding.
  • "_My little friend!_" said the child with a sneer.
  • Then he said, "Your house is a very poor place, I think."
  • But if I had not helped you, you would have been in a worse place.
  • Wait till he rests a while, and then he'll be in a better humor.
  • Well, as I was hurrying along, I heard a great splash, as though something had fallen into the pool by the fountain.
  • I thought of the big fire in the queen's kitchen, and knew that the cook would never allow a half-drowned child to be carried into that fine place.
  • The mother gave each a tin plate and a wooden spoon, and then helped them all to boiled beans.
  • The father cut slices from a loaf of brown bread.
  • They were just rising from the table when they heard a great noise in the street.
  • Then there was a knock at the door.
  • In a few minutes the room was filled with gentlemen.
  • A tall man who wore a long red cloak seemed to be the leader of the company.
  • A tall man who wore a long red cloak seemed to be the leader of the company.
  • He said to a soldier who stood at the door, "Tell your story again."
  • This charcoal man, whom I know very well, ran past me with a child in his arms.
  • You shall have money to buy a larger house and to send your boys to school.
  • "Think what your mother would say if she saw you in the clothes of a poor man's son." said the cardinal.
  • One day King Henry the Fourth of France was hunting in a large forest.
  • As he came out of the forest he saw a little boy by the roadside, who seemed to be watching for some one.
  • "They say that King Henry always has a number of men with him," said the boy; "how shall I know which is he?"
  • Soon they came into the main road where a number of the king's men were waiting.
  • One morning, long ago, a merchant of Miletus [Footnote: Mile'tus.] was walking along the seashore.
  • The merchant felt sure that the fishermen were having a good haul.
  • The fishermen talked in low tones with one another for a little while, and then one said, It's a bargain.
  • In a few minutes the big net was pulled up out of the water.
  • There was not a fish in it.
  • But it held a beautiful golden tripod that was worth more than a thousand fishes.
  • They talked and wrangled a long time and could not agree.
  • "This is a very important question," he said.
  • So the governor sent a messenger to Delphi to ask the oracle what should be done with the tripod.
  • He taught, also, that a friend is the greatest blessing that any one can have.
  • He was a poor man and had no wish to be rich.
  • He was a brave soldier and a wise teacher.
  • "It is well," said he, "that neither a merchant nor a fisherman shall have it; for such men think only of their business and care really nothing for beauty."
  • I should be delighted to own so beautiful a piece of workmanship, but I know I am not worthy.
  • When he heard that some men had come to Corinth with a very costly golden tripod, he had them brought before him.
  • Do you expect to find any man in Corinth who deserves so rich a gift?
  • They learned that Chilon was a very quiet man, that he never spoke about himself, and that he spent all his time in trying to make his country great and strong and happy.
  • "We have here a very beautiful tripod," they said.
  • "You have made a mistake," said Chilon.
  • But nowhere in it was there even a hint that it might not be possible.
  • They may have missed on specifics (such as each of us owning a personal jet pack and a flying car) but in general were dead-on.
  • Not just a little better, but gloriously and fantastically better.
  • Whether you are rich or poor, live in the developed world or the developing world, life today is better and easier than it was a century ago by virtually any measure.
  • I am not saying we live in a utopia.
  • We have, in fact, envisioned a better world and have made it happen.
  • But I can see a path.
  • And not just a path, but a well-lit, eight-lane highway.
  • I am also a historian with a full understanding of how poverty, disease, ignorance, famine, and war have dominated life on this planet.
  • Could you have foreseen that the advent of a technology called "air conditioning" in homes would alter the social fabric of the nation?
  • The first error is to assert that history unfolds in a basically linear fashion, that there is a fundamental continuity between the past, present, and future.
  • They didn't foresee the baby boom brought about by a new post-war prosperity.
  • A wild-eyed, crazed techno-optimist of the nineteenth century concluded that in fifty years there would be a telephone in every town in America.
  • A wild-eyed, crazed techno-optimist of the nineteenth century concluded that in fifty years there would be a telephone in every town in America.
  • These are easy to spot: They rely on huge conceptual leaps without a framework to support them.
  • A third way to predict the future that I believe is reliable rejects both the slavish following of the straight line and the purely speculative approach.
  • However, I often have thought that a second sentence should follow: "Also, those who do know history are doomed to repeat it."
  • When we look at this record of the choices of people, we see a wide range of behaviors.
  • Why is it only described as a mechanical device divorced from any purpose?
  • I submit that the Internet is not defined in that way because it is a technology without an implicit purpose.
  • This is not a shortcoming of our imaginations but rather a simple reality.
  • It took a decade or two for the new medium to be seen in light of itself, not just in terms of what it displaced.
  • But it is the biggest, best store ever, where you can buy anything from anywhere, based on reviews by other buyers, at a discount, and have it gift wrapped, engraved, altered, drop-shipped, and probably delivered by tomorrow.
  • What's more, the Internet can be a fact checker, post office, Rolodex, Yellow Pages, White Pages, game board, garage sale, university, movie theater, jukebox, matchmaking service, travel agent, photo album, bank, support group ...
  • This is not merely a linguistic distinction.
  • My car has a CD player.
  • But my car is not a CD player, GPS navigation system, or air conditioner.
  • The Internet does not, like the car, have a single essence.
  • When you hear about a new company and your response is, "Why in the world would anyone want to do that?" it will be because there is no offline corollary.
  • And that leads us to a critical question: Who decides what we will make the Internet do?
  • When it comes to starting a new business, nothing that previously existed can rival the Internet in terms of both ease of entry and breadth of potential.
  • Let's say Linda has come up with a pretty interesting idea: A social network for couples.
  • Let's say Linda has come up with a pretty interesting idea: A social network for couples.
  • I have a page about me.
  • What if the basic unit was a couple, a relationship, and what if that relationship had an identity?
  • But Linda decides to give it a try.
  • She hires a contract programmer in Russia for $3000 to code it and advertises on Craig's List for a designer who will work for some stock.
  • She gets web hosting set up for the princely sum of $30 a month.
  • She wants to do business as a limited liability company, so she creates an LLC online for $200.
  • She creates premium services on her site that cost just $9.95 a year that include a number of additional features and virtual goods.
  • A friend of hers who is a florist asks if she can advertise on the site.
  • A friend of hers who is a florist asks if she can advertise on the site.
  • Linda gets the idea to call Facebook and see if she can advertise to people who change their status to "In a relationship."
  • She drops $300 on Google ads before realizing it might not be a great fit.
  • Today, success still requires good execution, but the larger question is: "Can you discover and fulfill a hitherto-unknown, latent desire in people that the Internet enables?"
  • Think about it this way: All the technology accumulated from the dawn of time to today has given us a certain amount of processing power.
  • I spend less time waiting for Excel to do a recalculation of my formulas today than I did on my 386 in the 1990s, even though my spreadsheets are thousands of times more complex.
  • But a single example will suffice to illustrate the whole.
  • But at a certain point, you don't need any more, and the technology is mature.
  • We often see other technologies race toward a point and then stop growing along that axis.
  • Could we make a car that can go 300 mph?
  • We don't need our computers to be infinitely fast, just a whole lot faster than they are today.
  • Our ability to process data, move information, and make things small will progress to a point where they will not be gating factors ever again.
  • At this point, if you follow my reasoning, we have established at least the possibility of a bright future.
  • Though it isn't so much a time as a state of mind, historians plot the Renaissance as moving around Europe for a couple of centuries.
  • When the conquest of the city seemed inevitable, a great "brain drain" of scholars, artists, teachers, theologians, and the wealthy emigrated to Western Europe, especially to Italy.
  • The arrival of these texts—as well as Byzantium's own architecture, science, and art—triggered a sensory and intellectual explosion, which became the cultural movement we now call the Renaissance.
  • Its reawakening of the arts derived chiefly from seeking to recapture something thought lost from a past Golden Age.
  • But the Internet Renaissance dwarfs by a hundredfold, a thousandfold, the Renaissance of Europe.
  • In the Italian Renaissance, only a thin veneer of society's elites participated in the creation or ownership of the frescos, music, statues, and paintings; most were only passive observers.
  • Fifty million Tweets a day.
  • All forms of online media are exploding in a similar fashion.
  • At least a hundred million websites are out there.
  • Over a hundred million videos on YouTube.
  • It turns out we all have a desire to be artists or philosophers or singers or photographers or commentators or reviewers.
  • We are creating at a rate exponentially more than our most recent ancestors.
  • Let's start with a definition.
  • I can't tell you which clips will be watched in a century, but I'm certain that some will be.
  • Actually, I could make guesses, but they might well be spectacularly wrong and a guy doesn't want that haunting him ten years from now.
  • But the truth is that almost all furniture back in the day was cheaply made junk and only a very few high-quality pieces survived.
  • And in our Internet Renaissance, aren't we seeing an explosion of these same things at a spectacularly more massive scale?
  • Who could argue there was ever a better time to start a business any time in the world?
  • When has starting a business been so easy?
  • Has there ever before been a time when business opportunity was more blind to color, gender, or creed?
  • We are suitably impressed that Da Vinci sketched a design for a submarine and a flying machine.
  • But the inventors of our age have put a billion transistors on an area the size of a postage stamp.
  • We have a natural desire to make beautiful things and a bone-deep need to understand the world we live in and our place in it.
  • A very, very few people, however, were freed from this sustenance lifestyle, either by their fortuitous birth or outstanding ability.
  • Now a billion or more can achieve that dream, and I foresee a time not far off when everyone on the planet can.
  • Today, there are modern-day Da Vincis living in parts of the world where just surviving is a full-time occupation, powerless to develop the gifts they could offer the wider world.
  • The Renaissance artists and thinkers had very few tools: pen and paper, paint and canvas, marble and chisel, and a few more.
  • Imagine a world where everyone on the planet has access to this expanded canvas of human expression that technology has created.
  • Imagine a thousand new arts, none of which are even invented yet, each with a thousand new great masters.
  • It will be a glorious time to be alive, and I believe my children will see it happen.
  • That movement helped a former lieutenant named Adolf Hitler come to power.
  • Archduke Franz Ferdinand's driver, Leopold Loyka, made a wrong turn.
  • He turned onto Franz Josef Street, where he was not supposed to have been, and drove right in front of a surprised Princip.
  • Princip seized the opportunity and fired into the open car at a range of five feet, killing them both.
  • War, poverty, misery, and nearly one hundred million people dead came from what essentially was a single wrong turn.
  • A single bad bit of data.
  • A tiny piece of ignorance.
  • Maybe a bad piece of information did lead to the deaths of millions.
  • It would not be the first time, or the last, that ignorance in the world exacted a high price.
  • It would just take several hours as opposed to a few minutes.
  • Now all of a sudden, ideas were persistent.
  • This led to the creation of large libraries all around the world—and this was a problem.
  • So he commissioned seven emissaries to go out to seven certain oracles around the world and on a predetermined day, let's say July 12, at a predetermined time, say 3:00 p.m.
  • Lydian time, they were to ask their respective oracle a question: "What is King Croesus doing right now?"
  • I tell this story to make a comparison between modern times and the past.
  • Think of how the computer in the Star Trek universe was a purely factual machine.
  • Search engines have done a fabulous job tackling this problem, even given the vast, vast, amounts of information added to the Internet every day.
  • But even if I had a robot that knew everything, I couldn't really say, "Tell me every custom they have here" and be fully informed.
  • I define wisdom as deriving a course of action from applying a value system to a situation.
  • It requires knowing what you should do in a given situation.
  • By "the end of ignorance," I mean a world where everyone everywhere will be able to go through life making wise decisions based on near-perfect information.
  • Not just that you went to a certain address but that the address was a movie theater and—based on where you sat and that you ordered tickets online—you saw Episode VII of Star Wars.
  • Why would you want a record of this?
  • Bear with me a little longer.
  • A complete Digital Echo of your life.
  • A contest awhile back called for people to speculate what would be the best device to hook up to the Internet.
  • That said, if I had to pick one function I think the Internet will turn out to "be," it is this: The Internet will become a repository and a set of applications for storing the sum total of all life experiences of all people on earth.
  • Well, that tells us something new about ourselves—in fact, a lot of things: the kinds of information we want to share, the kinds of information we want to consume, and the immediacy with which we want it all to occur.
  • They will take time to write a great big forum post just for you, a total stranger they will never meet.
  • The Open Directory Project—where fifty thousand editors try to organize the web into a directory of sites for no reward at all—comes instantly to mind.
  • All they gain is a sense of contributing.
  • We have a natural desire to want to help others.
  • We are talking about a setting to your Digital Echo file that says, "Information that isn't tied to me personally can be contributed to pools of rolled-up data."
  • I think to the extent the data is not identifiable to a person and is only used to make suggestions to others, people will participate.
  • You probably have a device, such as a smart phone, that has an Internet connection and a GPS.
  • Would you contribute your anonymous location to a traffic speed optimization engine?
  • Finally, when I use the word "wisdom," I am talking about applying a value system to knowledge to suggest a course of action.
  • Does eating eggs raise a person's cholesterol?
  • A website called Wolfram Alpha is amazing to me, especially in its aspirations.
  • It is a safe bet that no one has ever asked that question before, and yet this system is designed to answer it.
  • Up until now, we have thought of the Internet as a place to store information, and we have depended upon search engines to help us find it.
  • But take it a step further.
  • Or that a certain group of people who do a seemingly unrelated set of a dozen activities report levels of happiness higher than average?
  • In the past, a scientist began with a surmise or hunch and began gathering data to prove or disprove it.
  • And yet, by the coarse measures we use, in a sense we have the same level of prosperity because we both have cars.
  • My grandfather had a local Carnegie Library.
  • To make my case that machines will bring about the end of ignorance, I begin with a company I admire: Amazon.com, the world's largest online retailer.
  • When you look at a product on one of its web pages, Amazon suggests other products you might like as well.
  • On the same page, Amazon says "Frequently Bought Together" and then lists a few other products.
  • Additionally, right below that is a section called, "What Do Customers Ultimately Buy After Viewing This Item?"
  • Most people buy Apple TV, but a few buy the Roku XDS Streaming Player.
  • Picture yourself in a men's clothing store.
  • You have picked out a suit, a sharp grey one with barely detectable pinstripes.
  • After a few minutes more, you decide this really isn't the suit for you.
  • It's wool and is a bit scratchy.
  • In general, when you have such a salesperson, the information is useful.
  • The twenty-five years of experience really does make a difference.
  • That said, the suggestions of the twenty-five-year sales veteran wouldn't stand a chance against Amazon.
  • Of the twenty thousand sales he has made in his career, he probably remembers a few hundred distinctly and a few thousand vaguely.
  • A century later, machines entered the scene.
  • By 1973 it was calculated to more than a million digits, in 1983 more than ten million digits, in 1987 more than one hundred million digits, in 1989 more than one billion digits, and in 1997 more than fifty billion digits.
  • When I watch a Terminator movie, I am rooting for the people, not the machines.
  • Machines can actually do a very limited palette of things.
  • So now that the task of remembering past purchases and using that information to suggest future purchases is completely transitioned to machines, it operates on a whole different scale.
  • For instance, they will learn subtleties such as suggesting beach gear if a person buys a cooler in July and tailgating gear if the same purchase is made in October.
  • Once that is achieved, the sort of event that will happen is: You will be online to order, say, a replacement water filter, and the suggestion engine will propose that along with the filter, you might like to buy ... a pogo stick.
  • A person could dedicate his life to understanding just one suggestion and never even get close.
  • You will find that you probably really did want a pogo stick.
  • They might balk at getting on an airline flight flown by a computer and prefer having a pilot on board to take over if he "feels in his gut" that something is wrong (even if that feeling is the airport burrito he had for lunch).
  • To me, those stories feel a bit desperate.
  • He should have just become a steam drill operator!
  • A computer can do some tasks better than a person can. 
  • A computer can do some tasks better than a person can. 
  • Any task a computer can do better than a person is, by definition, a task requiring no human creativity or ingenuity.
  • Once Jim extends the invitation, he memorizes all the individuals' names, where they are from, what they do for a living, information about their families, and so forth.
  • Imagine it has a million elements in it.
  • (It would have many more, but for now let's just say it includes a million things about you.)
  • Then imagine if you shared your Digital Echo with a billion other people on the planet.
  • And if each of those billion people in turn shared a million of their life experiences, and you recorded them, you'd have an aggregate number of life experiences so large I had to look it up online.
  • It's called a quadrillion.
  • Imagine what you could do with the combined learning of a quadrillion life experiences.
  • A recording of every cause and effect.
  • No longer would we learn and forget, learn and forget, learn and forget, again and again, as a species.
  • To use a simple example: You are in San Francisco.
  • You need an answer to a basic question: "Where should I go for Italian food?"
  • You had no real knowledge and therefore no way to make a wise decision.
  • You were better off than before, in terms of making a knowledgeable decision.
  • But you still were working with the biased, anecdotal opinions of a few people not very like you.
  • The system has data from all their GPS records and infers that to drive across town several times for a place is a stronger vote than eating at the corner restaurant.
  • The system will weigh heavily the choices of people with Italian last names, and people who own restaurants—all these different factors, millions and millions of factors, all from the passively recorded life experiences of a billion people.
  • It will build a table of all the words used by people like you who have reviewed those restaurants and will look for San Francisco restaurants described with the same words.
  • It will look at all this and a million other factors that would seem to be unrelated.
  • And my system will come back with a single answer, something like, You should go to Tommaso's on Kearny Street.
  • Would you like a reservation?
  • A day later, the system will ask, "Hey, what did you think of Tommaso's?"
  • You may be thinking that choosing the right place to eat Italian food doesn't constitute wisdom in a King Solomon kind of way.
  • "Where should I go to college?" is a much bigger choice that people face.
  • We cannot deal with equations that big—but a computer will solve for that in a minute if it has enough data.
  • Every time you buy a book from Amazon, its employees use your data—information about what you did on their site in the privacy of your own home—to try to sell other people more products.
  • These will be waters to navigate carefully, in order to make sure that the right to privacy, a cornerstone of a free society, is not destroyed.
  • Clearly, this already happens today, in a primitive form.
  • As we move toward that future, it is a great tragedy that the experiences of all the people of the past are lost to us.
  • But as we do them yet again and capture them, we finally can begin to develop a planet-wide memory system.
  • The amount of data stored is so vast that even if we put a number on it, it would be beyond our comprehension.
  • In a profound way, our lives will be better.
  • When we consider the costs of all the wrong decisions ever made—a calculation I don't even know how to approach—we will think of it as a diminishing problem receding into the past.
  • In the past, knowing the wise thing to do was a power confined to a few.
  • But in a world where great wisdom is available to everyone, the end of ignorance will be within our grasp.
  • To that definition, I would respectfully offer this qualification: I would say that disease has a well-defined center and very fuzzy edges.
  • Bubonic plague, to be sure, is a disease.
  • But at times in history, left-handedness was thought to be a malady in need of curing (and in some parts of the world still is).
  • Perhaps we all have such remarkable abilities but are impaired in a way—maybe the rest of us have a disease to which these savants are immune.
  • Next would come all the various syndromes, which are sets of clinically recognizable symptoms that occur together without a known cause.
  • Is it a disease?
  • Now we are certainly on the fuzzy edges, a place where words, often fuzzy in their meanings, begin to fail us.
  • A normal biological process?
  • A result of our actions?
  • A natural part of life?
  • So how about this instead: What if I can show you a future where everyone on the planet will live in good health as long as it is possible for their body to live?
  • What a future that will be!
  • A future without disease as we understand the term's meaning today.
  • It was recognized as the flu, although records describe conditions which were highly likely to have been polio.
  • In 1840, a German physician published a seventy-eight-page paper clinically describing polio.
  • In 1921, a dozen years before he would be sworn in as president, Franklin Roosevelt was diagnosed with polio.
  • His call for a "march of dimes" was a play on "The March of Time," a well-known newsreel series.
  • The name and idea caught on, and by mid-January the biggest names of the day were promoting it on their shows: Jack Benny, Bing Crosby, and Rudy Vallee, to name but a few.
  • A few years later, with the United States again at war, most of its top medical minds were engaged in the war effort.
  • On the research team of the eminent virologist Dr. Thomas Francis, who was working on a flu vaccine, was a young physician named Jonas Salk.
  • With a grant from the National Foundation for Infant Paralysis, he went to work on a polio vaccine.
  • It often left them partially paralyzed, in wheelchairs or iron lungs (a term that's now all but forgotten and will likely send younger readers to Wikipedia).
  • This goal is within our grasp—and with the vaccine presently priced at about thirty cents a child, shame on us for not ending polio once and for all.
  • Wars in that same period—the most destructive wars in all of history—took a fraction of that number.
  • If 500,000,000 is still an inconceivably large number: Imagine a football stadium packed with spectators.
  • In the last thirty years there has not been a single smallpox death or even a single infection.
  • Around 430 BC, Athens, embroiled in the Second Peloponnesian War, endured three years of epidemics that wiped out a third of its inhabitants.
  • In the 800s, smallpox wiped out a third of Japan.
  • In the 1200s it killed a third of everyone in Iceland.
  • A practitioner took a scab from someone with a mild case, made an incision in the skin of a healthy person, and infected that person with the scab.
  • A practitioner took a scab from someone with a mild case, made an incision in the skin of a healthy person, and infected that person with the scab.
  • By the 1780s, though the procedure was certainly better than nothing, it still had a fair number of problems.
  • Enter Edward Jenner, a physician in Berkeley, Gloucestershire.
  • In 1796, he extracted fluid from the pox on the hand of a dairymaid named Sarah Nelmes—who had caught the condition from her cow Blossom—and injected the fluid into a cut in eight-year-old James Phipps's arm.
  • Thanks to Jenner, Nelmes, Blossom, and Phipps (which sounds like a rather odd law firm), today we have the word "vaccine."
  • Cowpox was a localized condition, so fresh supplies were hard to get.
  • If the conditions weren't sterile—a word that was not even comprehended at the time—the inoculation didn't work, or worse, introduced a new disease.
  • A stable vaccine was developed, our understanding of the disease expanded, and technology moved forward.
  • In 1958, with smallpox still killing two million people a year, the World Health Organization pledged to eradicate it.
  • Smallpox affected the rich and the poor and it changed the course of history: It killed Queen Mary II of England in 1694, King Louis I of Spain in 1724, Emperor Peter II of Russia in 1730, and King Louis XV of France in 1774, and changed the succession to the thrones of nations a dozen more times.
  • Every day, the world has fewer unreachable corners and a more interconnected population.
  • If the smallpox and polio successes were achieved in a low-tech world, think how much more we can accomplish with vastly improved tools, infrastructure, and communication.
  • If my reasoning elsewhere in this book is correct, we are moving toward a future where there will be nothing but healthy, well-developed, rich countries with modern infrastructure.
  • Expect solutions in the future to come from countries you couldn't find on a map today.
  • And then we come to Greece, the home of Hippocrates, the "Father of Modern Medicine," who left us not just the oath that bears his name but also a corpus of roughly sixty medical texts based on his teaching.
  • Hippocrates was remarkable not only as a surgeon but also because he systematized medicine in his spare time.
  • (The use of such practices continued into the scientific age: While Jenner was inoculating people with his new smallpox vaccine, doctors were draining half a gallon of blood from George Washington for his sore throat, a procedure that hastened his death.
  • And today's primary method for treating cancer is, in a way, very tenth century: Essentially, chemotherapy is a medical way of saying, Let's fill you so full of poison either you or the cancer dies.
  • When the ancients could not find these solutions, it was not for a lack of intelligence but for a lack of technology.
  • Half a century later, nitrous oxide came into use as an anesthetic.
  • In 1818, a human blood transfusion.
  • Louis Pasteur came along around this same time and proffered the germ theory of disease and a vaccine for rabies.
  • In 1879 a vaccine for cholera was invented.
  • Two years later, an anthrax vaccine; the year after that, a rabies vaccine.
  • In the First World War, we learned to treat wounds by washing them with a germicide.
  • In 1921, a tuberculosis vaccine was developed in France.
  • The same year, a technique for treating diabetes, insulin therapy, was developed.
  • In the 1920s, we got a vaccine for diphtheria, pertussis, tuberculosis, and tetanus.
  • In 1935, a vaccine for yellow fever was created.
  • Dialysis came a few years later, then chemotherapy, then the defibrillator, then the polio vaccine; then came cloning, then a kidney transplant.
  • The 1960s brought us hip replacement, the artificial heart, a liver transplant, and a lung transplant.
  • Pause here to take a breath.
  • The 1990s brought us a hepatitis A vaccine and artificial muscles.
  • The 1990s brought us a hepatitis A vaccine and artificial muscles.
  • Given all this, do you really believe this disease still has a chance?
  • Some years ago, a few people taking Wellbutrin reported that their cravings for cigarettes diminished.
  • Its makers had not conceived bupropion hydrochloride as a drug to help people quit smoking.
  • Imagine a computer culling through this massive amount of data, inconceivably large, and pulling out patterns.
  • A finding might look like this: "People who eat radishes get better slightly more frequently than people who don't."
  • And not just certain farms, but farms that used a certain pesticide.
  • Not just a certain pesticide, but pesticides that contained a certain chemical.
  • This method will allow us to treat the entire world as a controlled experiment in retrospect.
  • So you make sure that if your population of redheads had a million people with a certain distribution of age, the distribution in your non-redhead sample is exactly the same.
  • In the future, we'll not only know if that is so, but why: Perhaps mental agility is a result of their extensive exposure to a chemical in pencil lead and newsprint that they got by doing all those puzzles.
  • Once this ball gets rolling, it will speed up and, because of it, we will all wake up each morning with a little extra spring in our step and sparkle in our eye.
  • It should know what the food on my fork weighs, run a chemical analysis of every bite I take, and log it in my Digital Echo file for my future reference.
  • It would know all my food sensitivities and alert me if a single bite had these substances in it.
  • In such a world, everyone who wants to be a medical scientist can be.
  • You could say, "When I eat corn dogs, I get a headache" and start studying that.
  • A record of all human activity, with anonymity safeguards in place, will allow us all to become part of the solution by putting our minds to work on the problems of the world.
  • In 1665, physicist Robert Hooke pointed a microscope at a piece of cork and noticed many small compartments he called "cells."
  • Life existed at a scale smaller than the eye could see.
  • In 1902, an American named Walter Sutton noticed that chromosomes duplicated themselves before cells divided so that each new cell had a full copy of the chromosomes.
  • They accurately described the construction of DNA as a double helix and showed how its structure made replication both possible and reliable.
  • In every cell of your body except your red blood cells exists a copy of your DNA.
  • Stop and consider that for a moment.
  • But we have a copy of it.
  • Today, for just a few hundred dollars, you can get a copy of your genome.
  • After all, we both have ten fingers, two lungs, and a tongue located in our mouth.
  • But every now and then there would be a little difference.
  • Each of those new cells has a new copy of your DNA.
  • Some of it is known, but the function of each of the thirty thousand genes has to be figured out one at a time.
  • A number of ways, I think.
  • By looking at how the genome varies between people with a genetic condition and people without it, we can identify the troublemaking gene.
  • Knowing this allowed for the creation of a drug called Imatinib, which inhibits this process.
  • Diseases are frequently diagnosed with broad terms based on a set of symptoms.
  • And as we have seen, understanding how we are made is certainly a huge advantage in our battle with disease.
  • They have sequenced the cacao tree, the mosquito, coral, the Tasmanian devil, the bald eagle, the leafcutter ant, a germ that attacks wheat plants, and the extinct woolly mammoth.
  • Understanding the recipes that make our pathogenic enemies is a huge advantage.
  • You would know before you received a treatment how likely it was to work for you—not merely how likely it was to work for the larger population, but for you.
  • How about modifying a flower to produce insulin?
  • We will discuss the molecular machines called nanites—tiny, molecular-sized robots that will swim around in your body fighting disease, repairing damage, and alerting you to problems (and will likely dramatically increase the human lifespan).
  • Now let's look at how the Internet will help end disease in a more traditional, suit-and-tie kind of way.
  • If you were a scientist in Jenner's time, your only form of communication was letter writing.
  • If you had access to a library, its stock of medical books and journals was very small.
  • If you were a scientist in Pasteur's time, you had more resources.
  • You had a lab and science symposiums.
  • Difficulty of communication was still a barrier, and technology was still highly limited.
  • If you were a scientist in Salk's time, you did calculations by hand and wrote observations in notebooks.
  • Twenty-five years ago, I had never seen a mobile phone.
  • Highly specialized experts are a few keystrokes away and can be hired for just a few minutes or hours at a time.
  • When "human testing" is done almost immediately, but within the safe confines of a CPU.
  • This will likely not ever be perfect, but any insight it can offer us is a gain.
  • A disease-free future for everyone is within our grasp.
  • The additional possibility of access to all humans' Digital Echoes, to be studied for a million unnoticed causal correlations, will hasten the demise of disease as well and will increase quality of life and longevity.
  • By taking a block of marble and carving a statue, or taking a handful of seed and growing a cornfield, you have combined your labor and know-how with something of little value and have created something of more value.
  • When you trade with someone in a free market, you are giving up something you have for something the other person has, which you value more.
  • One can imagine two children each with a bag of jelly beans.
  • You might remember the story of Kyle MacDonald who famously traded up from one red paperclip to a house, one small exchange at a time between July 2005 and July 2006.
  • Trading is not a "zero-sum game."
  • This is a good thing because it means that high degrees of utility (the economists' word for "happiness") can be achieved with a wide variety of goods.
  • If you are in a desert dying of thirst, you value the first glass of water very highly, the second glass a bit less, and the 802nd not at all.
  • Going from zero to one puppy might increase your utility a great amount.
  • From one to two, a bit less.
  • So when people have excess goods, they are able to trade those goods away for things they want and suffer less of a decrease in utility than the amount they are increasing in their trading partners.
  • It means I can trade you a good or service for an intermediate store of value known as money, and then trade that money to the person who actually has the goods I want.
  • Everyone wins in trade, because goods are reallocated in a way that increases utility to all parties involved.
  • Consider just a few of the mechanisms by which the Internet promotes trade that otherwise would not have occurred.
  • The ability to instantly and, for a very low cost, reliably transfer money to anyone on the planet is a key ingredient in increasing the amount of trade that occurs online.
  • If I get my credit card bill and call up and dispute a charge, the benefit of the doubt is given to me, that I am telling the truth.
  • Imagine if everyone frequently disputed charges: "I never got my order!" or "It wasn't what they promised it would be!" or "Yeah, I got a box in the mail, but it was full of rocks."
  • And yet they do, because fraud is a small part of the overall picture.
  • These stores are able to increase trade a number of ways.
  • They allow for easy return of merchandise that doesn't meet my expectations, decreasing my fear of making a bad purchasing decision.
  • They suggest other products a customer might be interested in.
  • Could you have imagined a store like this if you lived a century ago?
  • Such a thing is not possible without the Internet. 4.
  • Additionally, online stores powered by Yahoo and Google and Amazon exist where small vendors can set up storefronts and sell to the world, as a hobby or a livelihood.
  • This has no offline corollary and is economically empowering to so many people. 5. eBay and reallocating existing goods. eBay is actually a little like direct trade.
  • Freecycle, Craigslist, and a thousand message boards achieve the same outcome.
  • One failure of the marketplace is the misattribution of the amount of utility an item will bring a person.
  • Good information on a product can mitigate this problem.
  • Often, a buying decision hinges on a piece of arcane information about a product that is difficult to locate.
  • The Internet solves for this in a way no library ever could. 7.
  • With the rapid flow of information about businesses and their products, along with the ease of "checking up" on a vendor, good businesses will get more business and push out the bad ones.
  • This makes business a meritocracy and encourages business owners to focus on quality, service, and reputation since these are so easy for customers to check.
  • The pay per click (PPC) business is a way to advertise online to people who did a specific search in a search engine like Google or who are viewing content on a certain topic.
  • I have never so much as tasted a grub worm.
  • Not in one hundred lifetimes could I make a car.
  • By "make a car," I mean really make a car: dig iron ore out of the ground, smelt it to steel, wildcat for oil, find oil and refine it into gasoline, and so on.
  • I could not in one hundred lifetimes make a working electric lamp, even knowing what I know now.
  • In 1958, an American economist named Leonard Read wrote an essay called "I, Pencil," written from the pencil's point of view, about how no one on the planet knows how to make a pencil.
  • From mining the clay to make the lead, to the lacquer applied to the pencil, to the rubber eraser, to the metal band holding the eraser to the yellow paint, no one person knows how to make a complete pencil.
  • And yet pencils get made, more than a billion of them a year, and they are essentially given away.
  • It requires the labor of thousands to make a pencil, and yet they are so inexpensive as to be almost free.
  • When a person learns to do one job and specializes in that one job, she gets really good at it.
  • But if each of ten people specialized on just one-tenth of the task, they could together make 48,000, an increase in per-person productivity from one pin a day to 4,800 pins per day.
  • Given perfect information, frictionless markets, and other theoretical impossibilities, a finite amount of utility can be achieved in that way.
  • Once someone knows how to make a factory that can produce 48,000 pins a day with ten people, someone else can figure out how to make one that makes 100,000 a day with five people.
  • Or five million a day with no people.
  • But for now, I want to leave you with a preposterous thought: In the future, a new Mercedes Benz will cost just $50.
  • To build a case for the end of poverty, we begin by discussing scarcity.
  • Most things come in a limited supply, so some people have a thing and others do not.
  • There is a finite number of baseballs, beanbags, and balloons.
  • You'd better scramble and get a chair even if it means elbowing little Timmy out of the way.
  • The notion of scarcity is so ingrained in us and so permeates the world today, it is difficult to imagine a world without it.
  • A problem arises because of the strong correlation between standard of living and energy consumption.
  • There are a few reasons.
  • If you are a farmer and work alone, you can only plant as much land as you can personally plow. You can do just a couple of thousand calories of work a day, consuming only the energy produced by the food you ate.
  • Now, if you acquire an ox, a new source of energy, you can plow more.
  • You could power generators that could light up a stadium.
  • An ongoing debate is whether a high amount of energy raises a nation or region's gross national product (GNP) or whether rising GNP increases the consumption of energy.
  • But the price of the tractor would have plummeted, for a constellation of reasons.
  • What we need to make its parts—iron ore to make steel, rubber to make tires, sand to make glass, petroleum to make plastics—is generally a few cents' worth of raw materials.
  • Fossil fuels are, without a doubt, scarce.
  • (An exajoule is roughly equivalent to a quadrillion BTUs or 174 million barrels of oil.)
  • We know how to power a clock with this energy but haven't yet cracked the code on doing it at scale.
  • An energy crop could be a permanent forest of trees that convert sunlight to liquid fuel and deliver the fuel directly through their roots to a network of underground pipelines.
  • If these two advances could be combined, we would have a supply of solar energy that was cheap, abundant, and environmentally benign.
  • A genetically engineered tree that converts sunlight into fuel and then pumps the fuel through its roots to where it is needed.
  • A few such trees in the backyard behind your condo, cabin, or yurt would be enough to satisfy your power requirements.
  • Not by a long shot.
  • That is what we expect to be able to do, because it is theoretically possible in a hundred different ways.
  • I don't mean that in a motivational poster kind of way but in a literal sense: Failures (and what we learn from them) will help build the energy solutions for our future.
  • Here is what I think he meant: If you could see a theoretical possibility for something in physics—"something that might be true"—then given enough time, you eventually could achieve it in reality.
  • If you could see a way it might be possible, then it must be possible.
  • We have a hard time seeing this world without scarcity because we are firmly planted in the worldview of scarcity.
  • That amount, if melted, would form a cube fifty-five feet on each side.
  • When we talk about it in terms of scarcity, we usually mean clean water in a certain location is scarce.
  • But that, too, is a function of present technology.
  • So they threw their sabots, a kind of clog shoe, into the machinery to break it—an act that gave us the word sabotage.
  • I asked my guide why they didn't use a lawnmower.
  • He explained to me that with a lawnmower, one person would be able to do the job and eleven men would be unemployed.
  • As we envision a world where machines do more and more work that people used to do, our minds naturally turn to those who would be displaced by technological advance.
  • We'll look at their lives, and the social aspects of this change, in a coming chapter called "Left Behind."
  • But in spite of the relative economic displacement they all cause, free trade, outsourcing, and technological displacement all have a positive net effect on the economics of the planet.
  • If prices for an item fall, this is a net good.
  • Let's consider examples of how the effect is positive for some, negative for some, but the net is a gain in the overall wealth of the system.
  • The net effect is positive, but the laid-off workers will probably have a hard time appreciating it.
  • A textbook example of this is Eli Whitney and the cotton gin.
  • One person with a horse and a cotton gin could process as much as fifty people without the gin.
  • Consider a factory that makes widgets for a dollar each.
  • A competing company decides to make an up-front investment and build a new factory in a distant land, high in the mountains where residents who choose to live there have less economic opportunity.
  • A competing company decides to make an up-front investment and build a new factory in a distant land, high in the mountains where residents who choose to live there have less economic opportunity.
  • He works from home and has a night job remotely monitoring real-time security cameras after hours at an office building.
  • His job is to push a button if he sees anything suspicious.
  • Worker Chang, located in China, is willing to do the same job, remotely, for a dollar an hour.
  • He still has his labor to sell and can go get a new job.
  • The employer gained $9 an hour, Chang got a job, and no one is worse off.
  • You might argue that since there is now a surplus of labor in Chad's neighborhood, the price of labor is lowered and Chad will only find work paying $9.75 an hour.
  • But even in this case, the result is still a massive overall gain in efficiency.
  • But I intend to show you how in the next chapter: Chad Gets a Better Job .
  • You, personally, are pretty happy with the generic knockoff, which saves you a dollar and tastes the same to you.
  • If you did not internalize the externalities, you would buy the generic brand and save a dollar.
  • You are leaving town for a week and a day and will completely avoid your spouse's meltdown.
  • Clearly, from a "big picture" standpoint, you should stick with the Oreos.
  • Now, a business example.
  • And say the net cost to society of having a gallon of polluted water dumped into the river—the cleanup cost, or the economic impact of the gallon of dirty water—is $10.
  • This is one of the few areas in which government taxation actually leads to a more efficient outcome.
  • Calculating the actual, societal costs of fatty foods, alcohol, cars, pet ownership, mercury thermometers, air conditioning, solar panels, razor blades, jogging shoes, and ten thousand other things, and incorporating those costs in the prices as taxes would lead to a vastly more efficient allocation of resources.
  • And you could feel good about it; after all, you would be increasing efficiency, not merely acting as a leech to the system.
  • To some extent, we have this in the form of high taxes on cigarettes, which are seen to have negative externalities, and a home interest deduction on income taxes, as home ownership is viewed as having positive social good.
  • If workers are in unsafe work environments, they are bearing a risk that has a measurable negative cost.
  • The country requires a minimum wage because workers paid below the poverty line have an added cost on society.
  • Outsourcing a job to get it done more cheaply or building a machine to do it more cheaply is really the same.
  • Now, to explain why I think Chad will be getting a better job anyway.
  • The minimum is either set by a minimum wage law or determined by the demand and supply of that labor.
  • The maximum wage you can earn, though, is defined by supply and demand for labor, and by your negotiating ability, but it also has a cap.
  • If you take something worth a dollar, spend an hour working on it, and your employer sells it for three dollars, no way in the world can you ever make more than two dollars an hour.
  • They form a union and get laws passed that no burgers can be flipped except by a union member.
  • This action makes the price of a burger go up by $1,000 and drops demand to zero.
  • It doesn't matter what the law or the union or their mothers think about it: They can't get a thousand dollars per flip.
  • If you are a wage earner, then you should love machines.
  • Your car, a ball-point pen, your computer, a dolly, and so on.
  • Any task that could be done a machine is, by definition, dehumanizing to a human being.
  • If you like having sore muscles at the end of a day or working a job that requires little of your mental capacity so you can contemplate Nietzsche, hey, more power to you.
  • If every job that could be done by a machine was done by a machine tomorrow, the standard of living of virtually everyone on the planet would rise.
  • I think a lot would.
  • But what if a machine did everything people really don't want to do?
  • What if everyone had a job only a person could do?
  • No machine will be a politician.
  • No machine will ever star in a Broadway musical.
  • No machine will ever be a kindergarten teacher.
  • He is freed from being a stand-in for a machine.
  • And he will find he is capable of adding far more value than as a set of eyes watching a screen.
  • It is a profound thought and, I believe, an irrefutable one.
  • The history of the world is a history of rising prosperity.
  • Conversely, in places where prosperity has not risen, lack of these ingredients plays a significant role.
  • The fact that an unprecedented number of earth's inhabitants today live in poverty is an indictment of governments, not a reflection of some underlying natural limit.
  • If there can be a USA, a Germany, and a Japan, then every country can be rich.
  • In the end, the speed at which a human operator can move has a physical limit.
  • We are about to enter a world where robots do more and more of our work for us.
  • "Robot" is a term almost one hundred years old, created in fiction before becoming a reality.
  • The word is broad in its meaning and I use it in its broadest sense, as a mechanical device built to independently perform a task.
  • To that extent, the contraption that automatically metes out the daily allotment of cat food for your pet is a robot.
  • We have fallen into the habit of anthropomorphizing computers and robots for a simple reason: The more we program them to do things that we presently do, the more we think of them as being like us.
  • People play chess, so that object playing the Grand Master must be a person.
  • It is a machine.
  • But I know of no one who would want to have a conversation with a computer program pretending to be his dog.
  • Let's do a thought experiment about this.
  • I might enjoy that kind of banter with a real person I will never meet, talking to me from a distant state.
  • I'm not about to waste my best material on a machine!
  • But not a machine.
  • No matter how convincing the machine is, once I know it is a machine, I won't care about it anymore.
  • No human can solder a billion transistors on a computer processor, so your computer needed a robot in order to be built.
  • They still have the hand-operated machine from the 1940s that was used to make the first Legos, but it is of course now a museum piece.
  • Generally defined, nanotechnology is the field concerned with creating machines along the scale of a nanometer, a billionth of a meter.
  • Because nanites are so small, they require little in the way of raw materials, just a few molecules here and there.
  • Similarly, they require little power, so they either can be powered cheaply or can power themselves from their environment, with a little heat or sunlight.
  • Choose whichever of those you are comfortable with, but let me illustrate with a single example.
  • Not a cure, but it sure beats insulin shots.
  • And the principle at work in this technology could lead to a cure for other autoimmune diseases such as multiple sclerosis and rheumatoid arthritis.
  • In the future, we will paint surfaces with substances full of nanites that will absorb sunlight and turn it into electricity, transforming any object we paint into a clean energy creator.
  • What I describe above is using a new technology to solve an existing problem.
  • As much as I would like to continue with speculations about molecular-sized machines, I have a larger thesis to prove.
  • If I had to put a number on it, I would say ten thousandfold.
  • I could no more make a paperclip than I could make a Boeing 747.
  • People specialized, technology advanced, and as a result, men walked on the moon.
  • And that was almost half a century ago!
  • Robots can work without ceasing in environments where the temperature is a thousand degrees.
  • These robots can be powered by computers capable of performing a billion calculations a second.
  • They can be connected to sensors whose sensitivity dwarfs anything a human can do.
  • Bob will make paint, and a "Nailmaker 2000" will make nails.
  • Beverly made one hundred nails a day.
  • Before you commit to a number, think of this.
  • The report also cited a mid-1950s report that found 85 percent of economic growth was attributed to technological change in the period 1890 to 1950.
  • We still have a thousandfold increase in productivity before us.
  • A Mercedes for $50?
  • Please bear with me and keep your mind open for a minute longer.
  • When I was thirteen in 1981, I got a Commodore VIC-20 computer.
  • Fifteen years later, I got a computer with 4,000K (or 4MB) of memory, one thousand times the memory of my trusty VIC-20.
  • It has 4,000,000K of memory—once again, a thousandfold increase over its predecessor.
  • This 4,000MB (or 4GB) of memory cost a bit more than $200.
  • That would be like the price of a Mercedes falling from $50,000 to a nickel.
  • I remember that in 1993 I needed a big hard drive at work and got a 1GB drive.
  • Now, less than twenty years later, a drive one thousand times larger is $70.
  • So a thousandfold increase in capacity at one-fortieth the cost is like the $50,000 Mercedes dropping to a buck and a quarter.
  • Imagine what we can do in the future with a thousand times more technological advancement.
  • The second would be to argue that the cost of materials to build the Mercedes won't fall by a thousandfold.
  • Finally, you might argue that fees paid as royalties to the owners of the intellectual property needed to build the Mercedes for $50 will not fall by a thousandfold.
  • So, will we get a thousandfold increase in other areas?
  • Let's look at a few.
  • And remember, it can be obtained both by a plummeting cost and an increasing value of the thing to you.
  • Yes, I see the cost of food falling a thousandfold.
  • Imagine when a five-cent computer in your shoe warns you that the way you are walking will lead to spine problems.
  • Each of these wonders is coming, and a million more.
  • There is a chili I love called Wolf Brand chili.
  • It costs about $2 a can.
  • So every time I buy a can, I make $8.
  • (Of course, I can't go buy a thousand cans for $2,000 and have them worth $10,000 to me.
  • At the margin, if I buy a can of Wolf Brand chili, I make $8.
  • This pan's nanite coating means to clean it, you just wipe it with a nanite rag that doesn't stain.
  • This pan will cost a dollar.
  • But surely a pan that warns you if your house is burning down or your food will kill you has to be worth $200 to you.
  • They can't even put a value on it; they wouldn't sell it for a million dollars.
  • Its social good, on average, is $2,000 a pan.
  • Buying this pan for a dollar basically gets you a $2,000 benefit.
  • This is a form of wealth.
  • Housing is a huge industry that will reward innovative products.
  • It will do things you don't expect a house to do.
  • Its walls will be moveable by a professional, so it can be redesigned in a day.
  • As I observed a few pages ago in "Let Robots Be Robots," an intelligent system like this won't be creepy because we do not want it to be creepy.
  • This house will be cheaper to build than a house today and worth vastly more to you for all the cool things it does.
  • How do you put a price on this house?
  • Not 20 percent better and 20 percent cheaper, but a thousand times better.
  • Anything that requires the unamplified direct labor of a person won't either, such as a personal trainer, a babysitter, or a masseuse.
  • Vacationing should fall in price but requires much direct labor, so it will not fall by a thousandfold.
  • The best way to make a chair, known only by a few craftsmen, would be used to make all the chairs better.
  • Everything would be better made because the best way to make a thing could be multiplied across all occurrences of the thing.
  • Try to think of the advances we have seen so far in history as the very tip of the iceberg, a hint of what is possible, not even being within sight of what is possible.
  • It is only a whisper of the wonders we will build and the prosperity we will create.
  • But I expect that technology and free enterprise will take us across a threshold where things formerly regarded as scarce will not be so any more.
  • This will create a cascading effect; once energy, for instance, is free, it will make precious metals free.
  • On balance, this will be a hundredfold increase in productivity.
  • That means your $40,000 salary will have the purchasing power of a $4,000,000 salary today.
  • How would it affect the world for everyone's buying power to increase a hundredfold?
  • If you already have a large amount of productivity, technology will amplify it.
  • A poor person with a six-year-old car today has more wealth than a poor person with a six-year-old car did back in 1911, for the simple reason that cars are so much better now.
  • A poor person with a six-year-old car today has more wealth than a poor person with a six-year-old car did back in 1911, for the simple reason that cars are so much better now.
  • A poor person with free access to the Internet at the library is wealthier than a poor person with free access to just a library.
  • A poor person with free access to the Internet at the library is wealthier than a poor person with free access to just a library.
  • But this is merely a footnote, an asterisk in the record book of humanity.
  • Let's address that by looking at two phenomena: the changing definitions of poverty over time, and the effect of a large gap between the incomes of the rich and poor.
  • My relative definition of poverty is "the state of being unable to reliably purchase a bundle of goods that allow one to participate in the economic norms of one's society."
  • In 2009, in the United States of America, the poverty threshold for a single person under sixty-five was about $11,000 a year; the threshold for a family group of four, including two children, was about $22,000 a year.
  • By the government's calculation, about 40 percent of India's population, or half a billion people, are below that level.
  • One is to hyperinflate currency, which is a massive transfer of wealth from creditors to debtors.
  • Creditors loan out money worth a lot, only to be repaid in money worth less.
  • At that point, people flee the land looking for a better deal.
  • This dance has happened more times than a weary historian can count.
  • I referred to it as a dance, but it is a dance to economic death.
  • A second method of radical redistribution is to increase marginal tax rates to a point that is confiscatory.
  • A second method of radical redistribution is to increase marginal tax rates to a point that is confiscatory.
  • That meant for every pound someone made, he owed more than a pound in taxes.
  • It was a calculated, deliberate move to wipe out the wealthy.
  • Families who owned great houses were able to keep them if they opened them to the public, acted as guides, and only lived in a small part of them.
  • A third radical method of redistribution is called land reform, which is actually a polite term for taking land from one person and giving it to another.
  • A third radical method of redistribution is called land reform, which is actually a polite term for taking land from one person and giving it to another.
  • This approach has a long and mostly negative history.
  • Now the Zimbabwean dollar has undergone four re-denominations (the process of shaving zeros off the currency to make a more manageable new currency.
  • Sometimes countries simply nationalize industries, so that an enterprise once owned by a private company, often a foreign-based one, is taken over by the government or "the people."
  • When industries are taken without payment to the property owner, it has a certain legal term.
  • Once a nation shows its willingness to seize foreign-owned property at will, foreign investors are reluctant to do business there again.
  • In no case did these methods and efforts secure a long-term solution to poverty.
  • This is a straight shot to economic poverty for any country desperate enough to try it.
  • Here I'll make a point which I believe to be a historic constant and to which we will be returning: If property rights of the rich are respected and tax rates, while high, still allow for indefinite gain, then the rich will keep producing.
  • One way that society keeps a lid on the powder keg of tension between the rich and poor is through the welfare state.
  • In its most basic form (which I'll discuss here for simplification's sake), it is a guarantee of a minimum income above the poverty line for every citizen.
  • Wise nations then work on making a stable and valuable money supply.
  • This might be the adoption of commercial standards as well as the creation and operation of a civil court system and laws.
  • They would say, If government is obligated to protect its citizens from a foreign invader, then it is obligated to protect them from a criminal.
  • Didn't Thomas Jefferson, author of the Declaration of Independence, believe the Constitution should be rewritten every twenty years so that no one was governed by a document they had no say in creating?
  • In a heated moment the phrase "jack-booted thug" slips out, and it is all downhill from there.
  • As national income increases in a given country, the size of government as a portion of gross national product (GNP) rises and the range of services people expect the government to offer rises.
  • This seems a bit counterintuitive.
  • Then, as a nation grows wealthier, tax rates could fall in terms of percentages because the nation is making so much more money.
  • Whether you look at a single country over a span of time, or a group of countries at a specific point in history, the result is the same.
  • Roughly speaking, if you look at the poorest forty nations in the world, who have an average income per person of about $1,500 a year, their effective tax rates are about 20 percent.
  • In fact, we don't simply buy more government, but we give it a disproportionate amount of our increased income.
  • It is safe to say that more than a majority of people in rich nations feel this way.
  • It is a tale that history repeats with surprising consistency.
  • After the death of Gracchus, a conservative government under Sulla withdrew the subsidy, but shortly afterward, in a period of great unrest, restored it, and two hundred thousand persons stood in line.
  • In 58 BC, Clodius Pulcher ran on a "free grain for the poor" platform as he tried to become tribune.
  • He worked to apply a means test, pared the rolls back, then died; the rolls swelled again, and his successor again tried to bring them in line, but it was hard.
  • Once a benefit is established, it creates a constituency fiercely dedicated to defending it.
  • Three centuries later, it became a hereditary right and came with a daily ration of two pounds of bread ("Hey, you don't expect us to cook the free grain, do you?") and occasionally included meat, olive oil, and salt.
  • All is well and good until things turn down for a nation.
  • Like a TV star that doesn't scale back his expenses after his show is cancelled, these benefits expand, not contract, during periods of economic decline, for two main reasons.
  • But the big question is whether these same economics would apply in a world one hundred times richer than we are right now.
  • Tomorrow, you get a thirtyfold raise and are now making a million dollars a year.
  • That is something like what I expect will happen, but on a worldwide scale.
  • Now, let me pose a different question: In the vastly-more-prosperous future, what will "working hard for our money" even mean?
  • Why do we have to work for a living?
  • If you want to eat a banana, then you have to create a banana-amount of wealth.
  • You have to do a banana-amount of work.
  • Let's think about that for a moment.
  • Most people would not term that welfare, which has become a loaded phrase associated with the state making a payment to individuals.
  • Here's a second example.
  • Some stocks reliably pay dividends, portions of a corporation's profits paid out in cash to its shareholders.
  • Some stocks pay dividends very regularly: Coca Cola, for instance, has paid a dividend every year since 1920.
  • Each year a payment is made to each resident of Alaska.
  • This is simply returning to the people a portion of income from land that is publicly owned.
  • In other words, the average person will make more money, pay a higher percentage as taxes, but still bring home vastly more than before.
  • In a world where only one tool is invented, a hoe, there will be no billionaires.
  • Before recorded music, the best musicians made a good living but weren't extremely wealthy.
  • In a world of economic superabundance, people will no longer tolerate poverty.
  • In that world, everyone will be guaranteed a minimum income.
  • It will be regarded as a dividend of the work of the one hundred prior generations that got the world to this point.
  • Somebody else—actually, a lot of somebody elses—worked really hard for a long time to build the United States and its freedoms.
  • When all the factories run themselves, when energy is free, when scarcity is ended, when material needs are all met, it will be a different world.
  • Is there a logical end to that—a physical or economic law of some kind that says only 10 percent or 20 percent or 30 percent of people can ever be this wealthy?
  • In a world without abundance, socialism removes the one reliable creator of abundance—the individual profit motive—and that results in a lower standard of living for everyone.
  • But in a world without scarcity, socialism can't even exist.
  • In a world without scarcity, or that has scarcity at such a trivial level it is hardly noticeable, all the conventional theories and dogmas lose their meaning.
  • Some people will have a hard time adjusting to the new reality.
  • As we consider the lot of those left behind, it becomes clearer how the end of scarcity will have a profound impact on the world.
  • When I talk about this future, a future in which machines will do more and more of the work people do now, I always get some variant of the same question: What about the people who lose their jobs to machines and don't have any other skills?
  • The implication is always that some people are simply unable to do any job that a machine cannot do.
  • It is a legitimate question that deserves a carefully reasoned answer.
  • Pretend there is a spectrum of jobs from the best in the world down to the worst and everyone agrees on the order.
  • To the extent this world is a meritocracy, the most talented will be the movie star and the least talented will be hauling manure.
  • In the agricultural economy, virtually everyone was a farmer.
  • If you were male and born on a farm, you were almost certainly going to be a farmer.
  • By the time you were fifteen, you learned everything you needed to know to be a good farmer.
  • And so at an early age, you took a wife, started having children, and supported yourself by farming.
  • By the time your sons were fifteen, they, too, knew everything they needed to know to be a farmer, and it all continued.
  • The farmers had to learn what it meant to be paid by the hour and to take instructions from supervisors; how to do a task and then the next day, learn a completely new task and do it instead.
  • Working in a factory required learning a whole different rhythm of life.
  • People used to sweep the streets at night until a machine replaced them.
  • This idea that there are a finite number of jobs misses the point entirely of what makes a job.
  • Jobs are created when someone starts a business that takes a thing, adds labor and technology to it, and makes a new thing.
  • If a million people lose their jobs to a machine, then entrepreneurs start businesses that hire those people to do other things.
  • Today we are on the cusp of a substantially more profound shift in work life.
  • We still have people in boring, dead-end jobs only because we haven't built a machine to do the work.
  • There will be so much wealth that a minimum income will be guaranteed to everyone.
  • It will be regarded as a human right—a dividend for being born a human being, your share of the inheritance that all the prior generations accumulated.
  • When those are the paths people choose between in the future—a Star Trek path or a WALL·E path—some will choose one and some will choose the other.
  • Freed from worry about losing a job they do not enjoy, encouraged to follow their dreams and passions, I believe most will want to do just that.
  • Imagine if all the people with boring, dead-end machine jobs were told they never had to work another day in their life at a job they did not like.
  • In a few years, the money is gone and they are worse off than before.
  • But I am not talking about a state of affairs where overnight someone with a "machine job" gets unlimited wealth.
  • They work at jobs they do not like, doing work a machine should be doing.
  • The idea of having to "earn a living" will be completely foreign to us.
  • But as we grew up, reality set in that market forces did not allow those activities to pay enough to support us, so at some point we all figured out we had to "earn a living."
  • And that meant, for too many of us, ditching what we loved to do and doing the work of a machine.
  • Thus, because Chad is not good at painting, he cannot paint for a living.
  • Instead, he gets a job monitoring security cameras, which pays $10 an hour—until, of course, he loses that job to Chang.
  • Imagine you live in a large trailer park and you have four young children.
  • One day, a tornado comes, lifts up your trailer with everyone in it, flies it around the world to the poorest nation on earth, and drops it in the middle of the village.
  • Now all of a sudden your children are raised in what seems to everyone to be the lap of luxury.
  • Electricity (hmm, I guess the trailer was solar powered), a refrigerator, air conditioning.
  • Your children actually might grow up feeling privileged, better, and even a bit snooty.
  • It is contagious and would be even in a uniformly wealthy world.
  • We live in a place and time where we own thousands of things we could not have made.
  • These jobs can be market jobs that have the potential to make a person vastly richer, creating more and more wealth on the planet.
  • As technology enters its explosive period of growth, with the Internet and associated technologies flourishing in a Moore's-Law-like manner, it will create immense amounts of wealth.
  • By comparison, if a country has 99 percent of the people working in agriculture—if it is barely feeding itself, even with everyone working at that—then it is living at a subsistence level, the very definition of poverty.
  • Weaponized famine occurs when hunger itself is used to gain a political or military end.
  • This would be the case in a besieged city or a nation using the food supply to keep its citizenry in check.
  • He writes how in Europe when there is a problem, people turn to the government to solve it, but in America, they form what he calls "voluntary associations"—what we might term charities and nonprofits.
  • No government is involved in these organizations, which are instead driven by a combination of religious and civic motives.
  • Instead of piety being expressed simply in a multitude of unrelated individual acts, it expressed itself in group action.
  • I personally think the establishment of charitable organizations was driven by the same spirit that drove the creation of new businesses.
  • In a speech to the House of Representatives at this same time, Congressman Davy Crockett told the story of getting chewed out by a constituent for voting for a $20,000 emergency relief bill for the homeless in a city just wiped out by a fire.
  • This all began to change in the twentieth century for a variety of reasons.
  • Barely a decade earlier, Cleveland, also a Democrat, had said essentially, "Look, the government shouldn't be helping the poor Texans; that's the role of charity."
  • In the modern era, what we have seen around the world is a general increase in social services and the welfare state over time.
  • Rarely in history has a government wrested away a functioning, privately funded solution in favor of a government entitlement.
  • In any case, as the song says, The times, they are a-changin'—and they are changing in a manner that governments probably can't keep up with.
  • It is a shame that de Tocqueville's voluntary associations aren't more prominent around the world today—but in the future, they may be.
  • First, nutrition is a very primitive science.
  • There is undoubtedly a cause and effect between what we eat and our health, but I believe it is still poorly understood.
  • It is almost impossible to execute a pure controlled study of anything relating to nutrition because there are simply too many variables to consider.
  • In addition, how food affects us unquestionably has a lot to do with genetic factors, and because everyone has a different genetic makeup, different foods affect each of us differently.
  • As we noted earlier, people no longer disagree simply about what values to apply to a set of facts—rather, they disagree as to the nature of the facts themselves.
  • Given so many different nutritional theories and viewpoints, most people base their own nutritional philosophies on a combination of two factors: personal experience and social/political worldview.
  • If someone notices that she gets a headache when she eats MSG—or artichokes, or grasshoppers—that first-person, anecdotal experience will shape her nutritional philosophy.
  • This makes a great deal of sense: If nutrition isn't governed by universal laws (as physics is) and instead affects different people differently, then the way you will know certain things is by learning through trial and error, through your own experience.
  • This approach, however, has a couple of downsides.
  • Or, we gravitate toward anecdotes like, "I take my vitamin C every day and haven't had a cold in year."
  • Well, yeah, but you also drink a Coca-Cola every day, too.
  • The second way people choose a nutritional theory is to develop it from their overall social and political understanding of the world.
  • If you think "Western Medicine" is a business whose goal is to keep you sick to sell you medicines, you will tend to move away from genetically modified foods and favor organic.
  • That's a quarter of all the hungry people in the world.
  • That's right: India is a net food exporter to the tune of US$6 billion a year.
  • Pakistan has the third largest number of hungry people with a total of 43.4 million.
  • Just half a century ago, Americans on average spent more than 20 percent of their income on food.
  • I can go to Sam's Club and buy a twenty-pound bag of rice for $10 and a twenty-pound bag of pinto beans for $13.
  • These foodstuffs alone contain sixty thousand calories, or two thousand calories a day for a month, for a total of $30.
  • Even at the retail price, we could feed all the world's hungry for a billion dollars a day or $365 billion a year.
  • At one point, Tiger Woods got a dime for every box of Wheaties cereal with his photo on it, while the farmer was paid only a nickel for the wheat in that same box—and the farmer still made a profit.
  • Given these agricultural strengths, is there anyone who believes the United States alone couldn't produce an extra $365 billion worth of food, at full retail price, if there were a ready buyer for it?
  • But in a real sense, it also makes the problem that much easier to solve in the future.
  • You can be a subsistence farmer and perhaps produce some excess, but given the prior observation about the fundamental volatility of farming, you will always be at risk of not producing enough.
  • In essence, they would become like Japan, which exports essentially no food, imports US$44 billion in food annually, but still enjoys a high standard of living.
  • Still others argue for a system of government price supports, incentives, and subsidies, as is found in the United States and Europe.
  • Food security is a real issue, and nations that do not at least produce some kinds of food are at risk.
  • Say the poor decide they cannot compete with a modern farm, so they move to the city and get a job at a factory.
  • The cost of their imported food doubles, and I guarantee you the foreign-owned factory won't double wages as a result.
  • In societies where a large percentage of income is necessary just to buy food, having volatile food prices will mean hunger sooner or later, no matter how good the factory jobs are.
  • When few people own land and most people live in cities, it is quite common to have high degrees of hunger in a nation that is exporting food.
  • So let's say the large corn farms all have a great year and a bountiful crop comes forth.
  • It has a large number of landlocked nations without ports to access the international markets, both for imports and exports.
  • While agriculture itself is a technology, it is, in its most basic form, extremely low tech.
  • But the industry as a whole has shot forward.)
  • A couple of centuries pass and improved harnesses come along.
  • A couple of hundred years later, we see the Romans doing crop rotation.
  • The cotton gin, steel ploughs, tractors, combines, and a thousand other inventions would forever change the farm.
  • It seems a clear-cut case.
  • Workers made $30 a month, $25 of which went to their parents.
  • While in college, Borlaug heard a lecture by Elvin Stakman about plant disease in wheat, barley, and oak crops.
  • This speech was a pivotal event in Borlaug's life.
  • Throughout this time, Borlaug constantly battled wheat's arch-nemesis: rust, a fungus that feeds on wheat, oats, and barley.
  • In 1953, he developed a method to make strains of wheat highly resistant to a single form of rust.
  • This was a guy from a small town in Iowa who failed his 1933 entrance exam to the University of Minnesota.
  • But if ever there was a textbook case of one guy making a difference, this is it.
  • Consider for a moment how much Borlaug accomplished with almost no technology.
  • He didn't have computers or even a calculator.
  • He basically followed old agriculture; he planted a lot of seed and hoped for rain.
  • He would pollinate a wheat stalk, then cover it with a trash bag to prevent contamination by other plants.
  • A trash bag was the highest-tech object Borlaug had.
  • From our point of view, the job of the plant is to convert sunlight into energy and store that energy in a tasty way; then when we eat the plant, we get that energy.
  • How good a job are the plants doing?
  • We stick a bunch of seeds in the ground and then treat a thousand acres of corn pretty much as a single unit.
  • What if you could do agriculture perfectly on a per-grape basis, each grape getting individual attention?
  • A fascinating character and an extremely patient experimenter, Mendel was a German friar and scientist who figured out that plants (and presumably animals) had inheritable characteristics.
  • A fascinating character and an extremely patient experimenter, Mendel was a German friar and scientist who figured out that plants (and presumably animals) had inheritable characteristics.
  • He noticed that when he bred a tall one with a short one, sometimes he got tall offspring and sometimes a short offspring.
  • Then he noticed when he bred tall pea plants with another tall plant, he occasionally got a short offspring, but usually tall ones.
  • One guy from Iowa came along with some garbage bags and saved a billion lives.
  • And yet the future I envision is no more like what we have today than a state-of-the-art Volvo factory is like a nineteenth-century London sweatshop.
  • When I use a term like factory farm, I am envisioning not what these things are now but what they will be.
  • It will be a massive, completely automated, robotic facility.
  • Mechanization and automation—both of which are about to get a lot better.
  • I know this sounds awful to a lot of people.
  • It sounds mechanical, sterile, and just a little bit un-American.
  • Instead, it is a large, open-air farm with a robot assigned to make each turnip be all that it can be.
  • If a fly lands on it, the fly is shooed off.
  • Can you imagine a better life for a turnip?
  • How do I reconcile my personal choices with my statement that the farm of the future is a good thing?
  • Recall my comparison of a nineteenth-century London factory to a factory that makes Volvos today.
  • A traitor to the cause?
  • I grew up on a farm.
  • Additionally, we had a five-acre garden where we grew everything you can grow in East Texas.
  • My fingertips are still stained a bit blue.
  • Today, I have a vegetable garden in my backyard.
  • Every week, I buy my milk from a small local dairy on the day it comes forth from the cow.
  • This dairyman also makes some of the milk into cheese and we use a lot of that as well.
  • I buy my eggs from a farmer whose chickens roam free.
  • I am a huge fan of heritage meats.
  • My favorite cookbook, Apicius, is a 1,500-year-old collection of recipes from ancient Rome.
  • But I do not believe these technological leaps forward are a threat to good food.
  • Third, the day will come when the farm of the future will make a healthier, less expensive, more ecologically friendly, fresher, and better-tasting product.
  • At present, they win hands down on "less expensive" and put in a decent showing on a couple more factors.
  • A century ago, cars were made one at a time by a half dozen people working together.
  • A century ago, cars were made one at a time by a half dozen people working together.
  • Then Henry Ford came along, followed by a host of others, and cars got better and better while getting less and less expensive.
  • No one today would want a car built the old way.
  • It would cost a million dollars and not even be as good as a Chevy.
  • I foresee a day when, on a Sunday afternoon, a family might drive (or actually be driven by their car) out to a farm to see where food comes from.
  • Plus, raising plants and animals takes a long time and is a lot of work to boot.
  • Both of these are hugely important parts of life, and I know of no one who would trade them away for a pill they swallow in the morning that gives them all their nutrition for the day.
  • What if a manufactured steak was as good as the best steak you have ever had?
  • Do you really know what is in a hotdog, or are you sure you want to?
  • Let me start with a few caveats.
  • In a recent survey, only a quarter of Americans answered that question with a "yes."
  • Presently, labeling of GMO content isn't a requirement—and since labeling is a complex and controversial issue that has no bearing on my thesis, I will pass it by.
  • An example of that is a breed of cat called "Scottish Fold."
  • In 1961 in Perthshire, Scotland, a white barn cat named Susie was found at a farm.
  • A neighboring farmer and cat-lover, William Ross, perhaps hearing a distinct "ka-ching" in his head, got one of the kittens and teamed up with a geneticist and began a careful breeding program.
  • A neighboring farmer and cat-lover, William Ross, perhaps hearing a distinct "ka-ching" in his head, got one of the kittens and teamed up with a geneticist and began a careful breeding program.
  • Over the next three years, forty-two folded-ear cats were born, and with them a new breed.
  • The fold in the ears was caused by a heritable, dominant, mutated gene.
  • This is a form of genetic modification.
  • But sometimes it was like lightning in a bottle, and magic happened.
  • Half the rice grown in California is a descendant of Calrose 76, created when gamma rays mutated some regular rice and the resulting mutant produced more grain and less spoilage.
  • Now we are at the third order: splicing genes within a species.
  • Finally, we get to the fourth order of GMO: being able to splice genes from one species into another species, a process known as transgenesis.
  • Let's look at a real-life example.
  • The law was a win for the environment.
  • It affects more than one hundred million people in a hundred countries, kills more than a million people a year, and blinds another half million for good measure.
  • UNICEF has said a program that gives children two large doses a year of vitamin A could all but eliminate VAD, although more frequent, smaller doses would be better.
  • UNICEF has said a program that gives children two large doses a year of vitamin A could all but eliminate VAD, although more frequent, smaller doses would be better.
  • Rice doesn't naturally have vitamin A. Enter transgenics.
  • In 2005, a biotech firm called Syngenta produced a similar rice it called "Golden Rice 2."
  • This is especially unfortunate because a major crop in Africa, grain sorghum, has a somewhat indigestible protein which our bodies have a hard time metabolizing.
  • GMO could make this a crop that Africa could easily use to feed itself, gain food independence, and maybe even export.
  • In any case, it seems better to me than irradiating corn, planting it, and hoping to hit a jackpot.
  • There is a distinction.
  • Me ordering a second helping of corn on the cob while dining at the Black Eyed Pea also increases demand for corn, but for doing so, I shouldn't stand trial for murder.
  • If you worry about gas emissions from cows contributing to climate change, lobby for a cow that doesn't have gas.
  • In 2006, a pig was genetically engineered to produce healthy omega-3 fatty acids.
  • By taking this "Absolutely no GMOs" stance they completely remove themselves from the debate and as such have no voice in the discussion about what direction to take GM: what are safe testing practices, what factors will we optimize for, and the whole host of questions that face us on this, the eve of a momentous leap forward.
  • Weigh that against the certainty that nearly a billion people are hungry right now and I don't know why we would decline to acquire this knowledge.
  • But the end of hunger also will be hastened by a host of Internet technologies that will dramatically change agriculture.
  • As noted previously, in the future much of what you do will leave a Digital Echo, a record of its occurrence, down to the very minutia of your life.
  • Remember my earlier statement that a farmer treats a thousand acres of corn as a single entity because it is not cost effective to deal with each corn stalk separately?
  • That is also the case because humans couldn't do a very good job at a stalk-by-stalk approach.
  • Our eyes are capable of seeing only a narrow spectrum of light.
  • In the not too distant future, tiny robots will detect pests on produce and emit a signal to shoo them away.
  • When a promising new finding emerges, that information will be shared with other farms and those techniques will be tested there.
  • Farming will be done on such a scale that thousands of experiments can be happening at any one time, putting a tiny fraction of the produce at risk.
  • Cheap sensors, cloud computing, self-teaching algorithms with feedback loops and sufficient cycles to test a large number of techniques.
  • I know it sounds all futuristic and expensive now, but what if this technology falls to just a few dollars per acre?
  • This has been a common situation throughout areas with high degrees of poverty and is certainly the case in Ethiopia.
  • Their produce is checked in to the warehouse and each farmer is issued a certificate corresponding to the amount of produce he brought.
  • It can sell produce abroad for better rates, give farmers predictability in pricing and flexibility on when to sell, and act as a storehouse against lean times in the future.
  • The principle here is to agree to buy a certain amount of a commodity at a certain price from farmers in these countries.
  • The farmers, with these contracts in hand, can plant aggressively knowing they have a ready buyer at a fixed price.
  • You can install Boinc software on your computer, choose a project you want your computer to work on when you are away from it, and maybe do your bit to change the world.
  • A leader can only afford to let her people go hungry when she doesn't answer to them.
  • With the help of local agencies around the world that have experience in micro-loans, a would-be borrower—say, a fish seller in the Philippines—uploads a picture and an explanation of what she wants the loan for.
  • Since its founding in 2005, Kiva has loaned out nearly a quarter of a billion dollars and is repaid almost 99 percent of the time.
  • The old adage is true: There really is no such thing as a free lunch.
  • There are those who would elevate the right to food as being a fundamental human right.
  • To think of the right to life as somehow different than a right to food is hard for me.
  • It is akin to saying you have a right to life but not a right to a heart.
  • Napoleon Bonaparte made a comment along these lines when he stated, "Man is entitled by birthright to a share of the Earth's produce sufficient to fill the needs of his existence."
  • What would we say to Borlaug if we met him in a cornfield and ended up discussing the world's problems over a beer somewhere?
  • If you have a problem with that, take it up with the man with the gun.
  • It would be a colossal mistake to assume some sort of collectivist or communistic solution to hunger in the world.
  • During this three-year period, conveniently named by the Chinese "The Three Years of Natural Disasters," no one really knows how many people died; estimates range from fifteen million to a high of more than forty-five million.
  • And the great tragedy is: During these three years, China exported more than twelve million tons of grain along with a literal cornucopia of other agricultural products.
  • Yang also quotes Mao as saying in a 1959 meeting, When there is not enough to eat, people starve to death.
  • And if that were not enough, he killed by starvation in the name of a program called—I kid you not—"The Super Great Leap Forward."
  • Water isn't free; someone is paying a bill to purify the water that comes through that fountain.
  • I don't recall ever being in a department store, drinking from the water fountain, and having the staff look at me disapprovingly because I was running up the water bill.
  • In using the phrase, "Necessitous men are not free men," Roosevelt was actually quoting from a decision in a well-known 1762 English legal case.
  • The full quote runs: "Necessitous men are not, truly speaking, free men, but, to answer a present exigency, will submit to any terms that the crafty may impose upon them."
  • But this is a misreading of both Roosevelt and history.
  • To elevate food to the status of a human right does not require government to administer it—far from it.
  • In the United States, you could do it via the tax code, with government only acting as an income redistribution agent but not as a food distributor.
  • But what if everyone in the nation, rich and poor, were to be mailed a $2,000 food card annually, redeemable at the grocery store for any of several hundred nutritious foods?
  • To the conservatives, call it a tax rebate; to the liberals, an entitlement.
  • In the United States, de Tocqueville's voluntary associations still do the job and anyone willing to make her way to a church or food pantry and say she is hungry will not leave empty handed.
  • Food in the United States is so inexpensive as a percentage of national income that it literally is a throwaway item.
  • If you knew someone who was a good business partner, was fun to hang out with, but let one of his children starve to death so that he could enjoy a higher standard of living, what would be your opinion of this person?
  • Would you be proud to call him a friend?
  • Is our nation so poor or so weak that we must resort to the ultimate in pragmatism and befriend nations in the name of commerce or prosperity or military security while turning a blind eye to the suffering of their people?
  • What would we have the centuries to come to say about us: That we were so eager to maximize our position of power and wealth that we turned a blind eye to injustice?
  • As people grow wealthier (as the whole world will), they typically spend more money on food, though it is less as a percentage of overall income.
  • As the world grows richer, people will care more about how their food is made, how the animals are treated, whether the laborer who picked the food is paid a living wage.
  • We might pay a premium to support a family farm.
  • As we understand our own genome better, we will know better how to eat in a way that is custom tailored for us.
  • That is a hard truth, but a truth nonetheless.
  • Do not expect this to be a uniformly reassuring journey; it may be more of a roller-coaster ride with some rather bleak descents.
  • Something akin to getting a date with Miss America: Sure, in theory, possible—but realistically, it ain't gonna happen.
  • It's a pretty hopeless place to take a reader.
  • Is that a distant bugle I hear?
  • All right then, not the cavalry, but a marshaling of arguments and observations that will show how the end of war is inevitable, or nearly so.
  • He pulls up next to a farmer and asks the farmer how to get to a certain place.
  • Jordanes, a Goth, wrote the following about the Huns in 551: They are beings who are cruel to their children on the very day they are born.
  • For they cut the cheeks of the males with a sword, so that before they receive the nourishment of milk they must learn to endure wounds.
  • The Bulgarian king Samuel was so stricken by the sight of his mighty army staggering back home that he suffered a stroke and died two days later.
  • Eventually Spartacus and many of his followers were killed and six thousand of his fellow rebelling slaves were crucified, a slow and agonizing form of death.
  • They were lined up as far as the eye could see on the Apian Way, the main road through Rome, as a warning to other slaves who might consider rebellion.
  • I will spare my readers a description of this other than to say it is exactly what it sounds like.
  • The ancient world was a cruel place.
  • This is not a defense of our present age; we will come to our own report card soon enough.
  • Although slavery still exists and the low price of slaves speaks to the low value of a human life, the legal institution of slavery is gone.
  • No longer can a person own another person and have the power of the state backing him up.
  • We no longer have public executions as a form of entertainment.
  • There was a period when intellectuals believed and spoke openly of the idea that the "breeding" of the "unfit" should be limited.
  • During World War II, when General Patton got sacked for slapping a soldier whom he regarded as cowardly, the Germans couldn't believe it: Their officers could have soldiers shot without trial!
  • Every day fewer places exist where a single person has legal right to end the life of another.
  • Even acknowledging that human rights exist is a great advance of civilization.
  • The idea that a person can be a political prisoner, jailed for his beliefs about government, politics, or politicians, is ancient but happily fading.
  • The very fact that we have debated in recent years whether we can use torture to get information that will save lives is a sign of the effects of civilization.
  • A formal appeals process and trial by jury are commonplace.
  • The United States is a republic, as even the Pledge of Allegiance says.
  • We use democracy as a method of selecting representatives.
  • At a farmers' market I recently visited, one vendor boasted that all his chickens "retained their dignity throughout their life."
  • (I don't personally see how a chicken, in any situation, can have dignity.
  • After all, it is a chicken.
  • As clichéd as it is to complain about rising rates of crime, the statistics tell a different story.
  • They do this for a variety of reasons, not the least of which is that it often works.
  • As Scottish historian Thomas Carlyle once observed, "Man seldom, or rather never for a length of time and deliberately, rebels against anything that does not deserve rebelling against."
  • We have eliminated debtors prisons, developed the idea of "women and children first," stigmatized child labor, made accommodations for conscientious objectors, widely adopted freedom of speech and the press and freedom of assembly, and a hundred more.
  • It is true that there is much disagreement over how to achieve these ideals, but the fact remains we want a just society for all.
  • Yes, you can still see a cockfight in the United States.
  • We have created documents that enshrine our values as a method of articulating and preserving them.
  • The chapter title poses a valid question.
  • Maybe we need it as a release valve that lets off societal pressure ...
  • To be clear: I am not a pacifist.
  • By declaring a pretty broad range of things worth killing and dying for, we say that each of those is more precious to us than human life.
  • Early in his presidency, in a 1953 address that would become known as his "Cross of Iron" speech, he declared, "Every gun that is made, every warship launched, every rocket fired, signifies in the final sense a theft from those who hunger and are not fed, those who are cold and are not clothed.
  • This is not a way of life ...
  • Under the cloud of war, it is humanity hanging itself on a cross of iron.
  • Their aim, he said, was nothing less than "the lifting, from the backs and from the hearts of men, of their burden of arms and of fears, so that they may find before them a golden age of freedom and of peace."
  • So did de Tocqueville, touring nineteenth-century America, when he wrote that "All those who seek to destroy the liberties of a democratic nation ought to know that war is the surest and shortest means to accomplish it."
  • Journalist Brooks Atkinson, said: "After each war, there is a little less democracy left to save."
  • A war which became general, as any limited action might, would only result in the virtual destruction of mankind.
  • That's a bold statement, coming from a sitting president and former general.
  • It has led us up those last few steps to the mountain pass; and beyond there is a different country.
  • A full-scale, no-holds-barred, nuclear-missiles-raining-down kind of world war would profoundly change the course of human history for all time.
  • It is certainly possible to conceive of a single day without war.
  • If there can be a day without war, then there can be two days without it.
  • Then there can be a week, a month, a year, a decade, and a century without war.
  • It is an acknowledgement that war is completely a choice and our choice can be "no."
  • It was a way for that generation to ask, Why is there war?
  • Those asking it didn't offer a means for the world to escape from war.
  • It was a rhetorical question and, to those posing it, simply a wish—just another way to say, "Why can't we all just get along?"
  • Well, there are a lot of reasons we don't get along.
  • I am not posing a naïve, rhetorical question.
  • This is not a section about hope, ideals, wishes, or the brotherhood of all mankind.
  • I will not propose that we should "give peace a chance."
  • War occurs for a very simple reason: To some nations at some time, war is preferable to peace.
  • But I am making a case I believe I can defend and will begin by defining my terms.
  • We have a police force and a court system to apply the laws equally to all.
  • Why do I say world government is not a good idea and nation-states are?
  • People in a small town in Alabama, a small city in Algeria, and a large city in Argentina all desire different forms of governments with different services.
  • Accountability must be at as low a level as possible, so that if government officials mess up, they answer to constituents in their locality.
  • Faceless government in a distant land is no one's idea of paradise.
  • For these reasons and a hundred more, government should be the smallest unit that is economically and politically viable.
  • They can standardize in a thousand more ways to a world economy, while maintaining their values, traditions, and distinctions.
  • In these ways, they can be part of a larger world economy without sacrificing much autonomy.
  • When the Soviet Union dissolved only two years later, not with a bang but with a whimper, we were slack-jawed with surprise.
  • No one I knew of had ever seriously considered the possibility that without any conflict, treaty, war, or even a coin toss, the Soviet Union would simply vote itself into nonexistence in 1991.
  • Francis Fukuyama wrote a famous essay entitled "The End of History?" which became the catchphrase of the day.
  • Of course, politics being what it is, the Peace Dividend was spent a dozen times over by as many special interests who felt they were the most deserving of such an unexpected largess.
  • And life went on for a decade.
  • You could have the libertarian state, the green state, the clothing-optional state, the state with free public housing for all, the state where puns are outlawed, the state with a two-drink minimum, the fiercely pro-business state—even a state that guarantees free speech but requires that you sing your speech like a show tune.
  • As long as these states were to share a currency, a military, provide for interstate trade, and have a single foreign policy, they could retain the economic advantages of being a large nation while maximizing individual liberty and self-determination.
  • Anyone who has a child knows the love and concern parents feel for their offspring.
  • To raise a child to adulthood requires your heart, energy, time, and wealth.
  • And not a moment too soon.
  • I can easily list a half-dozen reasons this goal will be difficult to achieve.
  • Even in civilized corporate offices, professionals in business attire say their work tasks place them "down in the trenches" or that a certain "campaign" requires "guerrilla" marketing.
  • We live in a chillingly martial world.
  • Technically speaking, I have included a few that are not dependent on the Internet per se, but in which the Internet and technology plays some role.
  • As recently as the early twentieth century, relatively few careers existed in which young men of drive and ambition could distinguish themselves and leave a mark on the world.
  • In the 1960 version of the film, he was played by a thirty-one-year-old Laurence Harvey.
  • George Armstrong Custer, of "Custer's Last Stand" fame, became a major general at twenty-four.
  • While military service was less important to securing work in commerce, that was not a particularly noteworthy occupation.
  • In the modern age, we have simply transferred the competition to a new arena: the business world.
  • They didn't enter war to satisfy a desire to kill and maim but to be victorious in the way their society rewarded.
  • The wealthier a nation gets, the more it stands to lose in war, and the less marginal utility it gains in conquest.
  • Some have questioned whether Friedman's thesis is 100 percent true, mentioning NATO air strikes against Yugoslavia as a potential exception.
  • It is this combined with the fact that their targets, too, are worth more; the cost of rebuilding a modern city today dwarfs the cost of rebuilding that city fifty years ago.
  • One can only assume it would be substantially more if it were to be leveled with a nuclear device.
  • This has to be a serious deterrent to Japan (as an example).
  • The reasoning behind MAD was that if we can annihilate the Soviets or the Chinese and they in turn can annihilate us, then none of us will start a war.
  • I find MAD a disturbing strategy and see problems with it.
  • It was the basis for the movie War Games in which the military's computer finally figures out it can't win in a nuclear launch scenario and says of such a war, Strange game.
  • In the past, war could increase your financial position, both as a nation (through spoils) and a soldier (through plunder).
  • It is hard to see how all-out war turns a profit for anyone in any scenario.
  • The seventeenth-century Spanish writer Baltasar Gracián once offered this advice: "Never contend with a man who has nothing to lose."
  • Poverty in sub-Saharan Africa is a contributing factor in any number of conflicts there.
  • Since the poorest nations will improve their financial conditions indefinitely, this is a long-term trend toward peace.
  • That's a pretty interesting thought.
  • I wouldn't give it up for a million dollars, just like I wouldn't sell my left arm for a million dollars.
  • Because we value them, we are reluctant to give them up without a really good reason.
  • If you made a product the military could use, government contracts came a-flowin'.
  • The pacifist manufacturer was a conflicted individual during wartime.
  • By the time Eisenhower left office, this had changed, and a dedicated military industry existed.
  • This is not to say that businesses are so materialistic they will favor a war to get a government contract.
  • But let's adopt the cynic's view for a moment and assume people in these corporations are chiefly concerned about their financial benefit, not about human suffering, when it comes to war.
  • Imagine you are a defense contractor on top of the world.
  • The enemy has a widget too, the D2001.
  • Is this situation really preferable from a business standpoint?
  • It is a pacific system, operating to cordialize mankind, by rendering nations, as well as individuals, useful to each other.
  • If you are a masseuse, your massage oils might come from Indonesia.
  • Anything that creates a more intertwined world without compromising autonomy, self-rule, and self-determination is good for peace.
  • The more I have a personal vested interest in your success, the better.
  • Centuries ago, North America saw a shortage of small coins, so large ones were cut into bits to circulate as small change.
  • In the modern age, money is once again represented by bits, but a different kind altogether: Money went from gold to paper and is now digital.
  • Electronic transfers mean the money of a government, business, or individual might be anywhere at any time.
  • At the end of their day, the loan is repaid with a slight bit of interest.
  • Think of a large city anywhere.
  • In warfare, asymmetry is where something very small can do a huge amount of damage.
  • Asymmetry is a mixed bag as far as the future goes.
  • It is bad in that it allows a few to harm the many.
  • In one sense, it's a peaceful world: The bully insists on the lunch money of the small kid, who has no recourse but to capitulate.
  • The benefits of asymmetry happen when the small kid gets a Taser.
  • Roughly a quarter of the way through our list of factors that will end war, we have reached the end of the economic ones.
  • We will avoid war because it is unprofitable; and while that is not a moral reason, any reason that brings peace is fine by me.
  • Monarchies—the most prevalent form of government in human history—are disproportionately warlike for a number of reasons.
  • Second, monarchs themselves often have only a financial risk in war.
  • (Of course, when a king proves himself through battle, he is not risking his life but the lives of thousands of his subjects.
  • To him, it is a chess game, not personal combat.)
  • While kings claimed they ruled by a divine right, dictators claimed their right to rule through might.
  • They view individual liberty as a threat, new political ideas as subversion, and political opposition as treason.
  • In World War II, the United States went to war with Germany, Italy, and Japan, a trio of undemocratic countries.
  • It took one week for a localized event to escalate to world war.
  • In fact, virtually everyone should have wondered why he was fighting soldiers from places he couldn't find on a map.
  • It is a relic of a different age.
  • This has come about as we have left a polarized world behind us and the importance of military alliances has fallen.
  • People can come together and choose a form of government suitable to them.
  • The fact that small nations can adopt standard treaties, laws, currencies, and international practices of larger countries means that a small economic unit can be viable.
  • It is a completely viable state, with a ski museum and a McDonald's.
  • It has no border guards, only a sign identifying when one has entered Liechtenstein.
  • From the northwest angle of Nova Scotia, viz., that angle which is formed by a line drawn due north from the source of St. Croix River to the highlands; along the said highlands which divide those rivers that empty themselves into the river St. Lawrence ...
  • Tensions mounted all through the 1830s as militias were raised on both sides in what later came to be known as the Aroostook War, even though there was never actually a war or casualties.
  • If someone writes a book in one country, does another country enforce the copyright within its borders?
  • What about extradition, if a citizen of one country visits another and breaks the local law?
  • A handheld GPS unit can settle any well-defined border issue.
  • Voluntary acceptance of shared practices is not a surrender of autonomy.
  • It is a willing agreement to a set of values and procedures, and a standard of conduct.
  • The demise of war will be hastened when every impulse to war is regarded, at least initially, with a healthy measure of distrust.
  • Non-violence as a successful political tactic.
  • In the past, a weak group unjustly persecuted by a strong group had few options.
  • There was a time, not so long ago, when almost everyone smoked.
  • Every part of every restaurant was a smoking section.
  • James Dean is locked in our minds with a cigarette.
  • A few airline flights went non-smoking.
  • Restaurants established a "smoking section," then some bold ones banned smoking altogether.
  • Next, entire cities banned smoking in all indoor public places, contending a private business's right to allow smoking was trumped by the dangers of exposing patrons to secondhand smoke.
  • In a fine Alfred Hitchcock movie called Notorious, the troubled character played by Ingrid Bergman gets very drunk at a party and asks Cary Grant to come for a drive.
  • It was a huge shift in public opinion in which no group benefited financially; if anything, financial interests were aligned against this change, just as with tobacco.
  • These changes occurred in a single lifetime, which meant people changed their minds.
  • While the right thing to do is never to drive drunk, be a smoker, or be a racist, occasionally war is the right thing to do.
  • It can be a jumble of voices: politicians and corporations, celebrities, religious figures, and opinion leaders, a million conversations in a single room.
  • But maybe as a civilization, we have to talk out loud to figure out where we stand, to make progress.
  • Some might argue this is not in and of itself a force for peace.
  • Two examples: the Battle of New Orleans, fought after the treaty ending the War of 1812 was signed; and the Battle of Palmito Ranch, fought a month after the Civil War ended.
  • Better communication is a huge step toward peace.
  • This is starkly different than if violence breaks out in a distant, unreal place where the only flow of information is from official sources.
  • First, the web promotes access to information, a huge force for peace.
  • When everyone, and every nation, and every organization, and every movement all have a presence on the web, they can be understood in terms of it.
  • It gives everyone a chance to make her case and be heard.
  • Third, the web acts as a feedback loop in that it allows all people to say what is on their minds.
  • Public opinion is a powerful force, and if it is generally a force for peace, then the web magnifies it.
  • The web is a force for truth, connectedness, understanding, and communication—all things whose absence can trigger war.
  • I include Twitter in this list as a larger idea, not only as the literal Twitter.com.
  • Twitter.com is unquestionably the most efficient way in the history of humanity to send a single idea, invitation, complaint, or observation to the world.
  • It is an altogether new concept that meets a need we didn't even know existed.
  • Already, we get a glimpse of what is to come.
  • For instance, if you have a Facebook friend Abigail in Albania whom you only met once at a rock-paper-scissors competition years ago, you will generally regard Abigail's first-hand account as authoritative, even though you don't really know Abigail all that well.
  • Also, simply having a Facebook friend in Albania will tend to make you more interested in the events of Albania.
  • Seldom will one decide that war with a friend's nation is the only recourse.
  • This is not a particularly new idea, similar to the phenomenon of getting to know and care about "pen pals" in far-flung places by exchanging postal-mail letters.
  • And truth is a force for peace.
  • Government is a great achievement of civilization.
  • However, practically speaking, it sometimes has a corrupting influence on those whom it empowers to act for the state.
  • In the sorting through of the facts from a multiplicity of new sources, truth can be determined.
  • Even in autocratic regimes, truth has a way of seeping in—which means today's dwindling crop of dictators has a serious problem.
  • And this is a force for peace.
  • Fast-forward a couple of decades, and the Internet has done vastly more than O'Neill could have imagined to promote open information about government.
  • In O'Neill's day, getting a copy of the federal budget meant writing away and buying a hefty paper copy.
  • You still can buy it from the government's bookstore; a recent one ran about two thousand pages and cost about $200.
  • The National Security Agency even has a website with a section called CryptoKids for "America's Future Codemakers & Codebreakers."
  • But a sizable number are attempting this, and the direction the world is heading is obvious.
  • Their revolution was not made up of a bunch of hotheads with torches and pitchforks.
  • Sure, it isn't as big a force as Democratic Peace Theory or Mutually Assured Poverty.
  • Around the world, more than a billion mobile devices that both take and send photographs are currently in use, spread even to the poorest parts of the globe.
  • In point #29, we described how peace is served when mobile devices allow people to organize and communicate in a widely distributed fashion.
  • In just a few years, virtually all phones will be camera phones.
  • "Internet in a suitcase" and the "shadow Internet."
  • Two interesting government programs are under way in the United States, according to a June 2011 article in The New York Times.
  • The article also describes a second project where a group of young entrepreneurs who look as if they could be in a garage band are fitting deceptively innocent-looking hardware into a prototype 'Internet in a suitcase.'
  • Enabling people to communicate in a method with which their governments cannot interfere is a force for freedom and peace.
  • I know this is a controversial forecast, and to many people a very depressing one, but I think it is both inevitable and good.
  • To be successful in the world, for a while both English and one's native tongue will be requirements.
  • But learning two languages comes at a cost.
  • Long before English became the lingua franca of the Internet age, the world has wanted a common language.
  • Then Latin became somewhat universal, from a Western viewpoint, as Rome's reach spread.
  • These nations will play a substantial role in shaping this new English, as they bring grammatical structure, idioms, and nuanced words from their native tongue.
  • Nations will maintain their own traditions, holidays, music, idioms, diets, and a thousand things that make them different from other nations.
  • Keeping that one comes at a large financial price: Learn proficiency at two languages or remain separate from the world economy.
  • In 2006, roughly a billion people had access to the Internet.
  • If it were a person, it still couldn't even order a beer to toast itself for all it has done in such a short time.
  • Oddly, it could, however, join the military and go fight in a war overseas.
  • The final ten cover a range of topics that don't fit neatly elsewhere.
  • Educated people seem to pose more of a threat to autocrats.
  • The future German man will not just be a man of books, but a man of character.
  • When there was a coup in Burma, now Myanmar, in 1988, they closed the universities.
  • On the other end of the education spectrum, college degrees are up: A recent Harvard University study reports that 6.7 percent of the world has a college degree, up from 5.9 percent in 2000.
  • On the other end of the education spectrum, college degrees are up: A recent Harvard University study reports that 6.7 percent of the world has a college degree, up from 5.9 percent in 2000.
  • As education rises, a thousand other things rise with it: income, health, political engagement, and an overall concern for world affairs.
  • A shift in power to the young.
  • Because young people generally understand and utilize technology better than older people, we will see a shift in power and influence toward the young.
  • A record 15 percent—about one out of every seven—of new marriages in 2008 landed in the 'Marrying Out' category.
  • This is a force for peace, as more and more people have family members in more than one culture and share the interests of more than one nationality.
  • If your father is American and your mother Chinese, you will have a different understanding of differences between those countries, and, on balance, will be less amenable to war between those nations.
  • Being educated in the United States has long been a mark of distinction for the elites of other nations.
  • When you have visited a place, you will find it harder to advocate its destruction.
  • Here is a fact to get your head around: In 1980, about seven million Americans had a passport.
  • That is a huge change and a force for peace.
  • In addition, more than one billion of the world's seven billion people visited a country other than their own in 2011.
  • This is a reassuring trend.
  • Half a century ago, the United States had three channels on TV and everyone watched them.
  • This gave people a shared set of cultural references.
  • The world is developing a shared popular culture with elements drawn from around the globe.
  • This is a force for peace—to the extent that as we share the same set of cultural references, we understand each other better.
  • I do not think the importance of YouTube lies in its role as a communication method nor as a fundamentally new means of distribution of media.
  • Now, on a regular basis, videos appear which bring to life something that would otherwise be merely an ill-formed image in our minds.
  • Instead of reading words on a page and trying to imagine a concept, we can see it, as the old expression goes, in Technicolor.
  • A single image can end a war.
  • A single image can end a war.
  • And if an image can end a war, a video can change the world.
  • A single video a moment long can increase empathy and understanding.
  • A single video a moment long can increase empathy and understanding.
  • Let's talk a moment about patriotism and nationalism, words frequently used but seldom clearly defined.
  • It is the same spirit that makes people fanatical about a certain sports team, regardless of the players or the score.
  • But the decline of nationalism is a force for peace.
  • The social reformer of the past is depicted as a dour spinster wielding an axe to break barrels of "Demon Rum."
  • The population at that time was a tenth of what it is today.
  • So if a battle today were similarly costly, the proportional number of casualties would be 230,000.
  • Can you imagine the public reaction to that today: A quarter of a million people killed or wounded in a single day?
  • Can you imagine the public reaction to that today: A quarter of a million people killed or wounded in a single day?
  • In World War I, in the Battle of the Somme, were over a million casualties, and the action advanced the Allied line just seven miles, or about two deaths for every inch of ground.
  • In World War II, even more battles had a million casualties each.
  • Mass communication means we no longer read a number like "a million dead"—we actually see them, see pictures of them.
  • Every dead soldier has a face, a story, and a bereaved family.
  • This is the present reality in a world defined by the ease of communication.
  • I hope that along the way you thought of a few I missed, a few trends or developments that lead toward peace.
  • In Othello is a character named Iago, an evil man who never does anything illegal himself but is always planting ideas in other people's minds, to get them to do his dirty work.
  • Macbeth is the story of a ruthless wife, Lady Macbeth, who persuades her husband to murder the king and take his throne.
  • It is a tale of ambition and then of guilt.
  • King Lear is about a father who has three daughters—two who flatter him, but a third who speaks honestly and bluntly to him because she loves him.
  • Later that evening when Simonides was at a banquet with Scopas, he got word that two young men were outside looking for him.
  • That's what interests me about this story (which may or may not be purely true): What Simonides did—recalling the names and locations of everyone at a large banquet—is described as entirely possible and an enviable, practical skill.
  • My memory is a big part of who I am and I have no desire to trade any of it away.
  • Augustine describes a day when he saw his mentor, Ambrose, looking intently at an open book.
  • After staring for two or three minutes, Ambrose turned a page and continued staring.
  • The libraries that existed, such as the one at Alexandria, contained reading rooms because when you read a book, you read it aloud.
  • When you reach a step you do not understand, do you not start reading out loud really slowly?
  • I see us today in a situation like those historical ones.
  • In both those cases, a technology or technique came along that actually changed the way people think.
  • In the second case, the technique of reading without vocalizing allowed for faster reading and a new, visual way to process verbal information—again, a net gain.
  • So in the present and future, when a technology comes along that represents such a change—that saves details of our activities with which to advise us later, or has us speaking to machines as if they were creatures—it will simply be more of the same.
  • So it was natural that to earn extra money, Jason and I would buy cool, old cars we found in junkyards for a few hundred dollars apiece.
  • We would recite it to each other like a Homeric epic.
  • I remember in autumn of '87 thinking it was perfectly reasonable to take the red 1964 Corvair convertible for a test drive, despite its lack of functioning brakes.
  • It also seemed perfectly reasonable to take the 1962 Nash Metropolitan for a spin around the block, even though it didn't have brakes either.
  • The problem for us was always that it is easier to get a car running than it is to fix the brakes.
  • My grandmother used to say, "There is many a slip between cup and lip."
  • So let's take a moment and conduct a three-step evaluation.
  • We have achieved all that we have today in a very low-tech world.
  • We are entering a point where technology will change at extreme speeds.
  • Think of how a few thousand years of human civilization got us to a certain amount of computational power.
  • Through all of this, we can end war by making it a worse choice than the status quo for everyone. 3.
  • Disease is a problem of technology; thus, its solution will be technological.
  • Scarcity, or what we term scarcity, is a technological problem as well. 4.
  • The availability and propagation of cheap sensors, cheap storage, and cheap computational cycles will allow humanity to develop a collective memory of the activities and outcomes of everyone on the planet.
  • A world without hunger, disease, ignorance, poverty, and war is not a perfect world.
  • A world without hunger, disease, ignorance, poverty, and war is not a perfect world.
  • Thousands of people research alternative energy because a breakthrough will change the world and make fortunes.
  • I can list a few that might eliminate it and a few more that might delay it.
  • Yes, a comet slamming into the planet or some galactic cataclysm could wipe us all out.
  • We are a tiny dot of life suspended in a nearly infinite universe.
  • The ability of a few people to do a massive amount of damage rises as civilization becomes more complex and destructive power increases.
  • In spite of the massive benefits civilization offers to every person in every station of life, a crazy few will always see it very differently.
  • Such an attack could escalate into a widespread conflict, although I doubt it.
  • Any given nation usually has a large amount of homogeneity.
  • Having said all of that, government should certainly be watched with a suspicious eye, for it could conceivably delay or derail our ascent to the next golden age.
  • As a government grows in size, even if the growth is in social programs, it inevitably grows in its intrusion on civil liberty.
  • A term, "techno-utopian," is often applied to people who believe a technology will bring about a perfect world.
  • A term, "techno-utopian," is often applied to people who believe a technology will bring about a perfect world.
  • And war is a by-product of several technical problems.
  • Is there possibly a solution to it?
  • But a world without want and without disease, a world with opportunity for all, is a world where getting along—even when we don't see eye to eye—is going to be a good bit easier.
  • Optimism, on the other hand, says, "There is a way."
  • This book is a call to action, not complacency.
  • As a historian, I know it has been the vanity of every age to think it represents a high point in history.
  • It is simply a realization.
  • We live at a defining moment for humanity, as the compounding effects of technology and civilization reach an inflection point.
  • After all, we live in a universe that looks like it has plenty of room for us to expand into.
  • Today, all of our eggs are in a lone planetary basket, Earth.
  • I look for the day when a billion planets are populated with a billion people each.
  • I think we will learn to conquer distance though a method of which we cannot yet conceive.
  • The family on my father's side is descended from Caspar Keller, a native of Switzerland, who settled in Maryland.
  • When the Civil War broke out, he fought on the side of the South and became a brigadier-general.
  • I lived, up to the time of the illness that deprived me of my sight and hearing, in a tiny house consisting of a large square room and a small one, in which the servant slept.
  • Such a house my father built after the Civil War, and when he married my mother they went to live in it.
  • They tell me I walked the day I was a year old.
  • But, except for these fleeting memories, if, indeed, they be memories, it all seems very unreal, like a nightmare.
  • But during the first nineteen months of my life I had caught glimpses of broad, green fields, a luminous sky, trees and flowers which the darkness that followed could not wholly blot out.
  • A shake of the head meant "No" and a nod, "Yes," a pull meant "Come" and a push, "Go."
  • A shake of the head meant "No" and a nod, "Yes," a pull meant "Come" and a push, "Go."
  • My mother, moreover, succeeded in making me understand a good deal.
  • I understood a good deal of what was going on about me.
  • On a sudden thought I ran upstairs before any one could stop me, to put on my idea of a company dress.
  • One big gobbler snatched a tomato from me one day and ran away with it.
  • Inspired, perhaps, by Master Gobbler's success, we carried off to the woodpile a cake which the cook had just frosted, and ate every bit of it.
  • When we were fortunate enough to find a nest I never allowed her to carry the eggs home, making her understand by emphatic signs that she might fall and break them.
  • This vexed me and the lesson always ended in a one-sided boxing match.
  • The fire leaped into life; the flames encircled me so that in a moment my clothes were blazing.
  • I made a terrified noise that brought Viny, my old nurse, to the rescue.
  • Throwing a blanket over me, she almost suffocated me, but she put out the fire.
  • About this time I found out the use of a key.
  • One morning I locked my mother up in the pantry, where she was obliged to remain three hours, as the servants were in a detached part of the house.
  • My father was obliged to get a ladder and take Miss Sullivan out through the window--much to my delight.
  • When I was about five years old we moved from the little vine-covered house to a large new one.
  • The family consisted of my father and mother, two older half-brothers, and, afterward, a little sister, Mildred.
  • My earliest distinct recollection of my father is making my way through great drifts of newspapers to his side and finding him alone, holding a sheet of paper before his face.
  • He was a great hunter, I have been told, and a celebrated shot.
  • His hospitality was great, almost to a fault, and he seldom came home without bringing a guest.
  • He had had a short illness, there had been a brief time of acute suffering, then all was over.
  • For a long time I regarded my little sister as an intruder.
  • At that time I had a much-petted, much-abused doll, which I afterward named Nancy.
  • She had a cradle, and I often spent an hour or more rocking her.
  • We lived a long way from any school for the blind or the deaf, and it seemed unlikely that any one would come to such an out-of-the-way place as Tuscumbia to teach a child who was both deaf and blind.
  • His methods had probably died with him; and if they had not, how was a little girl in a far-off town in Alabama to receive the benefit of them?
  • One lady gave me a box of shells.
  • My father made holes in these so that I could string them, and for a long time they kept me happy and contented.
  • His punch, with which he let me play, was a delightful toy.
  • Curled up in a corner of the seat I amused myself for hours making funny little holes in bits of cardboard.
  • My aunt made me a big doll out of towels.
  • It was the most comical shapeless thing, this improvised doll, with no nose, mouth, ears or eyes--nothing that even the imagination of a child could convert into a face.
  • A bright idea, however, shot into my mind, and the problem was solved.
  • She raised my hand to her eyes in a questioning way, and I nodded energetically.
  • Anger and bitterness had preyed upon me continually for weeks and a deep languor had succeeded this passionate struggle.
  • The morning after my teacher came she led me into her room and gave me a doll.
  • I did not know that I was spelling a word or even that words existed; I was simply making my fingers go in monkey-like imitation.
  • In the days that followed I learned to spell in this uncomprehending way a great many words, among them pin, hat, cup and a few verbs like sit, stand and walk.
  • But my teacher had been with me several weeks before I understood that everything has a name.
  • I felt my teacher sweep the fragments to one side of the hearth, and I had a sense of satisfaction that the cause of my discomfort was removed.
  • This thought, if a wordless sensation may be called a thought, made me hop and skip with pleasure.
  • Everything had a name, and each name gave birth to a new thought.
  • I learned a great many new words that day.
  • Long before I learned to do a sum in arithmetic or describe the shape of the earth, Miss Sullivan had taught me to find beauty in the fragrant woods, in every blade of grass, and in the curves and dimples of my baby sister's hand.
  • One day my teacher and I were returning from a long ramble.
  • Two or three times we stopped to rest under a tree by the wayside.
  • Our last halt was under a wild cherry tree a short distance from the house.
  • The shade was grateful, and the tree was so easy to climb that with my teacher's assistance I was able to scramble to a seat in the branches.
  • Suddenly a change passed over the tree.
  • A strange odour came up from the earth.
  • I knew it, it was the odour that always precedes a thunderstorm, and a nameless fear clutched at my heart.
  • I remained still and expectant; a chilling terror crept over me.
  • There was a moment of sinister silence, then a multitudinous stirring of the leaves.
  • A shiver ran through the tree, and the wind sent forth a blast that would have knocked me off had I not clung to the branch with might and main.
  • A shiver ran through the tree, and the wind sent forth a blast that would have knocked me off had I not clung to the branch with might and main.
  • A wild impulse to jump seized me, but terror held me fast.
  • I had learned a new lesson--that nature "wages open war against her children, and under softest touch hides treacherous claws."
  • After this experience it was a long time before I climbed another tree.
  • Its delicate blossoms shrank from the slightest earthly touch; it seemed as if a tree of paradise had been transplanted to earth.
  • I sat there for a long, long time, feeling like a fairy on a rosy cloud.
  • At first, when my teacher told me about a new thing I asked very few questions.
  • Sometimes a new word revived an image that some earlier experience had engraved on my brain.
  • I had found a few early violets in the garden and brought them to my teacher.
  • I smelt the violets in her hand and asked, half in words, half in signs, a question which meant, "Is love the sweetness of flowers?"
  • A day or two afterward I was stringing beads of different sizes in symmetrical groups--two large beads, three small ones, and so on.
  • Finally I noticed a very obvious error in the sequence and for an instant I concentrated my attention on the lesson and tried to think how I should have arranged the beads.
  • In a flash I knew that the word was the name of the process that was going on in my head.
  • For a long time I was still--I was not thinking of the beads in my lap, but trying to find a meaning for "love" in the light of this new idea.
  • The sun had been under a cloud all day, and there had been brief showers; but suddenly the sun broke forth in all its southern splendour.
  • From the beginning of my education Miss Sullivan made it a practice to speak to me as she would speak to any hearing child; the only difference was that she spelled the sentences into my hand instead of speaking them.
  • But it was a long time before I ventured to take the initiative, and still longer before I could find something appropriate to say at the right time.
  • As soon as I could spell a few words my teacher gave me slips of cardboard on which were printed words in raised letters.
  • I quickly learned that each printed word stood for an object, an act, or a quality.
  • My teacher and I played it for hours at a time.
  • From the printed slip it was but a step to the printed book.
  • I took my "Reader for Beginners" and hunted for the words I knew; when I found them my joy was like that of a game of hide-and-seek.
  • For a long time I had no regular lessons.
  • Everything Miss Sullivan taught me she illustrated by a beautiful story or a poem.
  • Whenever anything delighted or interested me she talked it over with me just as if she were a little girl herself.
  • What many children think of with dread, as a painful plodding through grammar, hard sums and harder definitions, is to-day one of my most precious memories.
  • Added to this she had a wonderful faculty for description.
  • I built dams of pebbles, made islands and lakes, and dug river-beds, all for fun, and never dreamed that I was learning a lesson.
  • The illustrative strings and the orange stick representing the poles seemed so real that even to this day the mere mention of temperate zone suggests a series of twine circles; and I believe that if any one should set about it he could convince me that white bears actually climb the North Pole.
  • I never had patience to arrange more than five or six groups at a time.
  • After I had learned a great many interesting things about the life and habits of the children of the sea--how in the midst of dashing waves the little polyps build the beautiful coral isles of the Pacific, and the foraminifera have made the chalk-hills of many a land--my teacher read me "The Chambered Nautilus," and showed me that the shell-building process of the mollusks is symbolical of the development of the mind.
  • Again, it was the growth of a plant that furnished the text for a lesson.
  • We bought a lily and set it in a sunny window.
  • Once there were eleven tadpoles in a glass globe set in a window full of plants.
  • The only sign of life was a slight wriggling of his tail.
  • At the beginning I was only a little mass of possibilities.
  • All the best of me belongs to her--there is not a talent, or an aspiration or a joy in me that has not been awakened by her loving touch.
  • The first Christmas after Miss Sullivan came to Tuscumbia was a great event.
  • Miss Sullivan and I kept up a game of guessing which taught me more about the use of language than any set lessons could have done.
  • It was a moment of supreme happiness.
  • When I learned that there was a gift for each child, I was delighted, and the kind people who had prepared the tree permitted me to hand the presents to the children.
  • That night, after I had hung my stocking, I lay awake a long time, pretending to be asleep and keeping alert to see what Santa Claus would do when he came.
  • At last I fell asleep with a new doll and a white bear in my arms.
  • I found surprises, not in the stocking only, but on the table, on all the chairs, at the door, on the very window-sill; indeed, I could hardly walk without stumbling on a bit of Christmas wrapped up in tissue paper.
  • But when my teacher presented me with a canary, my cup of happiness overflowed.
  • Every morning after breakfast I prepared his bath, made his cage clean and sweet, filled his cups with fresh seed and water from the well-house, and hung a spray of chickweed in his swing.
  • When I returned I felt a big cat brush past me as I opened the door.
  • I was no longer a restless, excitable little creature, requiring the attention of everybody on the train to keep me amused.
  • On the seat opposite me sat my big rag doll, Nancy, in a new gingham dress and a beruffled sunbonnet, looking at me out of two bead eyes.
  • The laundress at the Perkins Institution secretly carried her off to give her a bath.
  • When I next saw her she was a formless heap of cotton, which I should not have recognized at all except for the two bead eyes which looked out at me reproachfully.
  • When the train at last pulled into the station at Boston it was as if a beautiful fairy tale had come true.
  • The "once upon a time" was now; the "far-away country" was here.
  • Until then I had been like a foreigner speaking through an interpreter.
  • This was my first trip on the ocean and my first voyage in a steamboat.
  • I have often held in my hand a little model of the Plymouth Rock which a kind gentleman gave me at Pilgrim Hall, and I have fingered its curves, the split in the centre and the embossed figures "1620," and turned over in my mind all that I knew about the wonderful story of the Pilgrims.
  • I idealized them as the bravest and most generous men that ever sought a home in a strange land.
  • I saw him many times after that, and he was always a good friend to me; indeed, I was thinking of him when I called Boston "the City of Kind Hearts."
  • Suddenly my ecstasy gave place to terror; for my foot struck against a rock and the next instant there was a rush of water over my head.
  • The waves seemed to be playing a game with me, and tossed me from one to another in their wild frolic.
  • After I had recovered from my first experience in the water, I thought it great fun to sit on a big rock in my bathing-suit and feel wave after wave dash against the rock, sending up a shower of spray which quite covered me.
  • The breakers would swoop back to gather themselves for a mightier leap, and I clung to the rock, tense, fascinated, as I felt the dash and roar of the rushing sea!
  • The tang of the untainted, fresh and free sea air was like a cool, quieting thought, and the shells and pebbles and the seaweed with tiny living creatures attached to it never lost their fascination for me.
  • One day Miss Sullivan attracted my attention to a strange object which she had captured basking in the shallow water.
  • It was a great horseshoe crab--the first one I had ever seen.
  • It suddenly occurred to me that he might make a delightful pet; so I seized him by the tail with both hands and carried him home.
  • This feat pleased me highly, as his body was very heavy, and it took all my strength to drag him half a mile.
  • In the autumn I returned to my Southern home with a heart full of joyous memories.
  • The treasures of a new, beautiful world were laid at my feet, and I took in pleasure and information at every turn.
  • I was never still a moment; my life was as full of motion as those little insects that crowd a whole existence into one brief day.
  • I spent the autumn months with my family at our summer cottage, on a mountain about fourteen miles from Tuscumbia.
  • Our cottage was a sort of rough camp, beautifully situated on the top of the mountain among oaks and pines.
  • The small rooms were arranged on each side of a long open hall.
  • Round the house was a wide piazza, where the mountain winds blew, sweet with all wood-scents.
  • Later in the morning we made preparations for a barbecue.
  • A fire was kindled at the bottom of a deep hole in the ground, big sticks were laid crosswise at the top, and meat was hung from them and turned on spits.
  • A fire was kindled at the bottom of a deep hole in the ground, big sticks were laid crosswise at the top, and meat was hung from them and turned on spits.
  • Frequently we came upon impassable thickets which forced us to take a round about way.
  • At the foot of the mountain there was a railroad, and the children watched the trains whiz by.
  • About a mile distant there was a trestle spanning a deep gorge.
  • I had never crossed it until one day Mildred, Miss Sullivan and I were lost in the woods, and wandered for hours without finding a path.
  • We would have taken any way rather than this; but it was late and growing dark, and the trestle was a short cut home.
  • I had to feel for the rails with my toe; but I was not afraid, and got on very well, until all at once there came a faint "puff, puff" from the distance.
  • Once I went on a visit to a New England village with its frozen lakes and vast snow fields.
  • I recall my surprise on discovering that a mysterious hand had stripped the trees and bushes, leaving only here and there a wrinkled leaf.
  • Shrunk and cold, As if her veins were sapless and old, And she rose up decrepitly For a last dim look at earth and sea.
  • The withered grass and the bushes were transformed into a forest of icicles.
  • Then came a day when the chill air portended a snowstorm.
  • A snowy night closed upon the world, and in the morning one could scarcely recognize a feature of the landscape.
  • A snowy night closed upon the world, and in the morning one could scarcely recognize a feature of the landscape.
  • All the roads were hidden, not a single landmark was visible, only a waste of snow with trees rising out of it.
  • In the evening a wind from the northeast sprang up, and the flakes rushed hither and thither in furious melee.
  • But during the night the fury of the wind increased to such a degree that it thrilled us with a vague terror.
  • Half walking in the paths, half working our way through the lesser drifts, we succeeded in reaching a pine grove just outside a broad pasture.
  • The trees stood motionless and white like figures in a marble frieze.
  • We would get on our toboggan, a boy would give us a shove, and off we went!
  • I was pleased with anything that made a noise and liked to feel the cat purr and the dog bark.
  • I also liked to keep my hand on a singer's throat, or on a piano when it was being played.
  • One who is entirely dependent upon the manual alphabet has always a sense of restraint, of narrowness.
  • This feeling began to agitate me with a vexing, forward-reaching sense of a lack that should be filled.
  • Miss Fuller's method was this: she passed my hand lightly over her face, and let me feel the position of her tongue and lips when she made a sound.
  • Only such a one can appreciate the eagerness with which I talked to my toys, to stones, trees, birds and dumb animals, or the delight I felt when at my call Mildred ran to me or my dogs obeyed my commands.
  • Miss Fuller and Miss Sullivan could understand me, but most people would not have understood one word in a hundred.
  • "My little sister will understand me now," was a thought stronger than all obstacles.
  • It astonished me to find how much easier it is to talk than to spell with the fingers, and I discarded the manual alphabet as a medium of communication on my part; but Miss Sullivan and a few friends still use it in speaking to me, for it is more convenient and more rapid than lip-reading.
  • Constant practice makes the fingers very flexible, and some of my friends spell rapidly--about as fast as an expert writes on a typewriter.
  • The mere spelling is, of course, no more a conscious act than it is in writing.
  • My eyes fill with tears now as I think how my mother pressed me close to her, speechless and trembling with delight, taking in every syllable that I spoke, while little Mildred seized my free hand and kissed it and danced, and my father expressed his pride and affection in a big silence.
  • Joy deserted my heart, and for a long, long time I lived in doubt, anxiety and fear.
  • A little story called "The Frost King," which I wrote and sent to Mr. Anagnos, of the Perkins Institution for the Blind, was at the root of the trouble.
  • I thought then that I was "making up a story," as children say, and I eagerly sat down to write it before the ideas should slip from me.
  • My thoughts flowed easily; I felt a sense of joy in the composition.
  • Now, if words and images come to me without effort, it is a pretty sure sign that they are not the offspring of my own mind, but stray waifs that I regretfully dismiss.
  • At that time I eagerly absorbed everything I read without a thought of authorship, and even now I cannot be quite sure of the boundary line between my ideas and those I find in books.
  • Some one asked me if I had read it in a book.
  • This was the pinnacle of my happiness, from which I was in a little while dashed to earth.
  • He was unusually tender and kind to me, and for a brief space the shadow lifted.
  • I was to be Ceres in a kind of masque given by the blind girls.
  • Something I said made her think she detected in my words a confession that I did remember Miss Canby's story of "The Frost Fairies," and she laid her conclusions before Mr. Anagnos, although I had told her most emphatically that she was mistaken.
  • I was brought before a court of investigation composed of the teachers and officers of the Institution, and Miss Sullivan was asked to leave me.
  • One thing is certain, the language was ineffaceably stamped upon my brain, though for a long time no one knew it, least of all myself.
  • Miss Canby herself wrote kindly, "Some day you will write a great story out of your own head, that will be a comfort and help to many."
  • For a long time, when I wrote a letter, even to my mother, I was seized with a sudden feeling of terror, and I would spell the sentences over and over, to make sure that I had not read them in a book.
  • I find in one of them, a letter to Mr. Anagnos, dated September 29, 1891, words and sentiments exactly like those of the book.
  • In a composition which I wrote about the old cities of Greece and Italy, I borrowed my glowing descriptions, with variations, from sources I have forgotten.
  • But I do not understand how he ever thought a blind and deaf child of eleven could have invented them.
  • Trying to write is very much like trying to put a Chinese puzzle together.
  • Since the publication of "The Story of My Life" in the Ladies' Home Journal, Mr. Anagnos has made a statement, in a letter to Mr. Macy, that at the time of the "Frost King" matter, he believed I was innocent.
  • At other times, in the midst of a paragraph I was writing, I said to myself, "Suppose it should be found that all this was written by some one long ago!"
  • It was with the hope of restoring my self-confidence that she persuaded me to write for the Youth's Companion a brief account of my life.
  • I wrote timidly, fearfully, but resolutely, urged on by my teacher, who knew that if I persevered, I should find my mental foothold again and get a grip on my faculties.
  • Up to the time of the "Frost King" episode, I had lived the unconscious life of a little child; now my thoughts were turned inward, and I beheld things invisible.
  • I recall with unmixed delight those days when a thousand childish fancies became beautiful realities.
  • Every day in imagination I made a trip round the world, and I saw many wonders from the uttermost parts of the earth--marvels of invention, treasuries of industry and skill and all the activities of human life actually passed under my finger tips.
  • I also went on board a Viking ship which lay a short distance from the little craft.
  • At a little distance from this ship there was a model of the Santa Maria, which I also examined.
  • It was a sort of tangible kaleidoscope, this white city of the West.
  • Whenever it was possible, I touched the machinery while it was in motion, so as to get a clearer idea how the stones were weighed, cut, and polished.
  • I searched in the washings for a diamond and found it myself--the only true diamond, they said, that was ever found in the United States.
  • In the electrical building we examined the telephones, autophones, phonographs, and other inventions, and he made me understand how it is possible to send a message on wires that mock space and outrun time, and, like Prometheus, to draw fire from the sky.
  • Before October, 1893, I had studied various subjects by myself in a more or less desultory manner.
  • I had a French grammar in raised print, and as I already knew some French, I often amused myself by composing in my head short exercises, using the new words as I came across them, and ignoring rules and other technicalities as much as possible.
  • Mr. Irons, a neighbour of theirs, was a good Latin scholar; it was arranged that I should study under him.
  • I remember him as a man of rare, sweet nature and of wide experience.
  • I had read many books before, but never from a critical point of view.
  • I learned for the first time to know an author, to recognize his style as I recognize the clasp of a friend's hand.
  • I studied it with Madame Olivier, a French lady who did not know the manual alphabet, and who was obliged to give her instruction orally.
  • I still regarded arithmetic as a system of pitfalls.
  • I never lost a jot of my delight in this great park.
  • He, who made every one happy in a beautiful, unobtrusive way, was most kind and tender to Miss Sullivan and me.
  • So long as we felt his loving presence and knew that he took a watchful interest in our work, fraught with so many difficulties, we could not be discouraged.
  • His going away left a vacancy in our lives that has never been filled.
  • The thought of going to college took root in my heart and became an earnest desire, which impelled me to enter into competition for a degree with seeing and hearing girls, in the face of the strong opposition of many true and wise friends.
  • When I left New York the idea had become a fixed purpose; and it was decided that I should go to Cambridge.
  • I had had, moreover, a good start in French, and received six months' instruction in Latin; but German was the subject with which I was most familiar.
  • For a while, indeed, I had to copy my Latin in braille, so that I could recite with the other girls.
  • Burke's speech was more instructive than any other book on a political subject that I had ever read.
  • I wondered more and more, while Burke's masterly speech rolled on in mighty surges of eloquence, how it was that King George and his ministers could have turned a deaf ear to his warning prophecy of our victory and their humiliation.
  • In a different way Macaulay's "Life of Samuel Johnson" was interesting.
  • He had to pass five hours at a time to have them counted.
  • The examination papers were given out at nine o'clock at Harvard and brought to Radcliffe by a special messenger.
  • Each candidate was known, not by his name, but by a number.
  • It was thought advisable for me to have my examinations in a room by myself, because the noise of the typewriter might disturb the other girls.
  • A man was placed on guard at the door to prevent interruption.
  • In the finals, no one read my work over to me, and in the preliminaries I offered subjects with some of which I was in a measure familiar before my work in the Cambridge school; for at the beginning of the year I had passed examinations in English, History, French and German, which Mr. Gilman gave me from previous Harvard papers.
  • Mr. Gilman sent my written work to the examiners with a certificate that I, candidate No. 233, had written the papers.
  • This encouraged me greatly, and I sped on to the end of the ordeal with a light heart and a steady hand.
  • I could not follow with my eyes the geometrical figures drawn on the blackboard, and my only means of getting a clear idea of them was to make them on a cushion with straight and curved wires, which had bent and pointed ends.
  • In a word, every study had its obstacles.
  • It was not until Mr. Keith taught me that I had a clear idea of mathematics.
  • From February to July, 1898, Mr. Keith came out to Wrentham twice a week, and taught me algebra, geometry, Greek and Latin.
  • For eight months Mr. Keith gave me lessons five times a week, in periods of about an hour.
  • Mr. Vining was a stranger to me, and could not communicate with me, except by writing braille.
  • The proctor was also a stranger, and did not attempt to communicate with me in any way.
  • Two days before the examinations, Mr. Vining sent me a braille copy of one of the old Harvard papers in algebra.
  • I received another paper and a table of signs by return mail, and I set to work to learn the notation.
  • Both Mr. Keith and I were distressed and full of forebodings for the morrow; but we went over to the college a little before the examination began, and had Mr. Vining explain more fully the American symbols.
  • But when I took up algebra I had a harder time still.
  • It was a day full of interest for me.
  • Before me I saw a new world opening in beauty and light, and I felt within me the capacity to know all things.
  • The words rush through my hand like hounds in pursuit of a hare which they often miss.
  • With this machine movable type shuttles can be used, and one can have several shuttles, each with a different set of characters--Greek, French, or mathematical, according to the kind of writing one wishes to do on the typewriter.
  • Every struggle is a victory.
  • The mind drops them as a branch drops its overripe fruit.
  • But when a great scholar like Professor Kittredge interprets what the master said, it is "as if new sight were given the blind."
  • It is most perplexing and exasperating that just at the moment when you need your memory and a nice sense of discrimination, these faculties take to themselves wings and fly away.
  • Give a brief account of Huss and his work.
  • You ransack your budget of historic facts much as you would hunt for a bit of silk in a rag-bag.
  • In desperation you seize the budget and dump everything out, and there in a corner is your man, serenely brooding on his own private thought, unconscious of the catastrophe which he has brought upon you.
  • While my days at Radcliffe were still in the future, they were encircled with a halo of romance, which they have lost; but in the transition from romantic to actual I have learned many things I should never have known had I not tried the experiment.
  • One of them is the precious science of patience, which teaches us that we should take our education as we would take a walk in the country, leisurely, our minds hospitably open to impressions of every sort.
  • Such knowledge floods the soul unseen with a soundless tidal wave of deepening thought.
  • I read my first connected story in May, 1887, when I was seven years old, and from that day to this I have devoured everything in the shape of a printed page that has come within the reach of my hungry finger tips.
  • At first I had only a few books in raised print--"readers" for beginners, a collection of stories for children, and a book about the earth called "Our World."
  • I was permitted to spend a part of each day in the Institution library, and to wander from bookcase to bookcase, and take down whatever book my fingers lighted upon.
  • And read I did, whether I understood one word in ten or two words on a page.
  • One day my teacher found me in a corner of the library poring over the pages of "The Scarlet Letter."
  • Then she told me that she had a beautiful story about a little boy which she was sure I should like better than "The Scarlet Letter."
  • Then my teacher went to visit some friends in Boston, leaving me for a short time.
  • It was a warm afternoon in August.
  • We were sitting together in a hammock which swung from two solemn pines at a short distance from the house.
  • The air was balmy, with a tang of the sea in it.
  • When her fingers were too tired to spell another word, I had for the first time a keen sense of my deprivations.
  • I loved "Little Women" because it gave me a sense of kinship with girls and boys who could see and hear.
  • I read La Fontaine's "Fables" first in an English translation, and enjoyed them only after a half-hearted fashion.
  • I feel a genuine interest in the animals themselves, because they are real animals and not caricatures of men.
  • My mind opened naturally and joyously to a conception of antiquity.
  • Greece, ancient Greece, exercised a mysterious fascination over me.
  • Great poetry, whether written in Greek or in English, needs no other interpreter than a responsive heart.
  • It is not necessary that one should be able to define every word and give it its principal parts and its grammatical position in the sentence in order to understand and appreciate a fine poem.
  • Virgil is serene and lovely like a marble Apollo in the moonlight; Homer is a beautiful, animated youth in the full sunlight with the wind in his hair.
  • Her beautiful, unselfish spirit shines out like a bright star in the night of a dark and cruel age.
  • The Bible gives me a deep, comforting sense that "things seen are temporal, and things unseen are eternal."
  • I do not remember a time since I have been capable of loving books that I have not loved Shakespeare.
  • I cannot tell exactly when I began Lamb's "Tales from Shakespeare"; but I know that I read them at first with a child's understanding and a child's wonder.
  • For a long time the ghosts and witches pursued me even into Dreamland.
  • Anger seized me, my fingers refused to move, I sat rigid for one long moment, the blood throbbing in my temples, and all the hatred that a child can feel concentrated in my heart.
  • I felt vaguely that they could not be good even if they wished to, because no one seemed willing to help them or to give them a fair chance.
  • The bright, gentle, fanciful plays--the ones I like best now--appear not to have impressed me at first, perhaps because they reflected the habitual sunshine and gaiety of a child's life.
  • The little songs and the sonnets have a meaning for me as fresh and wonderful as the dramas.
  • Then, too, there is in German literature a fine reserve which I like; but its chief glory is the recognition I find in it of the redeeming potency of woman's self-sacrificing love.
  • In a word, literature is my Utopia.
  • Sometimes a daring little fish slips between my fingers, and often a pond-lily presses shyly against my hand.
  • A luminous warmth seems to enfold me.
  • The memory of it is a joy forever.
  • One day we had a thrilling experience.
  • There was a regatta in the Northwest Arm, in which the boats from the different warships were engaged.
  • We went in a sail-boat along with many others to watch the races.
  • He had steered through many a storm with firm hand and sea-wise eye.
  • This inherited capacity is a sort of sixth sense--a soul-sense which sees, hears, feels, all in one.
  • One of them, a splendid oak, is the special pride of my heart.
  • There is a tradition that under this tree King Philip, the heroic Indian chief, gazed his last on earth and sky.
  • I had another tree friend, gentle and more approachable than the great oak--a linden that grew in the dooryard at Red Farm.
  • As soon as my examinations were over, Miss Sullivan and I hastened to this green nook, where we have a little cottage on one of the three lakes for which Wrentham is famous.
  • We knew that beyond the border of our Eden men were making history by the sweat of their brows when they might better make a holiday.
  • The children who crowd these grimy alleys, half-clad and underfed, shrink away from your outstretched hand as if from a blow.
  • It is impossible not to think of all this when I return to the country after a year of work in town.
  • Next to a leisurely walk I enjoy a "spin" on my tandem bicycle.
  • Whenever it is possible, my dog accompanies me on a walk or ride or sail.
  • He has a long pedigree, a crooked tail and the drollest "phiz" in dogdom.
  • When a rainy day keeps me indoors, I amuse myself after the manner of other girls.
  • I have a special board on which I play these games.
  • Each checker has a hole in the middle in which a brass knob can be placed to distinguish the king from the commons.
  • The chessmen are of two sizes, the white larger than the black, so that I have no trouble in following my opponent's maneuvers by moving my hands lightly over the board after a play.
  • If I happen to be all alone and in an idle mood, I play a game of solitaire, of which I am very fond.
  • Sometimes I make a mistake and do the wrong thing.
  • A burst of childish laughter greets my blunder, and the pantomime begins all over again.
  • I often tell them stories or teach them a game, and the winged hours depart and leave us good and happy.
  • A medallion of Homer hangs on the wall of my study, conveniently low, so that I can easily reach it and touch the beautiful, sad face with loving reverence.
  • In imagination I can hear Homer singing, as with unsteady, hesitating steps he gropes his way from camp to camp--singing of life, of love, of war, of the splendid achievements of a noble race.
  • It was a wonderful, glorious song, and it won the blind poet an immortal crown, the admiration of all ages.
  • I enjoy having a play described to me while it is being acted on the stage far more than reading it, because then it seems as if I were living in the midst of stirring events.
  • In the king's face, which he wore as a mask, there was a remoteness and inaccessibility of grief which I shall never forget.
  • I have a picture of old Rip in my fingers which they will never lose.
  • The reception-room where we sat served for a stage.
  • Then the great actor gave his coat a hitch and his mouth a twitch, and in an instant I was in the village of Falling Water and felt Schneider's shaggy head against my knee.
  • Sometimes, it is true, a sense of isolation enfolds me like a cold mist as I sit alone and wait at life's shut gate.
  • Those are red-letter days in our lives when we meet people who thrill us like a fine poem, people whose handshake is brimful of unspoken sympathy, and whose sweet, rich natures impart to our eager, impatient spirits a wonderful restfulness which, in its essence, is divine.
  • In a word, while such friends are near us we feel that all is well.
  • I have met people so empty of joy, that when I clasped their frosty finger tips, it seemed as if I were shaking hands with a northeast storm.
  • A hearty handshake or a friendly letter gives me genuine pleasure.
  • A hearty handshake or a friendly letter gives me genuine pleasure.
  • As a child I loved to sit on his knee and clasp his great hand with one of mine, while Miss Sullivan spelled into the other his beautiful words about God and the spiritual world.
  • I heard him with a child's wonder and delight.
  • My spirit could not reach up to his, but he gave me a real sense of joy in life, and I never left him without carrying away a fine thought that grew in beauty and depth of meaning as I grew.
  • I knew Mr. Henry Drummond, and the memory of his strong, warm hand-clasp is like a benediction.
  • My fingers lighted upon a beautiful volume of Tennyson's poems, and when Miss Sullivan told me what it was I began to recite:
  • He had a book of his poems in raised print from which I read "In School Days."
  • I also recited "Laus Deo," and as I spoke the concluding verses, he placed in my hands a statue of a slave from whose crouching figure the fetters were falling, even as they fell from Peter's limbs when the angel led him forth out of prison.
  • What he has taught we have seen beautifully expressed in his own life--love of country, kindness to the least of his brethren, and a sincere desire to live upward and onward.
  • He makes you feel that if you only had a little more time, you, too, might be an inventor.
  • He has a humorous and poetic side, too.
  • He is never quite so happy as when he has a little deaf child in his arms.
  • One does not need to read "A Boy I Knew" to understand him--the most generous, sweet-natured boy I ever knew, a good friend in all sorts of weather, who traces the footprints of love in the life of dogs as well as in that of his fellowmen.
  • One does not need to read "A Boy I Knew" to understand him--the most generous, sweet-natured boy I ever knew, a good friend in all sorts of weather, who traces the footprints of love in the life of dogs as well as in that of his fellowmen.
  • Mrs. Hutton is a true and tried friend.
  • This reminds me that Dr. Hale used to give a personal touch to his letters to me by pricking his signature in braille.
  • Helen Keller's letters are important, not only as a supplementary story of her life, but as a demonstration of her growth in thought and expression--the growth which in itself has made her distinguished.
  • To them and to a few friends with whom she is in closest sympathy she writes with intimate frankness whatever she is thinking about.
  • Three months and a half after the first word was spelled into her hand, she wrote in pencil this letter
  • Twenty-five days later, while she was on a short visit away from home, she wrote to her mother.
  • A few weeks later her style is more nearly correct and freer in movement.
  • She is a good doll.
  • Cousin Anna gave me a pretty doll.
  • This letter is to a school-mate at the Perkins Institution.
  • They had a pretty Christmas-tree, and there were many pretty presents on it for little children.
  • I had a mug, and little bird and candy.
  • Aunt gave me a trunk for Nancy and clothes.
  • Little Natalie is a very weak and small baby.
  • It was on a large river.
  • Mildred is a good baby.
  • Nancy was not a good child when I went to Memphis.
  • This morning Lucien Thompson sent me a beautiful bouquet of violets and crocuses and jonquils.
  • Sunday Adeline Moses brought me a lovely doll.
  • She has on a pretty red dress.
  • Nancy was a bad child when I went to Memphis she cried loud, I whipped her with a stick.
  • Teacher bought me a lovely new dress and gloves and stockings and collars and grandmother made me warm flannels, and aunt Nannie made me aprons.
  • Lady made me a pretty cap.
  • "Uncle Morrie" of the next letter is Mr. Morrison Heady, of Normandy, Kentucky, who lost his sight and hearing when he was a boy.
  • Natalie has a little carriage.
  • With much love and a kiss HELEN A. KELLER.
  • With much love and a kiss HELEN A. KELLER.
  • This was a day when the child's vocabulary grew.
  • Friday teacher and I went to a picnic with little children.
  • They make a pleasant shade and the little birds love to swing to and fro and sing sweetly up in the trees.
  • Cousin Arthur made me a swing in the ash tree.
  • Wee sister is a good girl.
  • My dear Miss Moore Are you very glad to receive a nice letter from your darling little friend?
  • She is a very pretty baby.
  • When I visit many strange countries my brother and Mildred will stay with grandmother because they will be too small to see a great many people and I think they would cry loud on the great rough ocean.
  • I will get a baby lion and a white monkey and a mild bear to bring home.
  • I had a very pleasant time at Brewster.
  • Will you please tell Harry to write me a very long letter soon?
  • I hope you think about me and love me because I am a good little child.
  • With much love and two kisses From your little friend HELEN A. KELLER.
  • Teacher and I had a lovely time with many kind friends.
  • Mrs. Freeman and Carrie and Ethel and Frank and Helen came to station to meet us in a huge carriage.
  • Then we rode for a long time to see all the beautiful things in West Newton.
  • When we went home we saw eight rabbits and two fat puppies, and a nice little white pony, and two wee kittens and a pretty curly dog named Don.
  • Pony's name was Mollie and I had a nice ride on her back; I was not afraid, I hope my uncle will get me a dear little pony and a little cart very soon.
  • She showed me a tiny atze that very rich ladies in China wear because their feet never grow large.
  • Amah means a nurse.
  • I saw little Willie Swan in the car and he gave me a juicy pear.
  • My dear uncle Morrie,--I think you will be very glad to receive a letter from your dear little friend Helen.
  • I have been in a large boat.
  • It was like a ship.
  • I will tell you a little story about Plymouth.
  • So they said, We must go to a new country far away and build schools and houses and churches and make new cities.
  • One day a dear little baby-boy was born.
  • One day there was a great shout on the ship for the people saw the land and they were full of joy because they had reached a new country safely.
  • They were all glad when they stepped upon a huge rock.
  • I did see the rock in Plymouth and a little ship like the Mayflower and the cradle that dear little Peregrine slept in and many old things that came in the Mayflower.
  • She assimilated words and practised with them, sometimes using them intelligently, sometimes repeating them in a parrot-like fashion.
  • I hope Fauntleroy take me to see a very kind queen.
  • From your darling little friend HELEN A. KELLER.
  • J'ai une bonne petite soeur is French, and it means I have a good little sister.
  • Mother and father and their friends have gone to see a huge furnace.
  • I hope you will come to see me soon, and stay a long time.
  • With much love from your little friend HELEN A. KELLER.
  • A telescope is like a very strong eye.
  • A telescope is like a very strong eye.
  • Teacher says she can see Venus from our window, and it is a large and beautiful star.
  • There are a great many instruments besides those which the astronomers use.
  • A knife is an instrument to cut with.
  • I saw a very large bell at Wellesley.
  • They tell us when breakfast is ready, when to go to school, when it is time for church, and when there is a fire.
  • The engine-bell tells the passengers that they are coming to a station, and it tells the people to keep out of the way.
  • The other day I broke my doll's head off; but that was not a dreadful accident, because dolls do not live and feel, like people.
  • With much love, and many kisses, HELEN A. KELLER.
  • I have been at home a great many weeks now.
  • A little girl in a story was not courageous.
  • A little girl in a story was not courageous.
  • Did you have a pleasant Christmas?
  • The other day I had a fine party.
  • In a few days the beautiful spring will be here.
  • A lady brought her to me from Paris.
  • She can drink milk like a real baby.
  • Lucy is a fine young lady.
  • She has on a dainty lace dress and satin slippers.
  • I have two tame pigeons and a tiny canary bird.
  • My Mother and teacher send you and Mrs. Hale their kind greetings and Mildred sends you a kiss.
  • With much love and kisses, from your Affectionate cousin HELEN A. KELLER.
  • My Dear Mr. Anagnos:--You cannot imagine how delighted I was to receive a letter from you last evening.
  • He had climbed the high mountains in Switzerland and visited beautiful churches in Italy and France, and he saw a great many ancient castles.
  • I should like to send a kiss to Vittorio, the little prince of Naples, but teacher says she is afraid you will not remember so many messages.
  • Thursday we had a picnic.
  • Mother has a great many fine roses.
  • Like a good many of Helen Keller's early letters, this to her French teacher is her re-phrasing of a story.
  • She had a most beautiful doll given her.
  • Oh, it was a lovely and delicate doll! but the little girl's brother, a tall lad, had taken the doll, and set it up in a high tree in the garden, and had run away.
  • Is it not a pitiful story?
  • Little sister and I would take you out into the garden, and pick the delicious raspberries and a few strawberries for you.
  • One sits on the twig of a tree, just beneath our window, and he fills the air with his glad songs.
  • But I am afraid you cannot come to Tuscumbia; so I will write to you, and send you a sweet kiss and my love.
  • Daisy is happy, but she would be happy ever if she had a little mate.
  • During the summer Miss Sullivan was away from Helen for three months and a half, the first separation of teacher and pupil.
  • Only once afterward in fifteen years was their constant companionship broken for more than a few days at a time.
  • I think we shall have a beautiful time out in the cool, pleasant woods.
  • I shall be delighted to have a typewriter.
  • Cousin Leila thinks he will walk in a little while.
  • Last Monday Simpson shot a pretty crane.
  • The crane is a large and strong bird.
  • A gentleman gave me a beautiful card.
  • A gentleman gave me a beautiful card.
  • It was a picture of a mill, near a beautiful brook.
  • There was a boat floating on the water, and the fragrant lilies were growing all around the boat.
  • There were eight pigeons on the roof of the house, and a great dog on the step.
  • Pearl is a very proud mother-dog now.
  • From your affectionate little pupil, HELEN A. KELLER.
  • I am going to send you a birthday gift with this letter.
  • I think mother will be glad to make the dress for you, and when you wear it you will look as pretty as a rose.
  • I wish you could be here to play three little squirrels, and two gentle doves, and to make a pretty nest for a dear little robin.
  • Give father and mother a great deal of love and many hugs and kisses for me.
  • From your loving sister, HELEN A. KELLER.
  • My Dear Mr. Wade:--I have just received a letter from my mother, telling me that the beautiful mastiff puppy you sent me had arrived in Tuscumbia safely.
  • I learn a great many new and wonderful things.
  • I think she will laugh when I tell her she is a vertebrate, a mammal, a quadruped; and I shall be very sorry to tell her that she belongs to the order Carnivora.
  • I shall be happy to have a letter from you when you like to write to me.
  • From your loving little friend, HELEN A. KELLER.
  • This letter is indorsed in Whittier's hand, "Helen A. Keller--deaf dumb and blind--aged nine years."
  • "Browns" is a lapse of the pencil for "brown eyes."
  • From your loving little friend, HELEN A. KELLER.
  • She gave me a beautiful bunch of violets.
  • When I visit England they want me to come to see them, and stay a few weeks.
  • I had a lovely letter from the poet Whittier.
  • We had a very nice dinner on Thanksgiving day,--turkey and plum-pudding.
  • Last week I visited a beautiful art store.
  • I saw a great many statues, and the gentleman gave me an angel.
  • Sunday I went to church on board a great warship.
  • There was a terrible fire Thursday.
  • With much love, from your darling child, HELEN A. KELLER.
  • My dear Mother, Yesterday I sent you a little Christmas box.
  • I am going to have a Christmas tree in the parlor and teacher will hang all of my gifts upon it.
  • It will be a funny tree.
  • They are going to give me a lovely present, but I cannot guess what it will be.
  • Sammy has a dear new brother.
  • A few days ago I received a little box of English violets from Lady Meath.
  • A few days ago I received a little box of English violets from Lady Meath.
  • With loving greeting to the little cousins, and Mrs. Hale and a sweet kiss for yourself, From your little friend, HELEN A. KELLER.
  • With loving greeting to the little cousins, and Mrs. Hale and a sweet kiss for yourself, From your little friend, HELEN A. KELLER.
  • This, the first of Helen's letters to Dr. Holmes, written soon after a visit to him, he published in "Over the Teacups." [Atlantic Monthly, May, 1890]
  • I am reading a very sad story, called "Little Jakey."
  • They live a gay life, flitting from flower to flower, sipping the drops of honeydew, without a thought for the morrow.
  • She is a lovely baby, and I am sure you will love her.
  • Now I must tell my gentle poet good-bye, for I have a letter to write home before I go to bed.
  • From your loving little friend, HELEN A. KELLER.
  • When I was a very little child I used to sit in my mother's lap all the time, because I was very timid, and did not like to be left by myself.
  • Your loving little pupil, HELEN A. KELLER.
  • My parents were delighted to hear me speak, and I was overjoyed to give them such a happy surprise.
  • I should like very much to see you to-day Is the sun very hot in Boston now? this afternoon if it is cool enough I shall take Mildred for a ride on my donkey.
  • Simpson, that is my brother, brought me some beautiful pond lilies yesterday--he is a very brother to me.
  • From your loving little friend, HELEN A. KELLER.
  • A great deal of the trouble that is in the world is medicine which is very bad to take, but which it is good to take because it makes us better.
  • What a curious thing SPEECH is!
  • The tongue is so serviceable a member (taking all sorts of shapes, just as is wanted),--the teeth, the lips, the roof of the mouth, all ready to help, and so heap up the sound of the voice into the solid bits which we call consonants, and make room for the curiously shaped breathings which we call vowels!
  • Perhaps people would be better in a great many ways, for they could not fight as they do now.
  • This letter was written to some gentlemen in Gardiner, Maine, who named a lumber vessel after her.
  • I did not imagine, when I studied about the forests of Maine, that a strong and beautiful ship would go sailing all over the world, carrying wood from those rich forests, to build pleasant homes and schools and churches in distant countries.
  • With much love, from your little friend, HELEN A. KELLER.
  • And my darling little sister, how I wish I could give her a hundred kisses!
  • When we got to Jersey City at six o'clock Friday evening we were obliged to cross the Harlem River in a ferry-boat.
  • He gave me a beautiful watch.
  • Pennsylvania is a very beautiful State.
  • In Harrisburg we saw a donkey like Neddy.
  • What a nice time I shall have reading them!
  • It is a very pretty story, and I will tell it to you some time.
  • With much love to father, Mildred, you and all the dear friends, lovingly your little daughter, HELEN A. KELLER.
  • I hope your Christmas Day will be a very happy one and that the New Year will be full of brightness and joy for you and every one.
  • From your little friend HELEN A. KELLER.
  • My Dear Young Friend--I was very glad to have such a pleasant letter on my birthday.
  • For a while he was kept in the general hospital at Allegheny.
  • She wanted him brought to Boston, and when she was told that money would be needed to get him a teacher, she answered, "We will raise it."
  • My Dear Friend, Mr. Krehl:--I have just heard, through Mr. Wade, of your kind offer to buy me a gentle dog, and I want to thank you for the kind thought.
  • My friends have told me about your great and magnificent city, and I have read a great deal that wise Englishmen have written.
  • They are going to send me some money for a poor little deaf and dumb and blind child.
  • His parents are too poor to pay to have the little fellow sent to school; so, instead of giving me a dog, the gentlemen are going to help make Tommy's life as bright and joyous as mine.
  • Is it not a beautiful plan?
  • From your loving little friend, HELEN A. KELLER.
  • It is very beautiful to think that people far away in England feel sorry for a little helpless child in America.
  • You will be glad to hear that Tommy has a kind lady to teach him, and that he is a pretty, active little fellow.
  • He loves to climb much better than to spell, but that is because he does not know yet what a wonderful thing language is.
  • My Dear Mr. Brooks: Helen sends you a loving greeting this bright May-day.
  • Before a teacher was found for Tommy and while he was still in the care of Helen and Miss Sullivan, a reception was held for him at the kindergarten.
  • This letter is to the editor of the Boston Herald, enclosing a complete list of the subscribers.
  • I tried to imagine my gentle poet when he was a school-boy, and I wondered if it was in Andover he learned the songs of the birds and the secrets of the shy little woodland children.
  • I enclose a ticket, hoping that you will come.
  • With much love and a kiss, from your little friend, HELEN A. KELLER.
  • With much love and a kiss, from your little friend, HELEN A. KELLER.
  • Yesterday I thought for the first time what a beautiful thing motion was, and it seemed to me that everything was trying to get near to God, does it seem that way to you?
  • There is a hiatus of several months in the letters, caused by the depressing effect on Helen and Miss Sullivan of the "Frost King" episode.
  • But lo! the lovely maiden only smiles more sweetly, and breathes upon the icy battlements of her enemies, and in a moment they vanish, and the glad Earth gives her a royal welcome.
  • We have a grooved board which we put between the pages when we wish to write.
  • Sometime they may visit a school for the blind.
  • In May, 1892, Helen gave a tea in aid of the kindergarten for the blind.
  • You remember teacher and I told you Sunday that I wanted to have a little tea in aid of the kindergarten.
  • I shall be so disappointed if my little plans fail, because I have wanted for a long time to do something for the poor little ones who are waiting to enter the kindergarten.
  • My dear Carrie--You are to look upon it as a most positive proof of my love that I write to you to-day.
  • I had a beautiful visit at Hulton.
  • I rode horseback nearly every evening and once I rode five miles at a fast gallop.
  • I have a very pretty little cart now, and if it ever stops raining teacher and I are going to drive every evening.
  • A queer name, is it not?
  • Mildred is a sweet little sister and I am sure you would love her.
  • I do not write on a Braille tablet, as you suppose, but on a grooved board like the piece which I enclose.
  • It was a lovely cape crocheted, for me, by an old gentleman, seventy-five years of age.
  • And every stitch, he writes, represents a kind wish for my health and happiness.
  • I am glad, very glad that such a kind, beautiful lady loves me.
  • I have loved you for a long time, but I did not think you had ever heard of me until your sweet message came.
  • Please kiss your dear little baby for me, and tell her I have a little brother nearly sixteen months old.
  • I send you with this letter a pretty book which my teacher thinks will interest you, and my picture.
  • Teacher's eyes have been hurting her so that she could not write to any one, and I have been trying to fulfil a promise which I made last summer.
  • Before I left Boston, I was asked to write a sketch of my life for the Youth's Companion.
  • We received the Silent Worker which you sent, and I wrote right away to the editor to tell him that it was a mistake.
  • I am always delighted when anyone writes me a beautiful thought which I can treasure in my memory forever.
  • Now I am going to tell you a secret.
  • I love all living things,--I suppose everyone does; but of course I cannot have a menagerie.
  • I have a beautiful pony, and a large dog.
  • I would like to feel a parrot talk, it would be so much fun! but I would be pleased with, and love any little creature you send me.
  • I do try to think that he is still near, very near; but sometimes the thought that he is not here, that I shall not see him when I go to Boston,--that he is gone,--rushes over my soul like a great wave of sorrow.
  • Dr. Bell gave her a down pillow, which she held against her to increase the vibrations.
  • TO MRS. KATE ADAMS KELLER South Boston, April 13, 1893. ...Teacher, Mrs. Pratt and I very unexpectedly decided to take a journey with dear Dr. Bell Mr. Westervelt, a gentleman whom father met in Washington, has a school for the deaf in Rochester.
  • Mr. Westervelt gave us a reception one afternoon.
  • A great many people came.
  • A lady seemed surprised that I loved flowers when I could not see their beautiful colors, and when I assured her I did love them, she said, "no doubt you feel the colors with your fingers."
  • A gentleman asked me what BEAUTY meant to my mind.
  • But after a minute I answered that beauty was a form of goodness--and he went away.
  • We went down a hundred and twenty feet in an elevator that we might see the violent eddies and whirlpools in the deep gorge below the Falls.
  • Within two miles of the Falls is a wonderful suspension bridge.
  • It is thrown across the gorge at a height of two hundred and fifty-eight feet above the water and is supported on each bank by towers of solid rock, which are eight hundred feet apart.
  • Teacher said I was a little traitor.
  • Her visit to the World's Fair she described in a letter to Mr. John P. Spaulding, which was published in St. Nicholas, and is much like the following letter.
  • In a prefatory note which Miss Sullivan wrote for St. Nicholas, she says that people frequently said to her, "Helen sees more with her fingers than we do with our eyes."
  • GENTLEMEN--The bearer, Miss Helen Keller, accompanied by Miss Sullivan, is desirous of making a complete inspection of the Exposition in all Departments.
  • A French gentleman, whose name I cannot remember, showed me the great French bronzes.
  • I sat in King Ludwig's armchair and felt like a queen when Dr. Gillett remarked that I had many loyal subjects.
  • At the Woman's building we met the Princess Maria Schaovskoy of Russia, and a beautiful Syrian lady.
  • I went to the Japanese department with Prof. Morse who is a well-known lecturer.
  • I never realized what a wonderful people the Japanese are until I saw their most interesting exhibit.
  • Japan must indeed be a paradise for children to judge from the great number of playthings which are manufactured there.
  • Prof. Morse knows a great deal about Japan, and is very kind and wise.
  • Once, while we were out on the water, the sun went down over the rim of the earth, and threw a soft, rosy light over the White City, making it look more than ever like Dreamland....
  • It was a bewildering and fascinating place.
  • We also rode in the Ferris wheel, and on the ice-railway, and had a sail in the Whale-back....
  • In the spring of 1893 a club was started in Tuscumbia, of which Mrs. Keller was president, to establish a public library.
  • Several hundred books, including many fine ones, were sent to me in a short time, as well as money and encouragement.
  • I have only a few moments left in which to answer your questions about the "Helen Keller" Public Library.
  • My mother and several of my friends said they would help me with the establishment of a public library.
  • They have now about 100 books and about $55 in money, and a kind gentleman has given us land on which to erect a library building.
  • But in the meantime the club has rented a little room in a central part of the town, and the books which we already have are free to all. 3.
  • Only a few of my kind friends in Boston know anything about the library.
  • I do not know what books we have, but I think it is a miscellaneous (I think that is the word) collection....
  • It is a very interesting souvenir of Columbus, and of the Fair White City; but I cannot imagine what discoveries I have made,--I mean new discoveries.
  • In the fall Helen and Miss Sullivan entered the Wright-Humason School in New York, which makes a special of lip-reading and voice-culture.
  • She had taken a few piano lessons at the Perkins Institution.
  • I also keep a diary.
  • Last Saturday our kind teachers planned a delightful trip to Bedloe's Island to see Bartholdi's great statue of Liberty enlightening the world....
  • The ancient cannon, which look seaward, wear a very menacing expression; but I doubt if there is any unkindness in their rusty old hearts.
  • Liberty is a gigantic figure of a woman in Greek draperies, holding in her right hand a torch....
  • A spiral stairway leads from the base of this pedestal to the torch.
  • Think what a joy it would be to all of my friends to hear me speak naturally!!
  • ...You know our kind teachers take us to see everything which they think will interest us, and we learn a great deal in that delightful way.
  • Dr. Humason, Teacher, and I left the others at the Dog Show and went to a reception given by the "Metropolitan Club."...
  • TO MRS. KATE ADAMS KELLER New York, March 31, 1895. ...Teacher and I spent the afternoon at Mr. Hutton's, and had a most delightful time!...
  • I had known about them for a long time; but I had never thought that I should see them, and talk to them; and I can scarcely realize now that this great pleasure has been mine!
  • I might have seen Mrs. Wiggin, the sweet author of "Birds' Christmas Carol," but she had a dangerous cough and could not come.
  • He said no, it would not be called for about fifteen minutes; so we sat down to wait; but in a moment the man came back and asked Teacher if we would like to go to the train at once.
  • We had a quiet but very pleasant time in Hulton.
  • I thought her beauty angellic, and oh, what a clear, beautiful voice she had!
  • We went to a poultry-show... and the man there kindly permitted us to feel of the birds.
  • Almost two weeks ago we called at Mr. Hutton's and had a delightful time.
  • Mr. Warner and Mr. Burroughs, the great lover of nature, came to see us a few days after, and we had a delightful talk with them.
  • Mr. Burroughs told me about his home near the Hudson, and what a happy place it must be!
  • I have read "Le Medecin Malgre Lui," a very good French comedy by Moliere, with pleasure; and they say I speak French pretty well now, and German also.
  • Mr. Howes has probably given you a full account of our doings.
  • After my little "speech," we attended a reception at which over six hundred people were present.
  • We spent about three weeks in Boston, after leaving New York, and I need not tell you we had a most delightful time.
  • We visited our good friends, Mr. and Mrs. Chamberlin, at Wrentham, out in the country, where they have a lovely home.
  • Their house stands near a charming lake where we went boating and canoeing, which was great fun.
  • Mr. and Mrs. Chamberlin celebrated the 17th of June by giving a picnic to their literary friends.
  • I do wish you could come and see for yourself what a beautiful school it is!
  • There are about a hundred girls, and they are all so bright and happy; it is a joy to be with them.
  • This year is going to be a very busy one for Teacher and myself.
  • It is such a delight to be with the other girls, and do everything that they do.
  • But Johnson, and "The Plague" and everything else must wait a few minutes this afternoon, while I say, thank you, my dear Mrs. Hutton....
  • ...What a splendid time we had at the "Players' Club."
  • Some one balances the toboggan on the very crest of the hill, while we get on, and when we are ready, off we dash down the side of the hill in a headlong rush, and, leaping a projection, plunge into a snow-drift and go swimming far across the pond at a tremendous rate!...
  • On the other hand, when we learn a new word, it is the key to untold treasures....
  • I have only ridden a "sociable," which is very different from the ordinary tandem.
  • My teacher and other friends think I could ride a Columbia tandem in the country with perfect safety.
  • They also think your suggestion about a fixed handlebar a good one.
  • I ride with a divided skirt, and so does my teacher; but it would be easier for her to mount a man's wheel than for me; so, if it could be arranged to have the ladies' seat behind, I think it would be better....
  • I rode on a rough road, and fell off three or four times, and am now awfully lame!
  • I have really learned to swim and dive--after a fashion!
  • I wish it were not such a bother to move, especially as we have to do it so often!...
  • The "Iliad" is beautiful with all the truth, and grace and simplicity of a wonderfully childlike people while the "Aeneid" is more stately and reserved.
  • It is like a beautiful maiden, who always lived in a palace, surrounded by a magnificent court; while the "Iliad" is like a splendid youth, who has had the earth for his playground.
  • By and by we shall take a little walk in the Public Gardens.
  • But alas! they are not, and I shall have to content myself with a stroll in the Gardens.
  • My teacher and I had a good laugh over the girls' frolic.
  • December 22, [1898] ...I suppose Mr. Keith writes you the work-a-day news.
  • I think Mr. Keith is a wonderful teacher, and I feel very grateful to him for having made me see the beauty of Mathematics.
  • It is a very strong poem and set me dreaming too.
  • Would a college at Havana not be the noblest and most enduring monument that could be raised to the brave men of the "Maine," as well as a source of infinite good to all concerned?
  • In it there would be no suggestion of hatred or revenge, nor a trace of the old-time belief that might makes right.
  • On the other hand, it would be a pledge to the world that we intend to stand by our declaration of war, and give Cuba to the Cubans, as soon as we have fitted them to assume the duties and responsibilities of a self-governing people....
  • A kind friend took me over in the morning to the Boston Art Museum.
  • She looked as if she had just risen from the foam of the sea, and her loveliness was like a strain of heavenly music.
  • General Loring kindly showed me a copy of one of the wonderful bronze doors of the Baptistry of Florence, and I felt of the graceful pillars, resting on the backs of fierce lions.
  • So you see, I had a foretaste of the pleasure which I hope some day to have of visiting Florence.
  • But somehow, I should prefer to see the originals in the place where Genius meant them to remain, not only as a hymn of praise to the gods, but also as a monument of the glory of Greece.
  • Why, only a little while ago people thought it quite impossible to teach the deaf-blind anything; but no sooner was it proved possible than hundreds of kind, sympathetic hearts were fired with the desire to help them, and now we see how many of those poor, unfortunate persons are being taught to see the beauty and reality of life.
  • As to the two-handed alphabet, I think it is much easier for those who have sight than the manual alphabet; for most of the letters look like the large capitals in books; but I think when it comes to teaching a deaf-blind person to spell, the manual alphabet is much more convenient, and less conspicuous....
  • There is but one cloud in my sky at present; but that is one which casts a dark shadow over my life, and makes me very anxious at times.
  • I feel as if I ought to give up the idea of going to college altogether: for not all the knowledge in the world could make me happy, if obtained at such a cost.
  • It is a wonderful exhibition of portraits, they say.
  • I have at least the satisfaction of seeing them through the eyes of my friends, which is a real pleasure.
  • I have his "Jungle-Book" in raised print, and what a splendid, refreshing book it is!
  • The "Iliad" tells of almost nothing but war, and one sometimes wearies of the clash of spears and the din of battle; but the "Odyssey" tells of nobler courage--the courage of a soul sore tried, but steadfast to the end.
  • We shall all live together in a small cottage on one of the lakes at Wrentham, while my dear teacher takes a much needed rest.
  • She has not had a vacation for twelve years, think of it, and all that time she has been the sunshine of my life.
  • Now her eyes are troubling her a great deal, and we all think she ought to be relieved, for a while, of every care and responsibility.
  • TO MRS. LAURENCE HUTTON [Boston] May 28th [1899]. ...We have had a hard day.
  • Why, I should have to be a Cicero to talk like a Cicero!...
  • I was a good deal amused by what she said about history.
  • The other day, I met a deaf Norwegian gentleman, who knows Ragnhild Kaata and her teacher very well, and we had a very interesting conversation about her.
  • She spins, and does a great deal of fancy work, and reads, and leads a pleasant, useful life.
  • She reads the lips well, and if she cannot understand a phrase, her friends write it in her hand, and in this way she converses with strangers.
  • But I must confess, I had a hard time on the second day of my examinations.
  • She showed me how very foolish it would be for me to pursue a four years' course of study at Radcliffe, simply to be like other girls, when I might better be cultivating whatever ability I had for writing.
  • She said she did not consider a degree of any real value, but thought it was much more desirable to do something original than to waste one's energies only for a degree.
  • But, while we were discussing plans for the winter, a suggestion which Dr. Hale had made long ago flashed across Teacher's mind--that I might take courses somewhat like those offered at Radcliffe, under the instruction of the professors in these courses.
  • Why, you yourself seem to think that I taught you American braille, when you do not know a single letter in the system!
  • Mr. Vining was a perfect stranger to me, and could not communicate with me except by writing in braille.
  • The Proctor also was a stranger, and did not attempt to communicate with me in any way; and, as they were both unfamiliar with my speech, they could not readily understand what I said to them.
  • But, when I took up Algebra, I had a harder time still--I was terribly handicapped by my imperfect knowledge of the notation.
  • Perhaps, if you would send a copy of this to the head of the Cambridge School, it might enlighten his mind on a few subjects, on which he seems to be in total darkness just now....
  • Mr. Keith comes every afternoon at four o'clock, and gives me a "friendly lift" over the rough stretches of road, over which every student must go.
  • Now we have a swell winter outfit--coats, hats, gowns, flannels and all.
  • We've just had four lovely dresses made by a French dressmaker.
  • The other is woollen, and of a very pretty green.
  • The waist is trimmed with pink and green brocaded velvet, and white lace, I think, and has double reefers on the front, tucked and trimmed with velvet, and also a row of tiny white buttons.
  • Teacher too has a silk dress.
  • Her other dress is purple, trimmed with purple velvet, and the waist has a collar of cream lace.
  • Colonel Roosevelt was there, on Harvard's side; but bless you, he wore a white sweater, and no crimson that we know of!
  • There were about twenty-five thousand people at the game, and, when we went out, the noise was so terrific, we nearly jumped out of our skins, thinking it was the din of war, and not of a football game that we heard.
  • The thought of their gentle courtesy and genuine kindness brings a warm glow of joy and gratitude to my heart.
  • He has such a kind heart!
  • We went to St. Bartholomew's Sunday, and I have not felt so much at home in a church since dear Bishop Brooks died.
  • I stood in the middle of the church, where the vibrations from the great organ were strongest, and I felt the mighty waves of sound beat against me, as the great billows beat against a little ship at sea.
  • Perhaps next week I shall have some more books, "The Tempest," "A Midsummer Night's Dream" and possibly some selections from Green's history of England.
  • You know a student's life is of necessity somewhat circumscribed and narrow and crowds out almost everything that is not in books....
  • My friends thought we might have one or two pupils in our own home, thereby securing to me the advantage of being helpful to others without any of the disadvantages of a large school.
  • They were very kind; but I could not help feeling that they spoke more from a business than a humanitarian point of view.
  • We had a long talk with Dr. Bell.
  • Finally he proposed a plan which delighted us all beyond words.
  • Yes, I am taking the regular college course for a degree.
  • Many of my friends would be well pleased if I would take two or even one course a year, but I rather object to spending the rest of my life in college....
  • Why, when she enters a store, she will go straight to the showcases, and she can also distinguish her own things.
  • Her parents are very anxious indeed to find a teacher for her.
  • I also know a child at the Institution for the Deaf in Mississippi.
  • Miss Watkins, the lady who has charge of her wrote me a most interesting letter.
  • She said that Maud was born deaf and lost her sight when she was only three months old, and that when she went to the Institution a few weeks ago, she was quite helpless.
  • She said the poor young girl talked and acted exactly like a little child.
  • Katie played with Miss Rhoades's rings and took them away, saying with a merry laugh, "You shall not have them again!"
  • I was much surprised to hear all this; for I judged from your letters that Katie was a very precocious girl....
  • A few days ago I met Tommy Stringer in the railroad station at Wrentham.
  • He is a great, strong boy now, and he will soon need a man to take care of him; he is really too big for a lady to manage.
  • Now, however, I see the folly of attempting to hitch one's wagon to a star with harness that does not belong to it.
  • I have always accepted other peoples experiences and observations as a matter of course.
  • I had a splendid time; the toasts and speeches were great fun.
  • I only spoke a few words, as I did not know I was expected to speak until a few minutes before I was called upon.
  • Did I tell you in my last letter that I had a new dress, a real party dress with low neck and short sleeves and quite a train?
  • Anyway, he certainly never had a dress like mine!...
  • A gentleman in Philadelphia has just written to my teacher about a deaf and blind child in Paris, whose parents are Poles.
  • A gentleman in Philadelphia has just written to my teacher about a deaf and blind child in Paris, whose parents are Poles.
  • The mother is a physician and a brilliant woman, he says.
  • I have had a letter from Mrs. Thaw with regard to the possibility of doing something for these children.
  • It is evident that the blind should have a good magazine, not a special magazine for the blind, but one of our best monthlies, printed in embossed letters.
  • A little bird had already sung the good news in my ear; but it was doubly pleasant to have it straight from you.
  • To be able to read for one's self what is being willed, thought and done in the world--the world in whose joys and sorrows, failures and successes one feels the keenest interest--that would indeed be a happiness too deep for words.
  • He has a charming, romantic house on a mountain called Beinn Bhreagh, which overlooks the Bras d'Or Lake....
  • He had just constructed a boat that could be propelled by a kite with the wind in its favor, and one day he tried experiments to see if he could steer the kite against the wind.
  • If he had not taken upon himself the responsibility of Laura Bridgman's education and led her out of the pit of Acheron back to her human inheritance, should I be a sophomore at Radcliffe College to-day--who can say?
  • It was written out of my heart, and perhaps that is why it met a sympathetic response in other hearts.
  • I will ask Dr. Hale to lend me the letter, so that I can make a copy of it for you.
  • You see, I use a typewriter--it is my right hand man, so to speak.
  • What is remarkable in her career is already accomplished, and whatever she may do in the future will be but a relatively slight addition to the success which distinguishes her now.
  • In her account of her early education Miss Keller is not giving a scientifically accurate record of her life, nor even of the important events.
  • Her good friend, Mr. William Wade, had a complete braille copy made for her from the magazine proofs.
  • As a matter of fact, most of the advice she has received and heeded has led to excisions rather than to additions.
  • "Yes," she replied, "but I like to play also, and I feel sometimes as if I were a music box with all the play shut up inside me."
  • She accordingly delayed a year.
  • Her life has been a series of attempts to do whatever other people do, and to do it as well.
  • If she does not know the answer to a question, she guesses with mischievous assurance.
  • Her whimsical and adventuresome spirit puts her so much on her mettle that she makes rather a poor subject for the psychological experimenter.
  • When a psychologist asked her if Miss Keller spelled on her fingers in her sleep, Miss Sullivan replied that she did not think it worth while to sit up and watch, such matters were of so little consequence.
  • If any one whom she is touching laughs at a joke, she laughs, too, just as if she had heard it.
  • If others are aglow with music, a responding glow, caught sympathetically, shines in her face.
  • She cannot sing and she cannot play the piano, although, as some early experiments show, she could learn mechanically to beat out a tune on the keys.
  • Her enjoyment of music, however, is very genuine, for she has a tactile recognition of sound when the waves of air beat against her.
  • Sometimes she puts her hand on a singer's throat to feel the muscular thrill and contraction, and from this she gets genuine pleasure.
  • It is amusing to read in one of the magazines of 1895 that Miss Keller "has a just and intelligent appreciation of different composers from having literally felt their music, Schumann being her favourite."
  • She is a good talker on the little occasional affairs of life.
  • When she is out walking she often stops suddenly, attracted by the odour of a bit of shrubbery.
  • When she is in a new place, especially an interesting place like Niagara, whoever accompanies her--usually, of course, Miss Sullivan--is kept busy giving her an idea of visible details.
  • Miss Sullivan, who knows her pupil's mind, selects from the passing landscape essential elements, which give a certain clearness to Miss Keller's imagined view of an outer world that to our eyes is confused and overloaded with particulars.
  • When she returns from a walk and tells some one about it, her descriptions are accurate and vivid.
  • A comparative experience drawn from written descriptions and from her teacher's words has kept her free from errors in her use of terms of sound and vision.
  • True, her view of life is highly coloured and full of poetic exaggeration; the universe, as she sees it, is no doubt a little better than it really is.
  • A friend tried Miss Keller one day with several coins.
  • She recognizes the subject and general intention of a statuette six inches high.
  • Anything shallower than a half-inch bas-relief is a blank to her, so far as it expresses an idea of beauty.
  • She suggests herself that she can know them better than we do, because she can get the true dimensions and appreciate more immediately the solid nature of a sculptured figure.
  • When she was at the Museum of Fine Arts in Boston she stood on a step-ladder and let both hands play over the statues.
  • When she felt a bas-relief of dancing girls she asked, "Where are the singers?"
  • Most blind people are aided by the sense of sound, so that a fair comparison is hard to make, except with other deaf-blind persons.
  • Miss Sullivan and others who live constantly with the deaf can spell very rapidly--fast enough to get a slow lecture, not fast enough to get every word of a rapid speaker.
  • The books are large, about the size of a volume of an encyclopedia.
  • Miss Keller has a braille writer on which she keeps notes and writes letters to her blind friends.
  • They cost a great deal to publish and they have not a large enough sale to make them profitable to the publisher; but there are several institutions with special funds to pay for embossed books.
  • Miss Keller does not as a rule read very fast, but she reads deliberately, not so much because she feels the words less quickly than we see then, as because it is one of her habits of mind to do things thoroughly and well.
  • When a passage interests her, or she needs to remember it for some future use, she flutters it off swiftly on the fingers of her right hand.
  • When she is walking up or down the hall or along the veranda, her hands go flying along beside her like a confusion of birds' wings.
  • For Miss Keller to spell a sentence in the manual alphabet impresses it on her mind just as we learn a thing from having heard it many times and can call back the memory of its sound.
  • The sense of smell has fallen into disrepute, and a deaf person is reluctant to speak of it.
  • The question of a special "sixth sense," such as people have ascribed. to Miss Keller, is a delicate one.
  • This much is certain, she cannot have any sense that other people may not have, and the existence of a special sense is not evident to her or to any one who knows her.
  • Miss Keller is distinctly not a singular proof of occult and mysterious theories, and any attempt to explain her in that way fails to reckon with her normality.
  • Her sense of time is excellent, but whether it would have developed as a special faculty cannot be known, for she has had a watch since she was seven years old.
  • Though there is less than half an inch between the points--a space which represents sixty minutes--Miss Keller tells the time almost exactly.
  • It should be said that any double-case watch with the crystal removed serves well enough for a blind person whose touch is sufficiently delicate to feel the position of the hands and not disturb or injure them.
  • Some time ago, when a policeman shot dead her dog, a dearly loved daily companion, she found in her forgiving heart no condemnation for the man; she only said, 'If he had only known what a good dog she was, he wouldn't have shot her.'
  • Miss Sullivan writes in a letter of 1891:
  • After thinking a little while, she added, 'I think Shakespeare made it very terrible so that people would see how fearful it is to do wrong.'
  • "Toleration," she said once, when she was visiting her friend Mrs. Laurence Hutton, "is the greatest gift of the mind; it requires the same effort of the brain that it takes to balance oneself on a bicycle."
  • She has a large, generous sympathy and absolute fairness of temper.
  • Not all the attention that has been paid her since she was a child has made her take herself too seriously.
  • Sometimes she gets started on a very solemn preachment.
  • She was intensely pro-Boer and wrote a strong argument in favour of Boer independence.
  • When she was told of the surrender of the brave little people, her face clouded and she was silent a few minutes.
  • He was a great philanthropist, interested especially in the education of all defectives, the feeble-minded, the blind, and the deaf.
  • His success convinced him that language can be conveyed through type to the mind of the blind-deaf child, who, before education, is in the state of the baby who has not learned to prattle; indeed, is in a much worse state, for the brain has grown in years without natural nourishment.
  • After Laura's education had progressed for two months with the use only of raised letters, Dr. Howe sent one of his teachers to learn the manual alphabet from a deaf-mute.
  • He never forgot to keep his records of Laura Bridgman in the fashion of one who works in a laboratory.
  • From a scientific standpoint it is unfortunate that it was impossible to keep such a complete record of Helen Keller's development.
  • This in itself is a great comment on the difference between Laura Bridgman and Helen Keller.
  • Helen Keller became so rapidly a distinctive personality that she kept her teacher in a breathless race to meet the needs of her pupil, with no time or strength to make a scientific study.
  • As soon as a thing was done, a definite goal passed, the teacher did not always look back and describe the way she had come.
  • In a letter dated April 10, 1887, only five weeks after she went to Helen Keller, she wrote to a friend:
  • --sent me a Boston Herald containing a stupid article about Helen.
  • Why, one might just as well say that a two-year-old child converses fluently when he says 'apple give,' or 'baby walk go.'
  • On March 4, 1888, she writes in a letter:
  • Of this report Miss Sullivan wrote in a letter dated October 30, 1887:
  • Doubtless the work of the past few months does seem like a triumphal march to him; but then people seldom see the halting and painful steps by which the most insignificant success is achieved.
  • As Mr. Anagnos was the head of a great institution, what he said had much more effect than the facts in Miss Sullivan's account on which he based his statements.
  • The newspapers caught Mr. Anagnos's spirit and exaggerated a hundred-fold.
  • In a year after she first went to Helen Keller, Miss Sullivan found herself and her pupil the centre of a stupendous fiction.
  • There grew up a mass of controversial matter which it is amusing to read now.
  • Teachers of the deaf proved a priori that what Miss Sullivan had done could not be, and some discredit was reflected on her statements, because they were surrounded by the vague eloquence of Mr. Anagnos.
  • For this report Miss Sullivan wrote the fullest and largest account she has ever written; and in this report appeared the "Frost King," which is discussed fully in a later chapter.
  • Many people have thought that any attempt to find the principles in her method would be nothing but a later theory superimposed on Miss Sullivan's work.
  • But it is evident that in these letters she was making a clear analysis of what she was doing.
  • When Captain Keller applied to the director for a teacher, Mr. Anagnos recommended her.
  • I do not doubt that she derived from them much pleasure and not a little profit.
  • I have also italicized a few important passages.
  • The drive from the station to the house, a distance of one mile, was very lovely and restful.
  • I was surprised to find Mrs. Keller a very young-looking woman, not much older than myself, I should think.
  • Captain Keller met us in the yard and gave me a cheery welcome and a hearty handshake.
  • As we approached the house I saw a child standing in the doorway, and Captain Keller said, There she is.
  • It did not open easily, and she felt carefully to see if there was a keyhole.
  • Finding that there was, she turned to me, making the sign of turning a key and pointing to the bag.
  • I made her understand, by pointing to a trunk in the hall and to myself and nodding my head, that I had a trunk, and then made the sign that she had used for eating, and nodded again.
  • She understood in a flash and ran downstairs to tell her mother, by means of emphatic signs, that there was some candy in a trunk for her.
  • She returned in a few minutes and helped me put away my things.
  • Somehow I had expected to see a pale, delicate child--I suppose I got the idea from Dr. Howe's description of Laura Bridgman when she came to the Institution.
  • She is large, strong, and ruddy, and as unrestrained in her movements as a young colt.
  • She has a fine head, and it is set on her shoulders just right.
  • You see at a glance that she is blind.
  • She is never still a moment.
  • I thought it a good opportunity to teach her her first word.
  • Then I took the doll, meaning to give it back to her when she had made the letters; but she thought I meant to take it from her, and in an instant she was in a temper, and tried to seize the doll.
  • I forced her into a chair and held her there until I was nearly exhausted.
  • She made the letters rapidly, and I gave her the cake, which she ate in a great hurry, thinking, I suppose, that I might take it from her.
  • Yesterday I gave her a sewing-card to do.
  • She began to work delightedly and finished the card in a few minutes, and did it very neatly indeed.
  • She made the "c-a," then stopped and thought, and making the sign for eating and pointing downward she pushed me toward the door, meaning that I must go downstairs for some cake.
  • The two letters "c-a," you see, had reminded her of Fridays "lesson"--not that she had any idea that cake was the name of the thing, but it was simply a matter of association, I suppose.
  • She started forward, then hesitated a moment, evidently debating within herself whether she would go or not.
  • I had a lot to say, and couldn't stop to think how to express things neatly.
  • I had a battle royal with Helen this morning.
  • She persisted, and a contest of wills followed.
  • After a few minutes she came back to her place and began to eat her breakfast with her fingers.
  • I gave her a spoon, which she threw on the floor.
  • In a few minutes she yielded and finished her breakfast peaceably.
  • Since I wrote you, Helen and I have gone to live all by ourselves in a little garden-house about a quarter of a mile from her home, only a short distance from Ivy Green, the Keller homestead.
  • Every thwarted desire was the signal for a passionate outburst, and as she grew older and stronger, these tempests became more violent.
  • To get her to do the simplest thing, such as combing her hair or washing her hands or buttoning her boots, it was necessary to use force, and, of course, a distressing scene followed.
  • She accepted everything I did for her as a matter of course, and refused to be caressed, and there was no way of appealing to her affection or sympathy or childish love of approbation.
  • I had a good, frank talk with Mrs. Keller, and explained to her how difficult it was going to be to do anything with Helen under the existing circumstances.
  • I told her that in my opinion the child ought to be separated from the family for a few weeks at least--that she must learn to depend on and obey me before I could make any headway.
  • After a long time Mrs. Keller said that she would think the matter over and see what Captain Keller thought of sending Helen away with me.
  • The little house is a genuine bit of paradise.
  • There is a piazza in front, covered with vines that grow so luxuriantly that you have to part them to see the garden beyond.
  • I never saw such strength and endurance in a child.
  • But fortunately for us both, I am a little stronger, and quite as obstinate when I set out.
  • This lasted for several minutes; then this mood passed, and Nancy was thrown ruthlessly on the floor and pushed to one side, while a large, pink-cheeked, fuzzy-haired member of the family received the little mother's undivided attention.
  • Helen knows several words now, but has no idea how to use them, or that everything has a name.
  • We had a good frolic this morning out in the garden.
  • Mr. Wilson, a teacher at Florence, and a friend of the Kellers', studied at Harvard the summer before and went to the Perkins Institution to learn if anything could be done for his friend's child.
  • He saw a gentleman whom he presumed to be the director, and told him about Helen.
  • A miracle has happened!
  • She is sitting by me as I write, her face serene and happy, crocheting a long red chain of Scotch wool.
  • She lets me kiss her now, and when she is in a particularly gentle mood, she will sit in my lap for a minute or two; but she does not return my caresses.
  • I have noticed also that she eats much less, a fact which troubles her father so much that he is anxious to get her home.
  • She has no idea yet that everything has a name.
  • She was delighted if he made a mistake, and made him form the letter over several times.
  • One day this week Captain Keller brought Belle, a setter of which he is very proud, to see us.
  • Helen was giving Nancy a bath, and didn't notice the dog at first.
  • I think "no" and "yes," conveyed by a shake or a nod of my head, have become facts as apparent to her as hot and cold or as the difference between pain and pleasure.
  • They have promised to let me have a free hand and help me as much as possible.
  • Only a few hours after my talk with Captain and Mrs. Keller (and they had agreed to everything), Helen took a notion that she wouldn't use her napkin at table.
  • I thought I would try the effect of a little belated discipline.
  • I went back to the dining-room and got a napkin.
  • After spelling half the words, she stopped suddenly, as if a thought had flashed into her mind, and felt for the napkin.
  • I took this for a promise that if I gave her some cake she would be a good girl.
  • I gave her a larger piece than usual, and she chuckled and patted herself.
  • At ten we come in and string beads for a few minutes.
  • She can make a great many combinations now, and often invents new ones herself.
  • She learned to knit very quickly, and is making a wash-cloth for her mother.
  • I'd rather break stones on the king's highway than hem a handkerchief.
  • Mrs. Keller wanted to get a nurse for her, but I concluded I'd rather be her nurse than look after a stupid, lazy negress.
  • Here is a list of the words.
  • I must write you a line this morning because something very important has happened.
  • She has learned that EVERYTHING HAS A NAME, AND THAT THE MANUAL ALPHABET IS THE KEY TO EVERYTHING SHE WANTS TO KNOW.
  • In a previous letter I think I wrote you that "mug" and "milk" had given Helen more trouble than all the rest.
  • A new light came into her face.
  • All the way back to the house she was highly excited, and learned the name of every object she touched, so that in a few hours she had adDED THIRTY NEW WORDS TO HER VOCABULARY.
  • HERE ARE SOME OF THEM: DOOR, OPEN, SHUT, GIVE, GO, COME, and a great many more.
  • Everything must have a name now.
  • I asked myself, "How does a normal child learn language?"
  • She is about fifteen months old, and already understands a great deal.
  • If I hand her a flower, and say, "Give it to mamma," she takes it to her mother.
  • These observations have given me a clue to the method to be followed in teaching Helen language.I SHALL TALK INTO HER HAND AS WE TALK INTO THE BABY'S EARS.
  • Helen knows the meaning of more than a hundred words now, and learns new ones daily without the slightest suspicion that she is performing a most difficult feat.
  • "Milk," with a gesture means, "Give me more milk."
  • We play a little game which I find most useful in developing the intellect, and which incidentally answers the purpose of a language lesson.
  • I hide something, a ball or a spool, and we hunt for it.
  • Again, when I hid the spool, she looked for it in a little box not more than an inch long; and she very soon gave up the search.
  • This morning I hid a cracker.
  • They seem to me to be built up on the supposition that every child is a kind of idiot who must be taught to think.
  • Let him go and come freely, let him touch real things and combine his impressions for himself, instead of sitting indoors at a little round table, while a sweet-voiced teacher suggests that he build a stone wall with his wooden blocks, or make a rainbow out of strips of coloured paper, or plant straw trees in bead flower-pots.
  • If she wanted a small object and was given a large one, she would shake her head and take up a tiny bit of the skin of one hand between the thumb and finger of the other.
  • If she wanted to indicate something large, she spread the fingers of both hands as wide as she could, and brought them together, as if to clasp a big ball.
  • I can now tell her to bring me a large book or a small plate, to go upstairs slowly, to run fast and to walk quickly.
  • She came tearing upstairs a few minutes ago in a state of great excitement.
  • After she had played with them a little while, the thought occurred to her that the puppies must have special names, like people, and she asked for the name of each pup.
  • Then we sit down under a tree, or in the shade of a bush, and talk about it.
  • Near the landing there is a beautiful little spring, which Helen calls "squirrel-cup," because I told her the squirrels came there to drink.
  • She has felt dead squirrels and rabbits and other wild animals, and is anxious to see a "walk-squirrel," which interpreted, means, I think, a "live squirrel."
  • I supply a word here and there, sometimes a sentence, and suggest something which she has omitted or forgotten.
  • Helen is a wonderful child, so spontaneous and eager to learn.
  • It is a rare privilege to watch the birth, growth, and first feeble struggles of a living mind; this privilege is mine; and moreover, it is given me to rouse and guide this bright intelligence.
  • You see, my mind is undisciplined, full of skips and jumps, and here and there a lot of things huddled together in dark corners.
  • I need a teacher quite as much as Helen.
  • Usually we take one of the little "Readers" up in a big tree near the house and spend an hour or two finding the words Helen already knows.
  • WE MAKE A SORT OF GAME OF IT and try to see who can find the words most quickly, Helen with her fingers, or I with my eyes, and she learns as many new words as I can explain with the help of those she knows.
  • I can now tell her to go upstairs or down, out of doors or into the house, lock or unlock a door, take or bring objects, sit, stand, walk, run, lie, creep, roll, or climb.
  • She is always ready for a lesson, and the eagerness with which she absorbs ideas is very delightful.
  • One of Helen's old habits, that is strongest and hardest to correct, is a tendency to break things.
  • If she finds anything in her way, she flings it on the floor, no matter what it is: a glass, a pitcher, or even a lamp.
  • The other day a friend brought her a new doll from Memphis, and I thought I would see if I could make Helen understand that she must not break it.
  • She went through these motions several times, mimicking every movement, then she stood very still for a moment with a troubled look on her face, which suddenly cleared, and she spelled, "Good Helen," and wreathed her face in a very large, artificial smile.
  • I hear there is a deaf and blind child being educated at the Baltimore Institution.
  • I had no idea she knew what a letter was.
  • She knew, too, that I sometimes write "letters to blind girls" on the slate; but I didn't suppose that she had any clear idea what a letter was.
  • The other night when I went to bed, I found Helen sound asleep with a big book clasped tightly in her arms.
  • I am glad Mr. Anagnos thinks so highly of me as a teacher.
  • I had no idea a short time ago how to go to work; I was feeling about in the dark; but somehow I know now, and I know that I know.
  • Already people are taking a deep interest in Helen.
  • Indeed, the Tophetic weather has reduced us all to a semi-liquid state.
  • I let her hold a shell in her hand, and feel the chicken "chip, chip."
  • Her astonishment, when she felt the tiny creature inside, cannot be put in a letter.
  • Besides the chickens, we have several other additions to the family--two calves, a colt, and a penful of funny little pigs.
  • You would be amused to see me hold a squealing pig in my arms, while Helen feels it all over, and asks countless questions--questions not easy to answer either.
  • We are bothered a good deal by people who assume the responsibility of the world when God is neglectful.
  • They tell us that Helen is "overdoing," that her mind is too active (these very people thought she had no mind at all a few months ago!) and suggest many absurd and impossible remedies.
  • I am teaching Helen the square-hand letters as a sort of diversion.
  • She has a perfect mania for counting.
  • I happened to tell her the other day that the vine on the fence was a "creeper."
  • We had a glorious thunder-tempest last night, and it's much cooler to-day.
  • We all feel refreshed, as if we'd had a shower-bath.
  • Helen's as lively as a cricket.
  • But her appetite, which left her a few weeks ago, has returned, and her sleep seems more quiet and natural.
  • During our walks she keeps up a continual spelling, and delights to accompany it with actions such as skipping, hopping, jumping, running, walking fast, walking slow, and the like.
  • She enjoys punching holes in paper with the stiletto, and I supposed it was because she could examine the result of her work; but we watched her one day, and I was much surprised to find that she imagined she was writing a letter.
  • She recognizes instantly a person whom she has once met, and spells the name.
  • Unlike Laura Bridgman, she is fond of gentlemen, and we notice that she makes friends with a gentleman sooner than with a lady.
  • She discovered a hole in her boot the other morning, and, after breakfast, she went to her father and spelled, "Helen new boot Simpson (her brother) buggy store man."
  • There was a great rumpus downstairs this morning.
  • I found her in a terrible passion.
  • It seems Viney had attempted to take a glass, which Helen was filling with stones, fearing that she would break it.
  • She stood very still for a moment, and it was evident from her face, which was flushed and troubled, that a struggle was going on in her mind.
  • She was very much excited when we went upstairs; so I tried to interest her in a curious insect called a stick-bug.
  • It's the queerest thing I ever saw--a little bundle of fagots fastened together in the middle.
  • Even then it looked more like a mechanical toy than a living creature.
  • I had a letter from Laura Bridgman last Sunday.
  • Please give her my love, and tell her Helen sends her a kiss.
  • We had a beautiful time in Huntsville.
  • One of the girls taught her to dance the polka, and a little boy showed her his rabbits and spelled their names for her.
  • We had Helen's picture taken with a fuzzy, red-eyed little poodle, who got himself into my lady's good graces by tricks and cunning devices known only to dogs with an instinct for getting what they want.
  • She has talked incessantly since her return about what she did in Huntsville, and we notice a very decided improvement in her ability to use language.
  • But it hardly seems possible that any mere words should convey to one who has never seen a mountain the faintest idea of its grandeur; and I don't see how any one is ever to know what impression she did receive, or the cause of her pleasure in what was told her about it.
  • All that we do know certainly is that she has a good memory and imagination and the faculty of association.
  • From the beginning, I HAVE MADE IT A PRACTICE TO ANSWER ALL HELEN'S QUESTIONS TO THE BEST OF MY ABILITY IN A WAY INTELLIGIBLE TO HER, and at the same time truthfully.
  • There isn't a living soul in this part of the world to whom I can go for advice in this, or indeed, in any other educational difficulty.
  • The only thing for me to do in a perplexity is to go ahead, and learn by making mistakes.
  • But in this case I don't think I made a mistake.
  • The mother bird lays her eggs in a nest and keeps them warm until the birdlings are hatched.
  • Helen had a letter this morning from her uncle, Doctor Keller.
  • She looked troubled, and hesitated a moment before answering.
  • Besides, they said Helen's wonderful deliverance might be a boon to other afflicted children.
  • I kept a record of everything she said last week, and I found that she knows six hundred words.
  • It seems as if a child who could see and hear until her nineteenth month must retain some of her first impressions, though ever so faintly.
  • Helen talks a great deal about things that she cannot know of through the sense of touch.
  • Quick as a flash she said, "My think is white, Viney's think is black."
  • She talks a great deal about what she will do when she goes to Boston.
  • I doubt if any teacher ever had a work of such absorbing interest.
  • Now he wants a picture "of darling Helen and her illustrious teacher, to grace the pages of the forthcoming annual report."
  • After thinking a moment she said, "My eyes are bad!" then she changed it into "My eyes are sick!"
  • This is the effect of putting it all in a summary.
  • Next came a lesson on words expressive of positive quality.
  • For the first lesson I had two balls, one made of worsted, large and soft, the other a bullet.
  • Taking the bullet she made her habitual sign for SMALL--that is, by pinching a little bit of the skin of one hand.
  • A few minutes afterward she felt of her little sister's head and said to her mother, "Mildred's head is small and hard."
  • A slip on which was printed, in raised letters, the word BOX was placed on the object, and the same experiment was tried with a great many articles, but she did not immediately comprehend that the label-name represented the thing.
  • A slip on which was printed, in raised letters, the word BOX was placed on the object, and the same experiment was tried with a great many articles, but she did not immediately comprehend that the label-name represented the thing.
  • When she touched one with which she was familiar, a peculiarly sweet expression lighted her face, and we saw her countenance growing sweeter and more earnest every day.
  • About this time I sent a list of the words she knew to Mr. Anagnos, and he very kindly had them printed for her.
  • Day after day she moved her pencil in the same tracks along the grooved paper, never for a moment expressing the least impatience or sense of fatigue.
  • For a whole evening she will sit at the table writing whatever comes into her busy brain; and I seldom find any difficulty in reading what she has written.
  • On being told that she was white and that one of the servants was black, she concluded that all who occupied a similar menial position were of the same hue; and whenever I asked her the colour of a servant she would say "black."
  • The circus people were much interested in Helen, and did everything they could to make her first circus a memorable event.
  • She also felt a Greek chariot, and the charioteer would have liked to take her round the ring; but she was afraid of "many swift horses."
  • In order to answer her questions, I have been obliged to read a great deal about animals.
  • At present I feel like a jungle on wheels!
  • Do you remember what a happy time we had last Christmas?
  • Helen has learned to tell the time at last, and her father is going to give her a watch for Christmas.
  • TOO MUCH EXPLANATION DIRECTS THE CHILD'S ATTENTION TO WORDS AND SENTENCES, SO THAT HE FAILS TO GET THE THOUGHT AS A WHOLE.
  • Christmas week was a very busy one here, too.
  • It was not difficult, however, to make her understand that there was a present for each child, and to her great delight she was permitted to hand the gifts to the children.
  • She placed them in a chair, resisting all temptation to look at them until every child had received his gifts.
  • After dinner it began to snow, and we had a good frolic and an interesting lesson about the snow.
  • It was the first snow I had seen here, and it made me a little homesick.
  • Of course, she hung her stocking--two of them lest Santa Claus should forget one, and she lay awake for a long time and got up two or three times to see if anything had happened.
  • She had a trunk and clothes for Nancy, and her comment was, "Now Nancy will go to party."
  • The other day Helen came across the word grandfather in a little story and asked her mother, "Where is grandfather?" meaning her grandfather.
  • In a flash she answered, "I think Uncle Frank is much (too) old to read very small letters."
  • Finally I persuaded her to write a few lines; but she broke her pencil six times before she finished it.
  • I said to her, "You are a naughty girl."
  • I can't believe that the colour-impressions she received during the year and a half she could see and hear are entirely lost.
  • We had a splendid time in Memphis, but I didn't rest much.
  • But even then I can never have a quiet half hour to myself.
  • One day Helen said, "I must buy Nancy a very pretty hat."
  • She had a silver dollar and a dime.
  • We visited the Stock Exchange and a steamboat.
  • Dr. Bell writes that Helen's progress is without a parallel in the education of the deaf, or something like that and he says many nice things about her teacher.
  • I did not have a chance to finish my letter yesterday.
  • Miss Ev. came up to help me make a list of words Helen has learned.
  • I had Helen begin a journal March 1st.[Most of this journal was lost.
  • He said Dear Helen, Robert was glad to get a letter from dear, sweet little Helen.
  • Natalie is a good girl and does not cry.
  • When it was time for the church service to begin, she was in such a state of excitement that I thought it best to take her away; but Captain Keller said, "No, she will be all right."
  • I never was so glad to get out of a place as I was to leave that church!
  • Everybody laughed at her antics, and you would have thought they were leaving a place of amusement rather than a church.
  • Her motions are often more expressive than any words, and she is as graceful as a nymph.
  • Do you realize that this is the last letter I shall write to you for a long, long time?
  • The next word that you receive from me will be in a yellow envelope, and it will tell you when we shall reach Boston.
  • We spent a delightful week with the "doctors."
  • Almost every one on the train was a physician, and Dr. Keller seemed to know them all.
  • But I haven't time to write all the pleasant things people said--they would make a very large book, and the kind things they did for us would fill another volume.
  • Dr. Keller distributed the extracts from the report that Mr. Anagnos sent me, and he could have disposed of a thousand if he had had them.
  • He took us to drive one afternoon, and wanted to give Helen a doll; but she said: I do not like too many children.
  • He had never heard of "talking-gloves"; but I explained that she had seen a glove on which the alphabet was printed, and evidently thought they could be bought.
  • These same questions had been asked me a hundred times by the learned doctors.
  • It would indeed be a herculean task to teach the words if the ideas did not already exist in the child's mind.
  • We visited a little school for the deaf.
  • I was incredulous when he first told me the secret.
  • A little girl had written: I have a new dress.
  • A little girl had written: I have a new dress.
  • It is a pretty dress.
  • A curly-headed little boy was writing: I have a large ball.
  • A curly-headed little boy was writing: I have a large ball.
  • Nobody thinks of making a hearing child say, "I have a pretty new dress," at the beginning.
  • On entering a greenhouse her countenance becomes radiant, and she will tell the names of the flowers with which she is familiar, by the sense of smell alone.
  • It frequently happens that the perfume of a flower or the flavour of a fruit recalls to her mind some happy event in home life, or a delightful birthday party.
  • Indeed, her whole body is so finely organized that she seems to use it as a medium for bringing herself into closer relations with her fellow creatures.
  • One day, while she was out walking with her mother and Mr. Anagnos, a boy threw a torpedo, which startled Mrs. Keller.
  • On one occasion, while walking on the Common with her, I saw a police officer taking a man to the station-house.
  • All present were astonished when she appeared not only to hear a whistle, but also an ordinary tone of voice.
  • This time her countenance changed whenever she was spoken to, but there was not such a decided lighting up of the features as when I had held her hand.
  • Even before I knew her, she had handled a dead chicken, or bird, or some other small animal.
  • The wounded leg soon became so much worse that the horse was suspended from a beam.
  • While making a visit at Brewster, Massachusetts, she one day accompanied my friend and me through the graveyard.
  • She examined one stone after another, and seemed pleased when she could decipher a name.
  • She smelt of the flowers, but showed no desire to pluck them; and, when I gathered a few for her, she refused to have them pinned on her dress.
  • When her attention was drawn to a marble slab inscribed with the name FLORENCE in relief, she dropped upon the ground as though looking for something, then turned to me with a face full of trouble, and asked, "Were is poor little Florence?"
  • Helen had been given a bed and carriage for her dolls, which she had received and used like any other gift.
  • This was true, although we were at a loss to understand how she guessed it.
  • A letter written to her mother in the course of the following week gave an account of her impression in her own words:
  • Notwithstanding the activity of Helen's mind, she is a very natural child.
  • Helen began to pull off the jacket, saying, "I must give it to a poor little strange girl."
  • She is very fond of children younger than herself, and a baby invariably calls forth all the motherly instincts of her nature.
  • She has a very sociable disposition, and delights in the companionship of those who can follow the rapid motions of her fingers; but if left alone she will amuse herself for hours at a time with her knitting or sewing.
  • She reads a great deal.
  • She bends over her book with a look of intense interest, and as the forefinger of her left hand runs along the line, she spells out the words with the other hand; but often her motions are so rapid as to be unintelligible even to those accustomed to reading the swift and varied movements of her fingers.
  • One morning she was greatly distressed by finding that one of the dogs had a block fastened to her collar.
  • Helen expressed a great deal of sympathy, and at every opportunity during the day she would find Pearl and carry the burden from place to place.
  • In a letter written soon afterward she says:
  • Naturally, there was at first a strong tendency on her part to use only the important words in a sentence.
  • I got the milk to show her that she had used the correct word; but I did not let her drink it until she had, with my assistance, made a complete sentence, as "Give Helen some milk to drink."
  • This morning teacher and I sat by the window and we saw a little boy walking on the sidewalk.
  • It was raining very hard and he had a very large umbrella to keep off the rain-drops.
  • I do not know where he was going because he was a little strange boy.
  • But PERHAPS his mother sent him to a store to buy something for dinner.
  • He had a bag in one hand.
  • Indeed, I am often obliged to coax her to leave an example or a composition.
  • Little blind girls sent me a pretty work-basket.
  • I will write little blind girls a letter to thank them.
  • The blue-bird makes her nest in a hollow tree and her eggs are blue.
  • I learned a song about spring.
  • Teacher and I went to ride on Tennessee River, in a boat.
  • In the autumn she went to a circus.
  • I tried to describe to her the appearance of a camel; but, as we were not allowed to touch the animal, I feared that she did not get a correct idea of its shape.
  • Between these humps she had placed her doll, which she was giving a ride around the room.
  • I watched her for some time as she moved about, trying to take long strides in order to carry out the idea I had given her of a camel's gait.
  • When I asked her what she was doing, she replied, "I am a very funny camel."
  • During the next two years neither Mr. Anagnos, who was in Europe for a year, nor Miss Sullivan wrote anything about Helen Keller for publication.
  • In 1892 appeared the Perkins Institution report for 1891, containing a full account of Helen Keller, including many of her letters, exercises, and compositions.
  • There was a hopeless look in the dull eye that I could not help noticing, and then, as I was thinking where I had seen that horse before, she looked full at me and said, 'Black Beauty, is that you?'
  • The words made a distinct picture in my mind.
  • I never knew before that there could be such a change in anything.
  • After a moment she added, mournfully, "I fear some people's lives are just like Ginger's."
  • This morning Helen was reading for the first time Bryant's poem, "Oh, mother of a mighty race!"
  • She is at once transported into the midst of the events of a story.
  • But this advantage involves a corresponding disadvantage, the danger of unduly severe mental application.
  • I have never known her to be willing to leave a lesson when she felt that there was anything in it which she did not understand.
  • If I suggest her leaving a problem in arithmetic until the next day, she answers, "I think it will make my mind stronger to do it now."
  • A few evenings ago we were discussing the tariff.
  • She was quiet for a moment, and then asked, with spirit: How do you know that I cannot understand?
  • I have a good mind!
  • Not long ago I tried to show her how to build a tower with her blocks.
  • After a time I became discouraged, and told her I was afraid she could not make it stand, but that I would build it for her; but she did not approve of this plan.
  • Once, when a question puzzled her very much, I suggested that we take a walk and then perhaps she would understand it.
  • I regard my pupil as a free and active being, whose own spontaneous impulses must be my surest guide.
  • I have always talked to Helen exactly as I would talk to a seeing and hearing child, and I have insisted that other people should do the same.
  • Whenever any one asks me if she will understand this or that word I always reply: Never mind whether she understands each separate word of a sentence or not.
  • I remember distinctly when she first attempted to read a little story.
  • A mouse is in the box.
  • When she had read the words of the second sentence, I showed her that there really was a mouse in the box.
  • By signs she made me understand that she wished another story, and I gave her a book containing very short stories, written in the most elementary style.
  • She ran her fingers along the lines, finding the words she knew and guessing at the meaning of others, in a way that would convince the most conservative of educators that a little deaf child, if given the opportunity, will learn to read as easily and naturally as ordinary children.
  • I have found it a convenient medium of communicating with Helen when she is at some distance from me, for it enables me to talk with her by tapping upon the floor with my foot.
  • It is impossible to isolate a child in the midst of society, so that he shall not be influenced by the beliefs of those with whom he associates.
  • Finally she one day demanded a name for the power, the existence of which she had already conceived in her own mind.
  • A. says God made me and every one out of sand; but it must be a joke.
  • A. says God made me and every one out of sand; but it must be a joke.
  • After a moment she went on: A. says God is everywhere, and that He is all love; but I do not think a person can be made out of love.
  • After a moment she went on: A. says God is everywhere, and that He is all love; but I do not think a person can be made out of love.
  • She had met with the expression Mother Nature in the course of her reading, and for a long time she was in the habit of ascribing to Mother Nature whatever she felt to be beyond the power of man to accomplish.
  • She would say, when speaking of the growth of a plant, "Mother Nature sends the sunshine and the rain to make the trees and the grass and the flowers grow."
  • I have never seen a plant-child!
  • After May, 1890, it was evident to me that she had reached a point where it was impossible to keep from her the religious beliefs held by those with whom she was in daily contact.
  • I never saw a child-plant.
  • As we were passing a large globe a short time after she had written the questions, she stopped before it and asked, "Who made the REAL world?"
  • But after a great deal of thought and study, I told her, men came to believe that all forces were manifestations of one power, and to that power they gave the name GOD.
  • She was very still for a few minutes, evidently thinking earnestly.
  • I was compelled to evade her question, for I could not explain to her the mystery of a self-existent being.
  • Indeed, many of her eager questions would have puzzled a far wiser person than I am.
  • I told her that God was everywhere, and that she must not think of Him as a person, but as the life, the mind, the soul of everything.
  • The Rt. Rev. Phillips Brooks has explained to her in a beautiful way the fatherhood of God.
  • At another time she asked, "What is a soul?"
  • A long time ago Helen said to me, "I would like to live sixteen hundred years."
  • When asked if she would not like to live ALWAYS in a beautiful country called heaven, her first question was, "Where is heaven?"
  • It was more than a year before she alluded to the subject again, and when she did return to it, her questions were numerous and persistent.
  • She had been living in a world she could not realize.
  • Good work in language presupposes and depends on a real knowledge of things.
  • The memory must be stored with ideas and the mind must be enriched with knowledge before writing becomes a natural and pleasurable effort.
  • It is not necessary that a child should understand every word in a book before he can read with pleasure and profit.
  • Helen has the vitality of feeling, the freshness and eagerness of interest, and the spiritual insight of the artistic temperament, and naturally she has a more active and intense joy in life, simply as life, and in nature, books, and people than less gifted mortals.
  • Miss Keller's education, however, is so fundamentally a question of language teaching that it rather includes the problems of the deaf than limits itself to the deaf alone.
  • Why not, says Miss Sullivan, make a language lesson out of what they were interested in?
  • We do not take in a sentence word by word, but as a whole.
  • Books supplemented, perhaps equaled in importance the manual alphabet, as a means of teaching language.
  • It is true rather that she has a special aptitude for thinking, and her leaning toward language is due to the fact that language to her meant life.
  • It was not a special subject, like geography or arithmetic, but her way to outward things.
  • When at the age of fourteen she had had but a few lessons in German, she read over the words of "Wilhelm Tell" and managed to get the story.
  • She got the language from the language itself, and this is, next to hearing the language spoken, the way for any one to get a foreign tongue, more vital and, in the end, easier than our schoolroom method of beginning with the grammar.
  • In the same way she played with Latin, learning not only from the lessons her first Latin teacher gave her, but from going over and over the words of a text, a game she played by herself.
  • Often I found her, when she had a little leisure, sitting in her favourite corner, in a chair whose arms supported the big volume prepared for the blind, and passing her finger slowly over the lines of Moliere's 'Le Medecin Malgre Lui,' chuckling to herself at the comical situations and humorous lines.
  • It was not a lesson, but only one of her recreations.
  • It is true that a teacher with ten times Miss Sullivan's genius could not have made a pupil so remarkable as Helen Keller out of a child born dull and mentally deficient.
  • And the fact remains that she was taught by a method of teaching language to the deaf the essential principles of which are clearly expressed in Miss Sullivan's letters, written while she was discovering the method and putting it successfully into practice.
  • Miss Sullivan is a person of extraordinary power.
  • There is, then, a good deal that Miss Sullivan has done for Miss Keller which no other teacher can do in just the same way for any one else.
  • When Miss Sullivan went out in the barnyard and picked up a little chicken and talked to Helen about it, she was giving a kind of instruction impossible inside four walls, and impossible with more than one pupil at a time.
  • Surely Dr. Howe is wrong when he says, "A teacher cannot be a child."
  • Surely Dr. Howe is wrong when he says, "A teacher cannot be a child."
  • That is just what the teacher of the deaf child must be, a child ready to play and romp, and interested in all childish things.
  • Let me sum up a few of the elements that made Helen Keller what she is.
  • She recognized that others used their lips; she "saw" her father reading a paper and when he laid it down she sat in his chair and held the paper before her face.
  • It was, then, to a good subject that Miss Sullivan brought her devotion and intelligence, and fearless willingness to experiment.
  • Miss Sullivan has in addition a vigorous personality.
  • Her speech lacks variety and modulation; it runs in a sing-song when she is reading aloud; and when she speaks with fair degree of loudness, it hovers about two or three middle tones.
  • When she is telling a child's story, or one with pathos in it, her voice runs into pretty slurs from one tone to another.
  • This is like the effect of the slow dwelling on long words, not quite well managed, that one notices in a child who is telling a solemn story.
  • For no system of marks in a lexicon can tell one how to pronounce a word.
  • The only way is to hear it, especially in a language like English which is so full of unspellable, suppressed vowels and quasi-vowels.
  • Children seldom have any difficulty in understanding her; which suggests that her deliberate measured speech is like theirs, before they come to the adult trick of running all the words of a phrase into one movement of the breath.
  • I explained to her that some deaf children were taught to speak, but that they could see their teachers' mouths, and that that was a very great assistance to them.
  • I knew that Laura Bridgman had shown the same intuitive desire to produce sounds, and had even learned to pronounce a few simple words, which she took great delight in using, and I did not doubt that Helen could accomplish as much as this.
  • Her pronunciation of this gradually became indistinct, and when I first knew her it was nothing more than a peculiar noise.
  • Occasionally she broke out into a merry laugh, and then she would reach out and touch the mouth of any one who happened to be near her, to see if he were laughing also.
  • She was pleased with anything which made a noise.
  • She liked to feel the cat purr; and if by chance she felt a dog in the act of barking, she showed great pleasure.
  • She kept one hand on the singer's mouth, while the other rested on the piano, and she stood in this position as long as any one would sing to her, and afterward she would make a continuous sound which she called singing.
  • It is a clumsy and unsatisfactory way of receiving communication, useless when Miss Sullivan or some one else who knows the manual alphabet is present to give Miss Keller the spoken words of others.
  • The ability to read the lips helps Miss Keller in getting corrections of her pronunciation from Miss Sullivan and others, just as it was the means of her learning to speak at all, but it is rather an accomplishment than a necessity.
  • So you see what a blessing speech is to me.
  • It brings me into closer and tenderer relationship with those I love, and makes it possible for me to enjoy the sweet companionship of a great many persons from whom I should be entirely cut off if I could not talk.
  • A child of the muses cannot write fine English unless fine English has been its nourishment.
  • Her service as a teacher of English is not to be measured by her own skill in composition.
  • There is, moreover, a reason why Helen Keller writes good English, which lies in the very absence of sight and hearing.
  • On the other hand, the peculiar value to her of language, which ordinary people take for granted as a necessary part of them like their right hand, made her think about language and love it.
  • * In this paper Miss Sullivan says: During this winter (1891-92) I went with her into the yard while a light snow was falling, and let her feel the falling flakes.
  • About the same time, in a letter to a friend, in which she makes mention of her Southern home, she gives so close a reproduction from a poem by one of her favourite authors that I will give extracts from Helen's letter and from the poem itself:
  • In a letter to a friend at the Perkins Institution, dated May 17, 1889, she gives a reproduction from one of Hans Christian Andersen's stories, which I had read to her not long before.
  • The original story was read to her from a copy of "Andersen's Stories," published by Leavitt & Allen Bros., and may be found on p. 97 of Part I. in that volume.
  • The pictures the language paints on her memory appear to make an indelible impression; and many times, when an experience comes to her similar in character, the language starts forth with wonderful accuracy, like the reflection from a mirror.
  • In mentioning a visit to Lexington, Mass., she writes: As we rode along we could see the forest monarchs bend their proud forms to listen to the little children of the woodlands whispering their secrets.
  • This is shown in a little story she wrote in October last at the home of her parents in Tuscumbia, which she called "Autumn Leaves."
  • She was at work upon it about two weeks, writing a little each day, at her own pleasure.
  • Helen wrote a little letter, and, enclosing the manuscript, forwarded both by mail to Mr. Anagnos for his birthday.
  • This story, "Frost Fairies," appeared in a book written by Miss Margaret T. Canby, entitled "Birdie and his Fairy Friends."
  • Helen and I spent the summer of 1888 with Mrs. Hopkins at her home in Brewster, Mass., where she kindly relieved me a part of the time, of the care of Helen.
  • This became a difficult task, as her publishers in Philadelphia had retired from business many years ago; however, it was eventually discovered that her residence is at Wilmington, Delaware, and copies of the second edition of the book, 1889, were obtained from her.
  • She has since secured and forwarded to me a copy of the first edition.
  • I shall write to her in a short time.
  • I should like much to see it, and to obtain a few copies if possible.
  • What a wonderfully active and retentive mind that gifted child must have!
  • She is indeed a 'Wonder-Child.'
  • No one shall be allowed to think it was anything wrong; and some day she will write a great, beautiful story or poem that will make many people happy.
  • Tell her there are a few bitter drops in every one's cup, and the only way is to take the bitter patiently, and the sweet thankfully.
  • I have now (March, 1892) read to Helen "The Frost Fairies," "The Rose Fairies," and a portion of "The Dew Fairies," but she is unable to throw any light on the matter.
  • I give below a portion of Miss Canby's story, "The Rose Fairies," and also Helen's letter to Mr. Anagnos containing her "dream," so that the likenesses and differences may be studied by those interested in the subject:
  • He stood still a moment to look about him, and think what he should do first.
  • As he came in sight of the rose-bushes that grew near the side of the house, he suddenly clapped his hands, and with a little shout of joy stopped to look at them; they were all covered with lovely rosebuds.
  • "Lazy roses, wake up," said he, giving the branches a gentle shake; but only the dew fell off in bright drops, and the flowers were still shut up.
  • It is a beautiful day.
  • We met a sweet little child.
  • She was playing on the pier with a wee brother.
  • She gave me a kiss and then ran away, because she was a shy little girl.
  • I wonder if you would like to have me tell you a pretty dream which I had a long time ago when I was a very little child?
  • Teacher says it was a day-dream, and she thinks you would be delighted to hear it.
  • I was a very happy little child with rosy cheeks, and large blue eyes, and the most beautiful golden ringlets you can imagine.
  • The fresh morning air blew gently in my face, as if to welcome me, and be my merry playmate, and the sun looked at me with a warm and tender smile.
  • Lovingly your little friend and playmate, HELEN A. KELLER.
  • Every year Santa Claus takes a journey over the world in a sleigh drawn by a strong and rapid steed called "Rudolph."
  • I will tell you how King Frost first thought of this kind work, for it is a strange story.
  • He has two neighbours, who live still farther north; one is King Winter, a cross and churlish old monarch, who is hard and cruel, and delights in making the poor suffer and weep; but the other neighbour is Santa Claus, a fine, good-natured, jolly old soul, who loves to do good, and who brings presents to the poor, and to nice little children at Christmas.
  • So he called together his merry little fairies, and showing them a number of jars and vases filled with gold and precious stones, told them to carry those carefully to the palace of Santa Claus, and give them to him with the compliments of King Frost.
  • The fairies promised obedience and soon started on their journey, dragging the great glass jars and vases along, as well as they could, and now and then grumbling a little at having such hard work to do, for they were idle fairies, and liked play better than work.
  • At last they reached a great forest, and, being quite tired, they decided to rest awhile and look for nuts before going any further.
  • Still, for awhile, the frost fairies did not notice this strange occurrence, for they were down on the grass, so far below the tree-tops that the wonderful shower of treasure was a long time in reaching them; but at last one of them said, Hark!
  • King Frost lives in a beautiful palace far to the North, in the land of perpetual snow.
  • At a little distance from the palace we might easily mistake it for a mountain whose peaks were mounting heavenward to receive the last kiss of the departing day.
  • What we had supposed to be peaks were in reality a thousand glittering spires.
  • But, children, you must make King Frost a visit the very first opportunity you have, and see for yourselves this wonderful palace.
  • You must know that King Frost, like all other kings, has great treasures of gold and precious stones; but as he is a generous old monarch, he endeavours to make a right use of his riches.
  • I will tell you how King Frost happened to think of painting the leaves, for it is a strange story.
  • The fairies promised obedience, and were off in a twinkling, dragging the heavy jars and vases along after them as well as they could, now and then grumbling a little at having such a hard task, for they were idle fairies and loved to play better than to work.
  • After awhile they came to a great forest and, being tired and hungry, they thought they would rest a little and look for nuts before continuing their journey.
  • At first King Frost was very angry, and the fairies trembled and crouched lower in their hiding-places, and I do not know what might have happened to them if just then a party of boys and girls had not entered the wood.
  • My idle fairies and my fiery enemy have taught me a new way of doing good.
  • Now Helen, in her letter of February, 1890 (quoted above), alludes to this story of Miss Canby's as a dream "WHICH I HAD A LONG TIME AGO WHEN I WAS A VERY LITTLE CHILD."
  • Now Helen, in her letter of February, 1890 (quoted above), alludes to this story of Miss Canby's as a dream "WHICH I HAD A LONG TIME AGO WHEN I WAS A VERY LITTLE CHILD."
  • This morning I took a bath, and when teacher came upstairs to comb my hair she told me some very sad news which made me unhappy all day.
  • Soon after its appearance in print I was pained to learn, through the Goodson Gazette, that a portion of the story (eight or nine passages) is either a reproduction or adaptation of Miss Margaret Canby's "Frost Fairies."
  • I hasten to assure you that Helen could not have received any idea of the story from any of her relations or friends here, none of whom can communicate with her readily enough to impress her with the details of a story of that character.
  • I first tried to ascertain what had suggested to Helen's mind the particular fancies which made her story seem like a reproduction of one written by Miss Margaret Canby.
  • Helen told me that for a long time she had thought of Jack Frost as a king, because of the many treasures which he possessed.
  • Such rich treasures must be kept in a safe place, and so she had imagined them stored in jars and vases in one part of the royal palace.
  • In answer to my question she recited a part of the poem called 'Freaks of the Frost,' and she referred to a little piece about winter, in one of the school readers.
  • The episode had a deadening effect on Helen Keller and on Miss Sullivan, who feared that she had allowed the habit of imitation, which has in truth made Miss Keller a writer, to go too far.
  • Of the sources of his vocabulary he is, for the most part, as unaware as he is of the moment when he ate the food which makes a bit of his thumbnail.
  • A child with but few sources may keep distinct what he draws from each.
  • In this case Helen Keller held almost intact in her mind, unmixed with other ideas, the words of a story which at the time it was read to her she did not fully understand.
  • Surely the writer must become as a little child to see things like that.
  • "Twelve soldierly-looking white bears" is a stroke of genius, and there is beauty of rhythm throughout the child's narrative.
  • It is original in the same way that a poet's version of an old story is original.
  • A remarkable example is a paragraph from Miss Keller's sketch in the Youth's Companion.
  • A remarkable example is a paragraph from Miss Keller's sketch in the Youth's Companion.
  • Writing of the moment when she learned that everything has a name, she says: We met the nurse carrying my little cousin; and teacher spelled 'baby.'
  • It was a word that created these thoughts in her mind.
  • The language must be one used by a nation, not an artificial thing.
  • The deaf child who has only the sign language of De l'Epee is an intellectual Philip Nolan, an alien from all races, and his thoughts are not the thoughts of an Englishman, or a Frenchman, or a Spaniard.
  • "A new word opens its heart to me," she writes in a letter; and when she uses the word its heart is still open.
  • "A new word opens its heart to me," she writes in a letter; and when she uses the word its heart is still open.
  • When she was twelve years old, she was asked what book she would take on a long railroad journey.
  • When she came to retell the story in a fuller form, the echo was still in her mind of the phrases she had written nine years before.
  • From the early sketch I take a few passages which seem to me, without making very much allowance for difference in time, almost as good as anything she has written since:
  • I discovered the true way to walk when I was a year old, and during the radiant summer days that followed I was never still a minute....
  • In the cold, dreary month of February, when I was nineteen months old, I had a serious illness.
  • But early one morning the fever left me as mysteriously and unexpectedly as it had come, and I fell into a quiet sleep.
  • I would cling to my mother's dress as she went about her household duties, and my little hands felt every object and observed every motion, and in this way I learned a great many things.
  • When I was a little older I felt the need of some means of communication with those around me, and I began to make simple signs which my parents and friends readily understood; but it often happened that I was unable to express my thoughts intelligibly, and at such times I would give way to my angry feelings utterly....
  • I learned a great many words that day.
  • A beautiful summer day had dawned, the day on which I was to make the acquaintance of a somber and mysterious friend.
  • A beautiful summer day had dawned, the day on which I was to make the acquaintance of a somber and mysterious friend.
  • I knew, too, it was immense! awful! and for a moment some of the sunshine seemed to have gone out of the day.
  • But, unfortunately, I struck my foot on a rock and fell forward into the cold water.
  • Then a strange, fearful sense of danger terrified me.
  • Yes, it is a tomb in which hope, joy and the power of acting nobly lie buried.
  • Beside the tomb sits a weary soul, rejoicing neither in the joys of the past nor in the possibilities of the future, but seeking consolation in forgetfulness.
  • To be sure, I take the keenest interest in everything that concerns those who surround me; it is this very interest which makes it so difficult for me to carry on a conversation with some people who will not talk or say what they think, but I should not be sorry to find more friends ready to talk with me now and then about the wonderful things I read.
  • This was my first real experience in college life, and a delightful experience it was!
  • It surprises me to find that such an idea has crossed the mind of any one, especially of a highly gifted critic.
  • The very fact that the nineteenth century has not produced many authors whom the world may count among the greatest of all time does not in my opinion justify the remark, "There may come a time when people cease to write."
  • New experiences and events call forth new ideas and stir men to ask questions unthought of before, and seek a definite answer in the depths of human knowledge.
  • A little later, when the rush and heat of achievement relax, we can begin to expect the appearance of grand men to celebrate in glorious poetry and prose the deeds and triumphs of the last few centuries.
  • It is very interesting to watch a plant grow, it is like taking part in creation.
  • It is wonderful to see flowers bloom in the midst of a snow-storm!
  • I have felt a bud "shyly doff her green hood and blossom with a silken burst of sound," while the icy fingers of the snow beat against the window-panes.
  • Beautiful flower, you have taught me to see a little way into the hidden heart of things.
  • Without a touch of remorse you drive the father from his land, clasping to his bosom his household gods and his half-naked children.
  • I rarely have dreams that are not in keeping with what I really think and feel, but one night my very nature seemed to change, and I stood in the eye of the world a mighty man and a terrible.
  • I rode a fiery hunter--I can feel the impatient toss of his head now and the quiver that ran through him at the first roar of the cannon.
  • From the top of the hill where I stood I saw my army surging over a sunlit plain like angry breakers, and as they moved, I saw the green of fields, like the cool hollows between billows.
  • I plunged into the oncoming billows, as a strong swimmer dives into breakers, and struck, alas, 'tis true, the bedpost!
  • I would wake with a start or struggle frantically to escape from my tormentor.
  • I was very fond of bananas, and one night I dreamed that I found a long string of them in the dining-room, near the cupboard, all peeled and deliciously ripe, and all I had to do was to stand under the string and eat as long as I could eat.
  • Its warm touch seemed so like a human caress, I really thought it was a sentient being, capable of loving and protecting me.
  • Suddenly I felt my bed shake, and a wolf seemed to spring on me and snarl in my face.
  • It was only a dream, but I thought it real, and my heart sank within me.
  • Perhaps this was a confused recollection of the story I had heard not long before about Red Riding Hood.
  • The instant I felt its warmth I was reassured, and I sat a long time watching it climb higher and higher in shining waves.
  • At last sleep surprised me, and when Miss Sullivan returned she found me wrapped in a blanket by the hearth.
  • What if in my waking hours a sound should ring through the silent halls of hearing?
  • What if a ray of light should flash through the darkened chambers of my soul?
  • What would happen, I ask many and many a time.
  • It is hard to have a Southern overseer; it is worse to have a Northern one; but worst of all when you are the slave-driver of yourself.
  • Talk of a divinity in man!
  • I think that we may safely trust a good deal more than we do.
  • All change is a miracle to contemplate; but it is a miracle which is taking place every instant.
  • When one man has reduced a fact of the imagination to be a fact to his understanding, I foresee that all men at length establish their lives on that basis.
  • Let us consider for a moment what most of the trouble and anxiety which I have referred to is about, and how much it is necessary that we be troubled, or at least careful.
  • To the bison of the prairie it is a few inches of palatable grass, with water to drink; unless he seeks the Shelter of the forest or the mountain's shadow.
  • Man has invented, not only houses, but clothes and cooked food; and possibly from the accidental discovery of the warmth of fire, and the consequent use of it, at first a luxury, arose the present necessity to sit by it.
  • According to Liebig, man's body is a stove, and food the fuel which keeps up the internal combustion in the lungs.
  • The summer, in some climates, makes possible to man a sort of Elysian life.
  • With respect to luxuries and comforts, the wisest have ever lived a more simple and meagre life than the poor.
  • They make shift to live merely by conformity, practically as their fathers did, and are in no sense the progenitors of a noble race of men.
  • How can a man be a philosopher and not maintain his vital heat by better methods than other men?
  • When a man is warmed by the several modes which I have described, what does he want next?
  • Not long since, a strolling Indian went to sell baskets at the house of a well-known lawyer in my neighborhood.
  • I too had woven a kind of basket of a delicate texture, but I had not made it worth any one's while to buy them.
  • You will export such articles as the country affords, purely native products, much ice and pine timber and a little granite, always in native bottoms.
  • It is a labor to task the faculties of a man--such problems of profit and loss, of interest, of tare and tret, and gauging of all kinds in it, as demand a universal knowledge.
  • I have thought that Walden Pond would be a good place for business, not solely on account of the railroad and the ice trade; it offers advantages which it may not be good policy to divulge; it is a good port and a good foundation.
  • It is said that a flood-tide, with a westerly wind, and ice in the Neva, would sweep St. Petersburg from the face of the earth.
  • Kings and queens who wear a suit but once, though made by some tailor or dressmaker to their majesties, cannot know the comfort of wearing a suit that fits.
  • I sometimes try my acquaintances by such tests as this--Who could wear a patch, or two extra seams only, over the knee?
  • It would be easier for them to hobble to town with a broken leg than with a broken pantaloon.
  • We know but few men, a great many coats and breeches.
  • Passing a cornfield the other day, close by a hat and coat on a stake, I recognized the owner of the farm.
  • He was only a little more weather-beaten than when I saw him last.
  • I have heard of a dog that barked at every stranger who approached his master's premises with clothes on, but was easily quieted by a naked thief.
  • Could you, in such a case, tell surely of any company of civilized men which belonged to the most respected class?
  • Beside, clothes introduced sewing, a kind of work which you may call endless; a woman's dress, at least, is never done.
  • A man who has at length found something to do will not need to get a new suit to do it in; for him the old will do, that has lain dusty in the garret for an indeterminate period.
  • A man who has at length found something to do will not need to get a new suit to do it in; for him the old will do, that has lain dusty in the garret for an indeterminate period.
  • Old shoes will serve a hero longer than they have served his valet--if a hero ever has a valet--bare feet are older than shoes, and he can make them do.
  • I say, beware of all enterprises that require new clothes, and not rather a new wearer of clothes.
  • If there is not a new man, how can the new clothes be made to fit?
  • Our moulting season, like that of the fowls, must be a crisis in our lives.
  • Of what use this measuring of me if she does not measure my character, but only the breadth of my shoulders, as it were a peg to bang the coat on?
  • The head monkey at Paris puts on a traveller's cap, and all the monkeys in America do the same.
  • Nevertheless, we will not forget that some Egyptian wheat was handed down to us by a mummy.
  • All costume off a man is pitiful or grotesque.
  • Let Harlequin be taken with a fit of the colic and his trappings will have to serve that mood too.
  • When the soldier is hit by a cannonball, rags are as becoming as purple.
  • Of two patterns which differ only by a few threads more or less of a particular color, the one will be sold readily, the other lie on the shelf, though it frequently happens that after the lapse of a season the latter becomes the most fashionable.
  • In our climate, in the summer, it was formerly almost solely a covering at night.
  • Man wanted a home, a place of warmth, or comfort, first of warmth, then the warmth of the affections.
  • We may imagine a time when, in the infancy of the human race, some enterprising mortal crept into a hollow in a rock for shelter.
  • Who does not remember the interest with which, when young, he looked at shelving rocks, or any approach to a cave?
  • However, if one designs to construct a dwelling-house, it behooves him to exercise a little Yankee shrewdness, lest after all he find himself in a workhouse, a labyrinth without a clue, a museum, an almshouse, a prison, or a splendid mausoleum instead.
  • Consider first how slight a shelter is absolutely necessary.
  • I have seen Penobscot Indians, in this town, living in tents of thin cotton cloth, while the snow was nearly a foot deep around them, and I thought that they would be glad to have it deeper to keep out the wind.
  • This did not appear the worst, nor by any means a despicable alternative.
  • Many a man is harassed to death to pay the rent of a larger and more luxurious box who would not have frozen to death in such a box as this.
  • A comfortable house for a rude and hardy race, that lived mostly out of doors, was once made here almost entirely of such materials as Nature furnished ready to their hands.
  • A comfortable house for a rude and hardy race, that lived mostly out of doors, was once made here almost entirely of such materials as Nature furnished ready to their hands.
  • The meaner sort are covered with mats which they make of a kind of bulrush, and are also indifferently tight and warm, but not so good as the former....
  • Some I have seen, sixty or a hundred feet long and thirty feet broad....
  • The Indians had advanced so far as to regulate the effect of the wind by a mat suspended over the hole in the roof and moved by a string.
  • In the savage state every family owns a shelter as good as the best, and sufficient for its coarser and simpler wants; but I think that I speak within bounds when I say that, though the birds of the air have their nests, and the foxes their holes, and the savages their wigwams, in modern civilized society not more than one half the families own a shelter.
  • The rest pay an annual tax for this outside garment of all, become indispensable summer and winter, which would buy a village of Indian wigwams, but now helps to keep them poor as long as they live.
  • But, answers one, by merely paying this tax, the poor civilized man secures an abode which is a palace compared with the savage's.
  • But how happens it that he who is said to enjoy these things is so commonly a poor civilized man, while the savage, who has them not, is rich as a savage?
  • But perhaps a man is not required to bury himself.
  • But this puts an infinitely worse face on the matter, and suggests, beside, that probably not even the other three succeed in saving their souls, but are perchance bankrupt in a worse sense than they who fail honestly.
  • With consummate skill he has set his trap with a hair spring to catch comfort and independence, and then, as he turned away, got his own leg into it.
  • This is the reason he is poor; and for a similar reason we are all poor in respect to a thousand savage comforts, though surrounded by luxuries.
  • And if the civilized man's pursuits are no worthier than the savage's, if he is employed the greater part of his life in obtaining gross necessaries and comforts merely, why should he have a better dwelling than the former?
  • The mason who finishes the cornice of the palace returns at night perchance to a hut not so good as a wigwam.
  • Such too, to a greater or less extent, is the condition of the operatives of every denomination in England, which is the great workhouse of the world.
  • I hardly need refer now to the laborers in our Southern States who produce the staple exports of this country, and are themselves a staple production of the South.
  • Or what if I were to allow--would it not be a singular allowance?--that our furniture should be more complex than the Arab's, in proportion as we are morally and intellectually his superiors!
  • At present our houses are cluttered and defiled with it, and a good housewife would sweep out the greater part into the dust hole, and not leave her morning's work undone.
  • How, then, could I have a furnished house?
  • I would rather sit on a pumpkin and have it all to myself than be crowded on a velvet cushion.
  • I would rather ride on earth in an ox cart, with a free circulation, than go to heaven in the fancy car of an excursion train and breathe a malaria all the way.
  • He dwelt, as it were, in a tent in this world, and was either threading the valleys, or crossing the plains, or climbing the mountain-tops.
  • The man who independently plucked the fruits when he was hungry is become a farmer; and he who stood under a tree for shelter, a housekeeper.
  • We now no longer camp as for a night, but have settled down on earth and forgotten heaven.
  • We have built for this world a family mansion, and for the next a family tomb.
  • There is actually no place in this village for a work of fine art, if any had come down to us, to stand, for our lives, our houses and streets, furnish no proper pedestal for it.
  • There is not a nail to hang a picture on, nor a shelf to receive the bust of a hero or a saint.
  • In such a neighborhood as this, boards and shingles, lime and bricks, are cheaper and more easily obtained than suitable caves, or whole logs, or bark in sufficient quantities, or even well-tempered clay or flat stones.
  • With a little more wit we might use these materials so as to become richer than the richest now are, and make our civilization a blessing.
  • The civilized man is a more experienced and wiser savage.
  • On the 1st of April it rained and melted the ice, and in the early part of the day, which was very foggy, I heard a stray goose groping about over the pond and cackling as if lost, or like the spirit of the fog.
  • Sometimes a rambler in the wood was attracted by the sound of my axe, and we chatted pleasantly over the chips which I had made.
  • It was of small dimensions, with a peaked cottage roof, and not much else to be seen, the dirt being raised five feet all around as if it were a compost heap.
  • The roof was the soundest part, though a good deal warped and made brittle by the sun.
  • Doorsill there was none, but a perennial passage for the hens under the door board.
  • It was dark, and had a dirt floor for the most part, dank, clammy, and aguish, only here a board and there a board which would not bear removal.
  • She lighted a lamp to show me the inside of the roof and the walls, and also that the board floor extended under the bed, warning me not to step into the cellar, a sort of dust hole two feet deep.
  • In her own words, they were "good boards overhead, good boards all around, and a good window"--of two whole squares originally, only the cat had passed out that way lately.
  • One large bundle held their all--bed, coffee-mill, looking-glass, hens--all but the cat; she took to the woods and became a wild cat, and, as I learned afterward, trod in a trap set for woodchucks, and so became a dead cat at last.
  • One early thrush gave me a note or two as I drove along the woodland path.
  • The house is still but a sort of porch at the entrance of a burrow.
  • When it stormed before my bread was baked, I fixed a few boards over the fire, and sat under them to watch my loaf, and passed some pleasant hours in that way.
  • There is some of the same fitness in a man's building his own house that there is in a bird's building its own nest.
  • It is not the tailor alone who is the ninth part of a man; it is as much the preacher, and the merchant, and the farmer.
  • All very well perhaps from his point of view, but only a little better than the common dilettantism.
  • A sentimental reformer in architecture, he began at the cornice, not at the foundation.
  • What reasonable man ever supposed that ornaments were something outward and in the skin merely--that the tortoise got his spotted shell, or the shell-fish its mother-o'-pearl tints, by such a contract as the inhabitants of Broadway their Trinity Church?
  • But a man has no more to do with the style of architecture of his house than a tortoise with that of its shell: nor need the soldier be so idle as to try to paint the precise color of his virtue on his standard.
  • A great proportion of architectural ornaments are literally hollow, and a September gale would strip them off, like borrowed plumes, without injury to the substantials.
  • A great proportion of architectural ornaments are literally hollow, and a September gale would strip them off, like borrowed plumes, without injury to the substantials.
  • It would signify somewhat, if, in any earnest sense, he slanted them and daubed it; but the spirit having departed out of the tenant, it is of a piece with constructing his own coffin--the architecture of the grave--and "carpenter" is but another name for "coffin-maker."
  • One man says, in his despair or indifference to life, take up a handful of the earth at your feet, and paint your house that color.
  • Toss up a copper for it as well.
  • Why do you take up a handful of dirt?
  • Before winter I built a chimney, and shingled the sides of my house, which were already impervious to rain, with imperfect and sappy shingles made of the first slice of the log, whose edges I was obliged to straighten with a plane.
  • I have thus a tight shingled and plastered house, ten feet wide by fifteen long, and eight-feet posts, with a garret and a closet, a large window on each side, two trap doors, one door at the end, and a brick fireplace opposite.
  • I will endeavor to speak a good word for the truth.
  • Those conveniences which the student requires at Cambridge or elsewhere cost him or somebody else ten times as great a sacrifice of life as they would with proper management on both sides.
  • I do not mean that exactly, but I mean something which he might think a good deal like that; I mean that they should not play life, or study it merely, while the community supports them at this expensive game, but earnestly live it from beginning to end.
  • After all, the man whose horse trots a mile in a minute does not carry the most important messages; he is not an evangelist, nor does he come round eating locusts and wild honey.
  • I doubt if Flying Childers ever carried a peck of corn to mill.
  • That is almost a day's wages.
  • I remember when wages were sixty cents a day for laborers on this very road.
  • You will in the meanwhile have earned your fare, and arrive there some time tomorrow, or possibly this evening, if you are lucky enough to get a job in season.
  • This spending of the best part of one's life earning money in order to enjoy a questionable liberty during the least valuable part of it reminds me of the Englishman who went to India to make a fortune first, in order that he might return to England and live the life of a poet.
  • I got out several cords of stumps in plowing, which supplied me with fuel for a long time, and left small circles of virgin mould, easily distinguishable through the summer by the greater luxuriance of the beans there.
  • I was obliged to hire a team and a man for the plowing, though I held the plow myself.
  • I was more independent than any farmer in Concord, for I was not anchored to a house or farm, but could follow the bent of my genius, which is a very crooked one, every moment.
  • However, I should never have broken a horse or bull and taken him to board for any work he might do for me, for fear I should become a horseman or a herdsman merely; and if society seems to be the gainer by so doing, are we certain that what is one man's gain is not another's loss, and that the stable-boy has equal cause with his master to be satisfied?
  • Man thus not only works for the animal within him, but, for a symbol of this, he works for the animal without him.
  • A simple and independent mind does not toil at the bidding of any prince.
  • Genius is not a retainer to any emperor, nor is its material silver, or gold, or marble, except to a trifling extent.
  • One piece of good sense would be more memorable than a monument as high as the moon.
  • The grandeur of Thebes was a vulgar grandeur.
  • Mr. Balcom, a promising young architect, designs it on the back of his Vitruvius, with hard pencil and ruler, and the job is let out to Dobson & Sons, stonecutters.
  • It appears from the above estimate, that my food alone cost me in money about twenty-seven cents a week.
  • It was, for nearly two years after this, rye and Indian meal without yeast, potatoes, rice, a very little salt pork, molasses, and salt; and my drink, water.
  • I have made a satisfactory dinner, satisfactory on several accounts, simply off a dish of purslane (Portulaca oleracea) which I gathered in my cornfield, boiled and salted.
  • Even the little variety which I used was a yielding to the demands of appetite, and not of health.
  • Bread I at first made of pure Indian meal and salt, genuine hoe-cakes, which I baked before my fire out of doors on a shingle or the end of a stick of timber sawed off in building my house; but it was wont to get smoked and to have a piny flavor.
  • I tried flour also; but have at last found a mixture of rye and Indian meal most convenient and agreeable.
  • They were a real cereal fruit which I ripened, and they had to my senses a fragrance like that of other noble fruits, which I kept in as long as possible by wrapping them in cloths.
  • When you have kneaded it well, mould it, and bake it under a cover, that is, in a baking kettle.
  • Not a word about leaven.
  • For the most part the farmer gives to his cattle and hogs the grain of his own producing, and buys flour, which is at least no more wholesome, at a greater cost, at the store.
  • Finally, as for salt, that grossest of groceries, to obtain this might be a fit occasion for a visit to the seashore, or, if I did without it altogether, I should probably drink the less water.
  • As for a habitat, if I were not permitted still to squat, I might purchase one acre at the same price for which the land I cultivated was sold--namely, eight dollars and eight cents.
  • The human race is interested in these experiments, though a few old women who are incapacitated for them, or who own their thirds in mills, may be alarmed.
  • My furniture, part of which I made myself--and the rest cost me nothing of which I have not rendered an account--consisted of a bed, a table, a desk, three chairs, a looking-glass three inches in diameter, a pair of tongs and andirons, a kettle, a skillet, and a frying-pan, a dipper, a wash-bowl, two knives and forks, three plates, one cup, one spoon, a jug for oil, a jug for molasses, and a japanned lamp.
  • None is so poor that he need sit on a pumpkin.
  • There is a plenty of such chairs as I like best in the village garrets to be had for taking them away.
  • Thank God, I can sit and I can stand without the aid of a furniture warehouse.
  • What man but a philosopher would not be ashamed to see his furniture packed in a cart and going up country exposed to the light of heaven and the eyes of men, a beggarly account of empty boxes?
  • Each load looks as if it contained the contents of a dozen shanties; and if one shanty is poor, this is a dozen times as poor.
  • It is the same as if all these traps were buckled to a man's belt, and he could not move over the rough country where our lines are cast without dragging them--dragging his trap.
  • He was a lucky fox that left his tail in the trap.
  • How often he is at a dead set!
  • I think that the man is at a dead set who has got through a knot-hole or gateway where his sledge load of furniture cannot follow him.
  • "But what shall I do with my furniture?"--My gay butterfly is entangled in a spider's web then.
  • Even those who seem for a long while not to have any, if you inquire more narrowly you will find have some stored in somebody's barn.
  • I look upon England today as an old gentleman who is travelling with a great deal of baggage, trumpery which has accumulated from long housekeeping, which he has not the courage to burn; great trunk, little trunk, bandbox, and bundle.
  • The moon will not sour milk nor taint meat of mine, nor will the sun injure my furniture or fade my carpet; and if he is sometimes too warm a friend, I find it still better economy to retreat behind some curtain which nature has provided, than to add a single item to the details of housekeeping.
  • Among the rest was a dried tapeworm.
  • When a man dies he kicks the dust.
  • The Mexicans also practised a similar purification at the end of every fifty-two years, in the belief that it was time for the world to come to an end.
  • For more than five years I maintained myself thus solely by the labor of my hands, and I found that, by working about six weeks in a year, I could meet all the expenses of living.
  • As I did not teach for the good of my fellow-men, but simply for a livelihood, this was a failure.
  • I was actually afraid that I might by that time be doing what is called a good business.
  • It is not necessary that a man should earn his living by the sweat of his brow, unless he sweats easier than I do.
  • It is by a mathematical point only that we are wise, as the sailor or the fugitive slave keeps the polestar in his eye; but that is sufficient guidance for all our life.
  • We may not arrive at our port within a calculable period, but we would preserve the true course.
  • Undoubtedly, in this case, what is true for one is truer still for a thousand, as a large house is not proportionally more expensive than a small one, since one roof may cover, one cellar underlie, and one wall separate several apartments.
  • If a man has faith, he will co-operate with equal faith everywhere; if he has not faith, he will continue to live like the rest of the world, whatever company he is joined to.
  • I heard it proposed lately that two young men should travel together over the world, the one without money, earning his means as he went, before the mast and behind the plow, the other carrying a bill of exchange in his pocket.
  • I have made some sacrifices to a sense of duty, and among others have sacrificed this pleasure also.
  • You must have a genius for charity as well as for anything else.
  • Probably I should not consciously and deliberately forsake my particular calling to do the good which society demands of me, to save the universe from annihilation; and I believe that a like but infinitely greater steadfastness elsewhere is all that now preserves it.
  • I can find you a Newfoundland dog that will do as much.
  • Howard was no doubt an exceedingly kind and worthy man in his way, and has his reward; but, comparatively speaking, what are a hundred Howards to us, if their philanthropy do not help us in our best estate, when we are most worthy to be helped?
  • Being superior to physical suffering, it sometimes chanced that they were superior to any consolation which the missionaries could offer; and the law to do as you would be done by fell with less persuasiveness on the ears of those who, for their part, did not care how they were done by, who loved their enemies after a new fashion, and came very near freely forgiving them all they did.
  • You boast of spending a tenth part of your income in charity; maybe you should spend the nine tenths so, and done with it.
  • Society recovers only a tenth part of the property then.
  • A robust poor man, one sunny day here in Concord, praised a fellow-townsman to me, because, as he said, he was kind to the poor; meaning himself.
  • A robust poor man, one sunny day here in Concord, praised a fellow-townsman to me, because, as he said, he was kind to the poor; meaning himself.
  • I do not value chiefly a man's uprightness and benevolence, which are, as it were, his stem and leaves.
  • Those plants of whose greenness withered we make herb tea for the sick serve but a humble use, and are most employed by quacks.
  • I want the flower and fruit of a man; that some fragrance be wafted over from him to me, and some ripeness flavor our intercourse.
  • This is a charity that hides a multitude of sins.
  • If anything ail a man, so that he does not perform his functions, if he have a pain in his bowels even--for that is the seat of sympathy--he forthwith sets about reforming--the world.
  • I never knew, and never shall know, a worse man than myself.
  • There is nowhere recorded a simple and irrepressible satisfaction with the gift of life, any memorable praise of God.
  • If, then, we would indeed restore mankind by truly Indian, botanic, magnetic, or natural means, let us first be as simple and well as Nature ourselves, dispel the clouds which hang over our own brows, and take up a little life into our pores.
  • At a certain season of our life we are accustomed to consider every spot as the possible site of a house.
  • I have thus surveyed the country on every side within a dozen miles of where I live.
  • This experience entitled me to be regarded as a sort of real-estate broker by my friends.
  • What is a house but a sedes, a seat?--better if a country seat.
  • I discovered many a site for a house not likely to be soon improved, which some might have thought too far from the village, but to my eyes the village was too far from it.
  • Well, there I might live, I said; and there I did live, for an hour, a summer and a winter life; saw how I could let the years run off, buffet the winter through, and see the spring come in.
  • The nearest that I came to actual possession was when I bought the Hollowell place, and had begun to sort my seeds, and collected materials with which to make a wheelbarrow to carry it on or off with; but before the owner gave me a deed of it, his wife--every man has such a wife--changed her mind and wished to keep it, and he offered me ten dollars to release him.
  • Now, to speak the truth, I had but ten cents in the world, and it surpassed my arithmetic to tell, if I was that man who had ten cents, or who had a farm, or ten dollars, or all together.
  • I have frequently seen a poet withdraw, having enjoyed the most valuable part of a farm, while the crusty farmer supposed that he had got a few wild apples only.
  • All that I could say, then, with respect to farming on a large scale--I have always cultivated a garden--was, that I had had my seeds ready.
  • It makes but little difference whether you are committed to a farm or the county jail.
  • The upright white hewn studs and freshly planed door and window casings gave it a clean and airy look, especially in the morning, when its timbers were saturated with dew, so that I fancied that by noon some sweet gum would exude from them.
  • To my imagination it retained throughout the day more or less of this auroral character, reminding me of a certain house on a mountain which I had visited a year before.
  • This was an airy and unplastered cabin, fit to entertain a travelling god, and where a goddess might trail her garments.
  • This frame, so slightly clad, was a sort of crystallization around me, and reacted on the builder.
  • It was suggestive somewhat as a picture in outlines.
  • It was not so much within doors as behind a door where I sat, even in the rainiest weather.
  • A lake like this is never smoother than at such a time; and the clear portion of the air above it being, shallow and darkened by clouds, the water, full of light and reflections, becomes a lower heaven itself so much the more important.
  • A lake like this is never smoother than at such a time; and the clear portion of the air above it being, shallow and darkened by clouds, the water, full of light and reflections, becomes a lower heaven itself so much the more important.
  • I discovered that my house actually had its site in such a withdrawn, but forever new and unprofaned, part of the universe.
  • Every morning was a cheerful invitation to make my life of equal simplicity, and I may say innocence, with Nature herself.
  • I got up early and bathed in the pond; that was a religious exercise, and one of the best things which I did.
  • I was as much affected by the faint hum of a mosquito making its invisible and unimaginable tour through my apartment at earliest dawn, when I was sitting with door and windows open, as I could be by any trumpet that ever sang of fame.
  • All memorable events, I should say, transpire in morning time and in a morning atmosphere.
  • To him whose elastic and vigorous thought keeps pace with the sun, the day is a perpetual morning.
  • Morning is when I am awake and there is a dawn in me.
  • The millions are awake enough for physical labor; but only one in a million is awake enough for effective intellectual exertion, only one in a hundred millions to a poetic or divine life.
  • I have never yet met a man who was quite awake.
  • It is something to be able to paint a particular picture, or to carve a statue, and so to make a few objects beautiful; but it is far more glorious to carve and paint the very atmosphere and medium through which we look, which morally we can do.
  • Still we live meanly, like ants; though the fable tells us that we were long ago changed into men; like pygmies we fight with cranes; it is error upon error, and clout upon clout, and our best virtue has for its occasion a superfluous and evitable wretchedness.
  • I say, let your affairs be as two or three, and not a hundred or a thousand; instead of a million count half a dozen, and keep your accounts on your thumb-nail.
  • Instead of three meals a day, if it be necessary eat but one; instead of a hundred dishes, five; and reduce other things in proportion.
  • Our life is like a German Confederacy, made up of petty states, with its boundary forever fluctuating, so that even a German cannot tell you how it is bounded at any moment.
  • Each one is a man, an Irishman, or a Yankee man.
  • And every few years a new lot is laid down and run over; so that, if some have the pleasure of riding on a rail, others have the misfortune to be ridden upon.
  • And when they run over a man that is walking in his sleep, a supernumerary sleeper in the wrong position, and wake him up, they suddenly stop the cars, and make a hue and cry about it, as if this were an exception.
  • Men say that a stitch in time saves nine, and so they take a thousand stitches today to save nine tomorrow.
  • Hardly a man takes a half-hour's nap after dinner, but when he wakes he holds up his head and asks, "What's the news?" as if the rest of mankind had stood his sentinels.
  • After a night's sleep the news is as indispensable as the breakfast.
  • "Pray tell me anything new that has happened to a man anywhere on this globe"--and he reads it over his coffee and rolls, that a man has had his eyes gouged out this morning on the Wachito River; never dreaming the while that he lives in the dark unfathomed mammoth cave of this world, and has but the rudiment of an eye himself.
  • The penny-post is, commonly, an institution through which you seriously offer a man that penny for his thoughts which is so often safely offered in jest.
  • And I am sure that I never read any memorable news in a newspaper.
  • To a philosopher all news, as it is called, is gossip, and they who edit and read it are old women over their tea.
  • Kieou-he-yu (great dignitary of the state of Wei) sent a man to Khoung-tseu to know his news.
  • The messenger being gone, the philosopher remarked: What a worthy messenger!
  • What a worthy messenger!
  • If men would steadily observe realities only, and not allow themselves to be deluded, life, to compare it with such things as we know, would be like a fairy tale and the Arabian Nights' Entertainments.
  • If we respected only what is inevitable and has a right to be, music and poetry would resound along the streets.
  • One of his father's ministers having discovered him, revealed to him what he was, and the misconception of his character was removed, and he knew himself to be a prince.
  • If a man should walk through this town and see only the reality, where, think you, would the "Mill-dam" go to?
  • Let us not be upset and overwhelmed in that terrible rapid and whirlpool called a dinner, situated in the meridian shallows.
  • Time is but the stream I go a-fishing in.
  • The intellect is a cleaver; it discerns and rifts its way into the secret of things.
  • In accumulating property for ourselves or our posterity, in founding a family or a state, or acquiring fame even, we are mortal; but in dealing with truth we are immortal, and need fear no change nor accident.
  • The oldest Egyptian or Hindoo philosopher raised a corner of the veil from the statue of the divinity; and still the trembling robe remains raised, and I gaze upon as fresh a glory as he did, since it was I in him that was then so bold, and it is he in me that now reviews the vision.
  • To be intoxicated by a single glass of wine; I have experienced this pleasure when I have drunk the liquor of the esoteric doctrines.
  • To read well, that is, to read true books in a true spirit, is a noble exercise, and one that will task the reader more than any exercise which the customs of the day esteem.
  • It requires a training such as the athletes underwent, the steady intention almost of the whole life to this object.
  • It is not enough even to be able to speak the language of that nation by which they are written, for there is a memorable interval between the spoken and the written language, the language heard and the language read.
  • The one is commonly transitory, a sound, a tongue, a dialect merely, almost brutish, and we learn it unconsciously, like the brutes, of our mothers.
  • They had not learned the nobler dialects of Greece and Rome, but the very materials on which they were written were waste paper to them, and they prized instead a cheap contemporary literature.
  • What the Roman and Grecian multitude could not hear, after the lapse of ages a few scholars read, and a few scholars only are still reading it.
  • A written word is the choicest of relics.
  • Their authors are a natural and irresistible aristocracy in every society, and, more than kings or emperors, exert an influence on mankind.
  • By such a pile we may hope to scale heaven at last.
  • There is a work in several volumes in our Circulating Library entitled "Little Reading," which I thought referred to a town of that name which I had not been to.
  • The Skip of the Tip-Toe-Hop, a Romance of the Middle Ages, by the celebrated author of 'Tittle-Tol-Tan,' to appear in monthly parts; a great rush; don't all come together.
  • The result is dulness of sight, a stagnation of the vital circulations, and a general deliquium and sloughing off of all the intellectual faculties.
  • This sort of gingerbread is baked daily and more sedulously than pure wheat or rye-and-Indian in almost every oven, and finds a surer market.
  • There is in this town, with a very few exceptions, no taste for the best or for very good books even in English literature, whose words all can read and spell.
  • I know a woodchopper, of middle age, who takes a French paper, not for news as he says, for he is above that, but to "keep himself in practice," he being a Canadian by birth; and when I ask him what he considers the best thing he can do in this world, he says, beside this, to keep up and add to his English.
  • Or suppose he comes from reading a Greek or Latin classic in the original, whose praises are familiar even to the so-called illiterate; he will find nobody at all to speak to, but must keep silence about it.
  • Most men do not know that any nation but the Hebrews have had a scripture.
  • We need to be provoked--goaded like oxen, as we are, into a trot.
  • We have a comparatively decent system of common schools, schools for infants only; but excepting the half-starved Lyceum in the winter, and latterly the puny beginning of a library suggested by the State, no school for ourselves.
  • Cannot students be boarded here and get a liberal education under the skies of Concord?
  • The one hundred and twenty-five dollars annually subscribed for a Lyceum in the winter is better spent than any other equal sum raised in the town.
  • Will you be a reader, a student merely, or a seer?
  • I love a broad margin to my life.
  • My days were not days of the week, bearing the stamp of any heathen deity, nor were they minced into hours and fretted by the ticking of a clock; for I lived like the Puri Indians, of whom it is said that "for yesterday, today, and tomorrow they have only one word, and they express the variety of meaning by pointing backward for yesterday forward for tomorrow, and overhead for the passing day."
  • A man must find his occasions in himself, it is true.
  • Follow your genius closely enough, and it will not fail to show you a fresh prospect every hour.
  • Housework was a pleasant pastime.
  • When my floor was dirty, I rose early, and, setting all my furniture out of doors on the grass, bed and bedstead making but one budget, dashed water on the floor, and sprinkled white sand from the pond on it, and then with a broom scrubbed it clean and white; and by the time the villagers had broken their fast the morning sun had dried my house sufficiently to allow me to move in again, and my meditations were almost uninterupted.
  • It was pleasant to see my whole household effects out on the grass, making a little pile like a gypsy's pack, and my three-legged table, from which I did not remove the books and pen and ink, standing amid the pines and hickories.
  • A bird sits on the next bough, life-everlasting grows under the table, and blackberry vines run round its legs; pine cones, chestnut burs, and strawberry leaves are strewn about.
  • My house was on the side of a hill, immediately on the edge of the larger wood, in the midst of a young forest of pitch pines and hickories, and half a dozen rods from the pond, to which a narrow footpath led down the hill.
  • He had never seen such a dull and out-of-the-way place; the folks were all gone off; why, you couldn't even hear the whistle!
  • The Fitchburg Railroad touches the pond about a hundred rods south of where I dwell.
  • I too would fain be a track-repairer somewhere in the orbit of the earth.
  • The whistle of the locomotive penetrates my woods summer and winter, sounding like the scream of a hawk sailing over some farmer's yard, informing me that many restless city merchants are arriving within the circle of the town, or adventurous country traders from the other side.
  • With such huge and lumbering civility the country hands a chair to the city.
  • If the snow lies deep, they strap on his snowshoes, and, with the giant plow, plow a furrow from the mountains to the seaboard, in which the cars, like a following drill-barrow, sprinkle all the restless men and floating merchandise in the country for seed.
  • Or perchance, at evening, I hear him in his stable blowing off the superfluous energy of the day, that he may calm his nerves and cool his liver and brain for a few hours of iron slumber.
  • We have constructed a fate, an Atropos, that never turns aside.
  • Next rolls Thomaston lime, a prime lot, which will get far among the hills before it gets slacked.
  • Next Spanish hides, with the tails still preserving their twist and the angle of elevation they had when the oxen that wore them were careering over the pampas of the Spanish Main--a type of all obstinacy, and evincing how almost hopeless and incurable are all constitutional vices.
  • I confess, that practically speaking, when I have learned a man's real disposition, I have no hopes of changing it for the better or worse in this state of existence.
  • Here is a hogshead of molasses or of brandy directed to John Smith, Cuttingsville, Vermont, some trader among the Green Mountains, who imports for the farmers near his clearing, and now perchance stands over his bulkhead and thinks of the last arrivals on the coast, how they may affect the price for him, telling his customers this moment, as he has told them twenty times before this morning, that he expects some by the next train of prime quality.
  • And hark! here comes the cattle-train bearing the cattle of a thousand hills, sheepcots, stables, and cow-yards in the air, drovers with their sticks, and shepherd boys in the midst of their flocks, all but the mountain pastures, whirled along like leaves blown from the mountains by the September gales.
  • The air is filled with the bleating of calves and sheep, and the hustling of oxen, as if a pastoral valley were going by.
  • A carload of drovers, too, in the midst, on a level with their droves now, their vocation gone, but still clinging to their useless sticks as their badge of office.
  • A carload of drovers, too, in the midst, on a level with their droves now, their vocation gone, but still clinging to their useless sticks as their badge of office.
  • For the rest of the long afternoon, perhaps, my meditations are interrupted only by the faint rattle of a carriage or team along the distant highway.
  • Sometimes, on Sundays, I heard the bells, the Lincoln, Acton, Bedford, or Concord bell, when the wind was favorable, a faint, sweet, and, as it were, natural melody, worth importing into the wilderness.
  • At a sufficient distance over the woods this sound acquires a certain vibratory hum, as if the pine needles in the horizon were the strings of a harp which it swept.
  • It is new information and not merely a repetition of what was presented in the first chapter.
  • Regularly at half-past seven, in one part of the summer, after the evening train had gone by, the whip-poor-wills chanted their vespers for half an hour, sitting on a stump by my door, or upon the ridge-pole of the house.
  • They would begin to sing almost with as much precision as a clock, within five minutes of a particular time, referred to the setting of the sun, every evening.
  • I had a rare opportunity to become acquainted with their habits.
  • Sometimes one would circle round and round me in the woods a few feet distant as if tethered by a string, when probably I was near its eggs.
  • They give me a new sense of the variety and capacity of that nature which is our common dwelling.
  • I was also serenaded by a hooting owl.
  • But now one answers from far woods in a strain made really melodious by distance--Hoo hoo hoo, hoorer hoo; and indeed for the most part it suggested only pleasing associations, whether heard by day or night, summer or winter.
  • To walk in a winter morning in a wood where these birds abounded, their native woods, and hear the wild cockerels crow on the trees, clear and shrill for miles over the resounding earth, drowning the feebler notes of other birds--think of it!
  • A young forest growing up under your meadows, and wild sumachs and blackberry vines breaking through into your cellar; sturdy pitch pines rubbing and creaking against the shingles for want of room, their roots reaching quite under the house.
  • This is a delicious evening, when the whole body is one sense, and imbibes delight through every pore.
  • I go and come with a strange liberty in Nature, a part of herself.
  • I could always tell if visitors had called in my absence, either by the bended twigs or grass, or the print of their shoes, and generally of what sex or age or quality they were by some slight trace left, as a flower dropped, or a bunch of grass plucked and thrown away, even as far off as the railroad, half a mile distant, or by the lingering odor of a cigar or pipe.
  • Nay, I was frequently notified of the passage of a traveller along the highway sixty rods off by the scent of his pipe.
  • My nearest neighbor is a mile distant, and no house is visible from any place but the hill-tops within half a mile of my own.
  • I have my horizon bounded by woods all to myself; a distant view of the railroad where it touches the pond on the one hand, and of the fence which skirts the woodland road on the other.
  • I have, as it were, my own sun and moon and stars, and a little world all to myself.
  • Nothing can rightly compel a simple and brave man to a vulgar sadness.
  • I have never felt lonesome, or in the least oppressed by a sense of solitude, but once, and that was a few weeks after I came to the woods, when, for an hour, I doubted if the near neighborhood of man was not essential to a serene and healthy life.
  • But I was at the same time conscious of a slight insanity in my mood, and seemed to foresee my recovery.
  • In one heavy thunder-shower the lightning struck a large pitch pine across the pond, making a very conspicuous and perfectly regular spiral groove from top to bottom, an inch or more deep, and four or five inches wide, as you would groove a walking-stick.
  • I am tempted to reply to such--This whole earth which we inhabit is but a point in space.
  • What sort of space is that which separates a man from his fellows and makes him solitary?
  • I one evening overtook one of my townsmen, who has accumulated what is called "a handsome property"--though I never got a fair view of it--on the Walden road, driving a pair of cattle to market, who inquired of me how I could bring my mind to give up so many of the comforts of life.
  • Any prospect of awakening or coming to life to a dead man makes indifferent all times and places.
  • We are the subjects of an experiment which is not a little interesting to me.
  • With thinking we may be beside ourselves in a sane sense.
  • I may be affected by a theatrical exhibition; on the other hand, I may not be affected by an actual event which appears to concern me much more.
  • It was a kind of fiction, a work of the imagination only, so far as he was concerned.
  • A man thinking or working is always alone, let him be where he will.
  • The really diligent student in one of the crowded hives of Cambridge College is as solitary as a dervish in the desert.
  • We meet at meals three times a day, and give each other a new taste of that old musty cheese that we are.
  • We have had to agree on a certain set of rules, called etiquette and politeness, to make this frequent meeting tolerable and that we need not come to open war.
  • Consider the girls in a factory--never alone, hardly in their dreams.
  • It would be better if there were but one inhabitant to a square mile, as where I live.
  • The value of a man is not in his skin, that we should touch him.
  • So also, owing to bodily and mental health and strength, we may be continually cheered by a like but more normal and natural society, and come to know that we are never alone.
  • I have a great deal of company in my house; especially in the morning, when nobody calls.
  • Let me suggest a few comparisons, that some one may convey an idea of my situation.
  • The sun is alone, except in thick weather, when there sometimes appear to be two, but one is a mock sun.
  • God is alone--but the devil, he is far from being alone; he sees a great deal of company; he is legion.
  • An elderly dame, too, dwells in my neighborhood, invisible to most persons, in whose odorous herb garden I love to stroll sometimes, gathering simples and listening to her fables; for she has a genius of unequalled fertility, and her memory runs back farther than mythology, and she can tell me the original of every fable, and on what fact every one is founded, for the incidents occurred when she was young.
  • A ruddy and lusty old dame, who delights in all weathers and seasons, and is likely to outlive all her children yet.
  • It is surprising how many great men and women a small house will contain.
  • One inconvenience I sometimes experienced in so small a house, the difficulty of getting to a sufficient distance from my guest when we began to utter the big thoughts in big words.
  • You want room for your thoughts to get into sailing trim and run a course or two before they make their port.
  • I have found it a singular luxury to talk across the pond to a companion on the opposite side.
  • As the conversation began to assume a loftier and grander tone, we gradually shoved our chairs farther apart till they touched the wall in opposite corners, and then commonly there was not room enough.
  • When the night arrived, to quote their own words--He laid us on the bed with himself and his wife, they at the one end and we at the other, it being only planks laid a foot from the ground and a thin mat upon them.
  • At one o'clock the next day Massasoit "brought two fishes that he had shot," about thrice as big as a bream.
  • These being boiled, there were at least forty looked for a share in them; the most eat of them.
  • This meal only we had in two nights and a day; and had not one of us bought a partridge, we had taken our journey fasting.
  • Another time when Winslow visited them, it being a season of plenty with them, there was no deficiency in this respect.
  • He has a great bundle of white oak bark under his arm for a sick man, gathered this Sunday morning.
  • "I suppose there's no harm in going after such a thing to-day," says he.
  • To him Homer was a great writer, though what his writing was about he did not know.
  • A more simple and natural man it would be hard to find.
  • Vice and disease, which cast such a sombre moral hue over the world, seemed to have hardly any existence for him.
  • He was about twenty-eight years old, and had left Canada and his father's house a dozen years before to work in the States, and earn money to buy a farm with at last, perhaps in his native country.
  • He wore a flat gray cloth cap, a dingy wool-colored greatcoat, and cowhide boots.
  • He wasn't a-going to hurt himself.
  • Frequently he would leave his dinner in the bushes, when his dog had caught a woodchuck by the way, and go back a mile and a half to dress it and leave it in the cellar of the house where he boarded, after deliberating first for half an hour whether he could not sink it in the pond safely till nightfall--loving to dwell long upon these themes.
  • I could get all I should want for a week in one day.
  • He was a skilful chopper, and indulged in some flourishes and ornaments in his art.
  • He cut his trees level and close to the ground, that the sprouts which came up afterward might be more vigorous and a sled might slide over the stumps; and instead of leaving a whole tree to support his corded wood, he would pare it away to a slender stake or splinter which you could break off with your hand at last.
  • Sometimes I saw him at his work in the woods, felling trees, and he would greet me with a laugh of inexpressible satisfaction, and a salutation in Canadian French, though he spoke English as well.
  • In the winter he had a fire by which at noon he warmed his coffee in a kettle; and as he sat on a log to eat his dinner the chickadees would sometimes come round and alight on his arm and peck at the potato in his fingers; and he said that he "liked to have the little fellers about him."
  • I asked him once if he was not sometimes tired at night, after working all day; and he answered, with a sincere and serious look, "Gorrappit, I never was tired in my life."
  • He was so genuine and unsophisticated that no introduction would serve to introduce him, more than if you introduced a woodchuck to your neighbor.
  • If you told him that such a one was coming, he did as if he thought that anything so grand would expect nothing of himself, but take all the responsibility on itself, and let him be forgotten still.
  • It would have suggested many things to a philosopher to have dealings with him.
  • A townsman told me that when he met him sauntering through the village in his small close-fitting cap, and whistling to himself, he reminded him of a prince in disguise.
  • A townsman told me that when he met him sauntering through the village in his small close-fitting cap, and whistling to himself, he reminded him of a prince in disguise.
  • I asked him once, when I had not seen him for many months, if he had got a new idea this summer.
  • "Good Lord"--said he, "a man that has to work as I do, if he does not forget the ideas he has had, he will do well.
  • Though he hesitated, and perhaps failed to express himself distinctly, he always had a presentable thought behind.
  • Many a traveller came out of his way to see me and the inside of my house, and, as an excuse for calling, asked for a glass of water.
  • I told them that I drank at the pond, and pointed thither, offering to lend them a dipper.
  • He was a metaphysical puzzle to me.
  • I have rarely met a fellowman on such promising ground--it was so simple and sincere and so true all that he said.
  • I did not know at first but it was the result of a wise policy.
  • It seemed that from such a basis of truth and frankness as the poor weak-headed pauper had laid, our intercourse might go forward to something better than the intercourse of sages.
  • I require of a visitor that he be not actually starving, though he may have the very best appetite in the world, however he got it.
  • One man proposed a book in which visitors should write their names, as at the White Mountains; but, alas!
  • I have too good a memory to make that necessary.
  • Men of business, even farmers, thought only of solitude and employment, and of the great distance at which I dwelt from something or other; and though they said that they loved a ramble in the woods occasionally, it was obvious that they did not.
  • Children come a-berrying, railroad men taking a Sunday morning walk in clean shirts, fishermen and hunters, poets and philosophers; in short, all honest pilgrims, who came out to the woods for freedom's sake, and really left the village behind, I was ready to greet with--"Welcome, Englishmen! welcome, Englishmen!" for I had had communication with that race.
  • It is a fine broad leaf to look on.
  • The last have nibbled for me a quarter of an acre clean.
  • Early in the morning I worked barefooted, dabbling like a plastic artist in the dewy and crumbling sand, but later in the day the sun blistered my feet.
  • It was the only open and cultivated field for a great distance on either side of the road, so they made the most of it; and sometimes the man in the field heard more of travellers' gossip and comment than was meant for his ear: "Beans so late! peas so late!"--for I continued to plant when others had begun to hoe--the ministerial husbandman had not suspected it.
  • The crop of English hay is carefully weighed, the moisture calculated, the silicates and the potash; but in all dells and pond-holes in the woods and pastures and swamps grows a rich and various crop only unreaped by man.
  • Mine was, as it were, the connecting link between wild and cultivated fields; as some states are civilized, and others half-civilized, and others savage or barbarous, so my field was, though not in a bad sense, a half-cultivated field.
  • Near at hand, upon the topmost spray of a birch, sings the brown thrasher--or red mavis, as some love to call him--all the morning, glad of your society, that would find out another farmer's field if yours were not here.
  • It was a cheap sort of top dressing in which I had entire faith.
  • As I drew a still fresher soil about the rows with my hoe, I disturbed the ashes of unchronicled nations who in primeval years lived under these heavens, and their small implements of war and hunting were brought to the light of this modern day.
  • Or sometimes I watched a pair of hen-hawks circling high in the sky, alternately soaring and descending, approaching, and leaving one another, as if they were the embodiment of my own thoughts.
  • When I paused to lean on my hoe, these sounds and sights I heard and saw anywhere in the row, a part of the inexhaustible entertainment which the country offers.
  • I felt proud to know that the liberties of Massachusetts and of our fatherland were in such safe keeping; and as I turned to my hoeing again I was filled with an inexpressible confidence, and pursued my labor cheerfully with a calm trust in the future.
  • When there were several bands of musicians, it sounded as if all the village was a vast bellows and all the buildings expanded and collapsed alternately with a din.
  • But sometimes it was a really noble and inspiring strain that reached these woods, and the trumpet that sings of fame, and I felt as if I could spit a Mexican with a good relish--for why should we always stand for trifles?--and looked round for a woodchuck or a skunk to exercise my chivalry upon.
  • It was a singular experience that long acquaintance which I cultivated with beans, what with planting, and hoeing, and harvesting, and threshing, and picking over and selling them--the last was the hardest of all--I might add eating, for I did taste.
  • That's Roman wormwood--that's pigweed--that's sorrel--that's piper-grass--have at him, chop him up, turn his roots upward to the sun, don't let him have a fibre in the shade, if you do he'll turn himself t' other side up and be as green as a leek in two days.
  • A long war, not with cranes, but with weeds, those Trojans who had sun and rain and dews on their side.
  • Daily the beans saw me come to their rescue armed with a hoe, and thin the ranks of their enemies, filling up the trenches with weedy dead.
  • Many a lusty crest--waving Hector, that towered a whole foot above his crowding comrades, fell before my weapon and rolled in the dust.
  • It was on the whole a rare amusement, which, continued too long, might have become a dissipation.
  • "The earth," he adds elsewhere, "especially if fresh, has a certain magnetism in it, by which it attracts the salt, power, or virtue (call it either) which gives it life, and is the logic of all the labor and stir we keep about it, to sustain us; all dungings and other sordid temperings being but the vicars succedaneous to this improvement."
  • But above all harvest as early as possible, if you would escape frosts and have a fair and salable crop; you may save much loss by this means.
  • I saw an old man the other day, to my astonishment, making the holes with a hoe for the seventieth time at least, and not for himself to lie down in!
  • Why concern ourselves so much about our beans for seed, and not be concerned at all about a new generation of men?
  • We should really be fed and cheered if when we met a man we were sure to see that some of the qualities which I have named, which we all prize more than those other productions, but which are for the most part broadcast and floating in the air, had taken root and grown in him.
  • He knows Nature but as a robber.
  • They all reflect and absorb his rays alike, and the former make but a small part of the glorious picture which he beholds in his daily course.
  • In his view the earth is all equally cultivated like a garden.
  • After hoeing, or perhaps reading and writing, in the forenoon, I usually bathed again in the pond, swimming across one of its coves for a stint, and washed the dust of labor from my person, or smoothed out the last wrinkle which study had made, and for the afternoon was absolutely free.
  • The village appeared to me a great news room; and on one side, to support it, as once at Redding & Company's on State Street, they kept nuts and raisins, or salt and meal and other groceries.
  • I hardly ever failed, when I rambled through the village, to see a row of such worthies, either sitting on a ladder sunning themselves, with their bodies inclined forward and their eyes glancing along the line this way and that, from time to time, with a voluptuous expression, or else leaning against a barn with their hands in their pockets, like caryatides, as if to prop it up.
  • I observed that the vitals of the village were the grocery, the bar-room, the post-office, and the bank; and, as a necessary part of the machinery, they kept a bell, a big gun, and a fire-engine, at convenient places; and the houses were so arranged as to make the most of mankind, in lanes and fronting one another, so that every traveller had to run the gauntlet, and every man, woman, and child might get a lick at him.
  • Besides, there was a still more terrible standing invitation to call at every one of these houses, and company expected about these times.
  • Sometimes I bolted suddenly, and nobody could tell my whereabouts, for I did not stand much about gracefulness, and never hesitated at a gap in a fence.
  • It was very pleasant, when I stayed late in town, to launch myself into the night, especially if it was dark and tempestuous, and set sail from some bright village parlor or lecture room, with a bag of rye or Indian meal upon my shoulder, for my snug harbor in the woods, having made all tight without and withdrawn under hatches with a merry crew of thoughts, leaving only my outer man at the helm, or even tying up the helm when it was plain sailing.
  • I had many a genial thought by the cabin fire "as I sailed."
  • They lived about a mile off through the woods, and were quite used to the route.
  • I have heard of many going astray even in the village streets, when the darkness was so thick that you could cut it with a knife, as the saying is.
  • It is a surprising and memorable, as well as valuable experience, to be lost in the woods any time.
  • Often in a snow-storm, even by day, one will come out upon a well-known road and yet find it impossible to tell which way leads to the village.
  • In our most trivial walks, we are constantly, though unconsciously, steering like pilots by certain well-known beacons and headlands, and if we go beyond our usual course we still carry in our minds the bearing of some neighboring cape; and not till we are completely lost, or turned round--for a man needs only to be turned round once with his eyes shut in this world to be lost--do we appreciate the vastness and strangeness of nature.
  • I never fastened my door night or day, though I was to be absent several days; not even when the next fall I spent a fortnight in the woods of Maine.
  • The virtues of a superior man are like the wind; the virtues of a common man are like the grass--the grass, when the wind passes over it, bends.
  • It is a vulgar error to suppose that you have tasted huckleberries who never plucked them.
  • Once in a while we sat together on the pond, he at one end of the boat, and I at the other; but not many words passed between us, for he had grown deaf in his later years, but he occasionally hummed a psalm, which harmonized well enough with my philosophy.
  • Through this, whistling a tune, we took our way to the haunts of men again.
  • Sometimes, after staying in a village parlor till the family had all retired, I have returned to the woods, and, partly with a view to the next day's dinner, spent the hours of midnight fishing from a boat by moonlight, serenaded by owls and foxes, and hearing, from time to time, the creaking note of some unknown bird close at hand.
  • The surrounding hills rise abruptly from the water to the height of forty to eighty feet, though on the southeast and east they attain to about one hundred and one hundred and fifty feet respectively, within a quarter and a third of a mile.
  • All our Concord waters have two colors at least; one when viewed at a distance, and another, more proper, close at hand.
  • In clear weather, in summer, they appear blue at a little distance, especially if agitated, and at a great distance all appear alike.
  • In stormy weather they are sometimes of a dark slate-color.
  • But, looking directly down into our waters from a boat, they are seen to be of very different colors.
  • Viewed from a hilltop it reflects the color of the sky; but near at hand it is of a yellowish tint next the shore where you can see the sand, then a light green, which gradually deepens to a uniform dark green in the body of the pond.
  • In some lights, viewed even from a hilltop, it is of a vivid green next the shore.
  • This is that portion, also, where in the spring, the ice being warmed by the heat of the sun reflected from the bottom, and also transmitted through the earth, melts first and forms a narrow canal about the still frozen middle.
  • It is a vitreous greenish blue, as I remember it, like those patches of the winter sky seen through cloud vistas in the west before sundown.
  • Yet a single glass of its water held up to the light is as colorless as an equal quantity of air.
  • It is well known that a large plate of glass will have a green tint, owing, as the makers say, to its "body," but a small piece of the same will be colorless.
  • Making another hole directly over it with an ice chisel which I had, and cutting down the longest birch which I could find in the neighborhood with my knife, I made a slip-noose, which I attached to its end, and, letting it down carefully, passed it over the knob of the handle, and drew it by a line along the birch, and so pulled the axe out again.
  • The shore is composed of a belt of smooth rounded white stones like paving-stones, excepting one or two short sand beaches, and is so steep that in many places a single leap will carry you into water over your head; and were it not for its remarkable transparency, that would be the last to be seen of its bottom till it rose on the opposite side.
  • Perhaps on that spring morning when Adam and Eve were driven out of Eden Walden Pond was already in existence, and even then breaking up in a gentle spring rain accompanied with mist and a southerly wind, and covered with myriads of ducks and geese, which had not heard of the fall, when still such pure lakes sufficed them.
  • It is a gem of the first water which Concord wears in her coronet.
  • This is particularly distinct to one standing on the middle of the pond in winter, just after a light snow has fallen, appearing as a clear undulating white line, unobscured by weeds and twigs, and very obvious a quarter of a mile off in many places where in summer it is hardly distinguishable close at hand.
  • I can remember when it was a foot or two lower, and also when it was at least five feet higher, than when I lived by it.
  • Flint's Pond, a mile eastward, allowing for the disturbance occasioned by its inlets and outlets, and the smaller intermediate ponds also, sympathize with Walden, and recently attained their greatest height at the same time with the latter.
  • By this fluctuation the pond asserts its title to a shore, and thus the shore is shorn, and the trees cannot hold it by right of possession.
  • In the warmest weather I usually placed a pailful in my cellar, where it became cool in the night, and remained so during the day; though I also resorted to a spring in the neighborhood.
  • It was as good when a week old as the day it was dipped, and had no taste of the pump.
  • Whoever camps for a week in summer by the shore of a pond, needs only bury a pail of water a few feet deep in the shade of his camp to be independent of the luxury of ice.
  • There are also a clean race of frogs and tortoises, and a few mussels in it; muskrats and minks leave their traces about it, and occasionally a travelling mud-turtle visits it.
  • Sometimes, when I pushed off my boat in the morning, I disturbed a great mud-turtle which had secreted himself under the boat in the night.
  • I have sometimes disturbed a fish hawk sitting on a white pine over the water; but I doubt if it is ever profaned by the wind of a gull, like Fair Haven.
  • You may see from a boat, in calm weather, near the sandy eastern shore, where the water is eight or ten feet deep, and also in some other parts of the pond, some circular heaps half a dozen feet in diameter by a foot in height, consisting of small stones less than a hen's egg in size, where all around is bare sand.
  • These lend a pleasing mystery to the bottom.
  • The forest has never so good a setting, nor is so distinctly beautiful, as when seen from the middle of a small lake amid hills which rise from the water's edge; for the water in which it is reflected not only makes the best foreground in such a case, but, with its winding shore, the most natural and agreeable boundary to it.
  • There is no rawness nor imperfection in its edge there, as where the axe has cleared a part, or a cultivated field abuts on it.
  • There Nature has woven a natural selvage, and the eye rises by just gradations from the low shrubs of the shore to the highest trees.
  • The water laves the shore as it did a thousand years ago.
  • A lake is the landscape's most beautiful and expressive feature.
  • Standing on the smooth sandy beach at the east end of the pond, in a calm September afternoon, when a slight haze makes the opposite shore-line indistinct, I have seen whence came the expression, "the glassy surface of a lake."
  • From a hilltop you can see a fish leap in almost any part; for not a pickerel or shiner picks an insect from this smooth surface but it manifestly disturbs the equilibrium of the whole lake.
  • It is wonderful with what elaborateness this simple fact is advertised--this piscine murder will out--and from my distant perch I distinguish the circling undulations when they are half a dozen rods in diameter.
  • Ay, every leaf and twig and stone and cobweb sparkles now at mid-afternoon as when covered with dew in a spring morning.
  • In such a day, in September or October, Walden is a perfect forest mirror, set round with stones as precious to my eye as if fewer or rarer.
  • Nothing so fair, so pure, and at the same time so large, as a lake, perchance, lies on the surface of the earth.
  • It is a mirror which no stone can crack, whose quicksilver will never wear off, whose gilding Nature continually repairs; no storms, no dust, can dim its surface ever fresh;--a mirror in which all impurity presented to it sinks, swept and dusted by the sun's hazy brush--this the light dust-cloth--which retains no breath that is breathed on it, but sends its own to float as clouds high above its surface, and be reflected in its bosom still.
  • A field of water betrays the spirit that is in the air.
  • Though I passed over it as gently as possible, the slight undulations produced by my boat extended almost as far as I could see, and gave a ribbed appearance to the reflections.
  • In such transparent and seemingly bottomless water, reflecting the clouds, I seemed to be floating through the air as in a balloon, and their swimming impressed me as a kind of flight or hovering, as if they were a compact flock of birds passing just beneath my level on the right or left, their fins, like sails, set all around them.
  • When I approached carelessly and alarmed them, they made a sudden splash and rippling with their tails, as if one had struck the water with a brushy bough, and instantly took refuge in the depths.
  • At length the wind rose, the mist increased, and the waves began to run, and the perch leaped much higher than before, half out of water, a hundred black points, three inches long, at once above the surface.
  • But suddenly the dimples ceased, for they were produced by the perch, which the noise of my oars had seared into the depths, and I saw their schools dimly disappearing; so I spent a dry afternoon after all.
  • He came here a-fishing, and used an old log canoe which he found on the shore.
  • It was very clumsy, but lasted a great many years before it became water-logged and perhaps sank to the bottom.
  • He used to make a cable for his anchor of strips of hickory bark tied together.
  • When I first paddled a boat on Walden, it was completely surrounded by thick and lofty pine and oak woods, and in some of its coves grape-vines had run over the trees next the water and formed bowers under which a boat could pass.
  • That devilish Iron Horse, whose ear-rending neigh is heard throughout the town, has muddied the Boiling Spring with his foot, and he it is that has browsed off all the woods on Walden shore, that Trojan horse, with a thousand men in his belly, introduced by mercenary Greeks!
  • It is the work of a brave man surely, in whom there was no guile!
  • I have said that Walden has no visible inlet nor outlet, but it is on the one hand distantly and indirectly related to Flint's Pond, which is more elevated, by a chain of small ponds coming from that quarter, and on the other directly and manifestly to Concord River, which is lower, by a similar chain of ponds through which in some other geological period it may have flowed, and by a little digging, which God forbid, it can be made to flow thither again.
  • Flint's, or Sandy Pond, in Lincoln, our greatest lake and inland sea, lies about a mile east of Walden.
  • A walk through the woods thither was often my recreation.
  • These wash back and forth in shallow water on a sandy bottom, and are sometimes cast on the shore.
  • Moreover, the waves, I suspect, do not so much construct as wear down a material which has already acquired consistency.
  • A great grease-spot, redolent of manures and buttermilk!
  • Under a high state of cultivation, being manured with the hearts and brains of men!
  • Such is a model farm.
  • Let our lakes receive as true names at least as the Icarian Sea, where "still the shore" a "brave attempt resounds."
  • Since the wood-cutters, and the railroad, and I myself have profaned Walden, perhaps the most attractive, if not the most beautiful, of all our lakes, the gem of the woods, is White Pond;--a poor name from its commonness, whether derived from the remarkable purity of its waters or the color of its sands.
  • In these as in other respects, however, it is a lesser twin of Walden.
  • He sawed a channel in the ice toward the shore, and hauled it over and along and out on to the ice with oxen; but, before he had gone far in his work, he was surprised to find that it was wrong end upward, with the stumps of the branches pointing down, and the small end firmly fastened in the sandy bottom.
  • It was about a foot in diameter at the big end, and he had expected to get a good saw-log, but it was so rotten as to be fit only for fuel, if for that.
  • They are too pure to have a market value; they contain no muck.
  • Once it chanced that I stood in the very abutment of a rainbow's arch, which filled the lower stratum of the atmosphere, tinging the grass and leaves around, and dazzling me as if I looked through colored crystal.
  • It was a lake of rainbow light, in which, for a short while, I lived like a dolphin.
  • It was one of those afternoons which seem indefinitely long before one, in which many events may happen, a large portion of our natural life, though it was already half spent when I started.
  • The gods must be proud, thought I, with such forked flashes to rout a poor unarmed fisherman.
  • But the only true America is that country where you are at liberty to pursue such a mode of life as may enable you to do without these, and where the state does not endeavor to compel you to sustain the slavery and war and other superfluous expenses which directly or indirectly result from the use of such things.
  • For I purposely talked to him as if he were a philosopher, or desired to be one.
  • I should be glad if all the meadows on the earth were left in a wild state, if that were the consequence of men's beginning to redeem themselves.
  • A man will not need to study history to find out what is best for his own culture.
  • If he and his family would live simply, they might all go a-huckleberrying in the summer for their amusement.
  • The shower was now over, and a rainbow above the eastern woods promised a fair evening; so I took my departure.
  • Let not to get a living be thy trade, but thy sport.
  • But he, poor man, disturbed only a couple of fins while I was catching a fair string, and he said it was his luck; but when we changed seats in the boat luck changed seats too.
  • The traveller on the prairie is naturally a hunter, on the head waters of the Missouri and Columbia a trapper, and at the Falls of St. Mary a fisherman.
  • He who is only a traveller learns things at second-hand and by the halves, and is poor authority.
  • We are most interested when science reports what those men already know practically or instinctively, for that alone is a true humanity, or account of human experience.
  • Almost every New England boy among my contemporaries shouldered a fowling-piece between the ages of ten and fourteen; and his hunting and fishing grounds were not limited, like the preserves of an English nobleman, but were more boundless even than those of a savage.
  • But already a change is taking place, owing, not to an increased humanity, but to an increased scarcity of game, for perhaps the hunter is the greatest friend of the animals hunted, not excepting the Humane Society.
  • There is a period in the history of the individual, as of the race, when the hunters are the "best men," as the Algonquins called them.
  • The hare in its extremity cries like a child.
  • Such a one might make a good shepherd's dog, but is far from being the Good Shepherd.
  • Commonly they did not think that they were lucky, or well paid for their time, unless they got a long string of fish, though they had the opportunity of seeing the pond all the while.
  • I have found repeatedly, of late years, that I cannot fish without falling a little in self-respect.
  • It is a faint intimation, yet so are the first streaks of morning.
  • But I see that if I were to live in a wilderness I should again be tempted to become a fisher and hunter in earnest.
  • A little bread or a few potatoes would have done as well, with less trouble and filth.
  • A little bread or a few potatoes would have done as well, with less trouble and filth.
  • Most men would feel shame if caught preparing with their own hands precisely such a dinner, whether of animal or vegetable food, as is every day prepared for them by others.
  • Is it not a reproach that man is a carnivorous animal?
  • If the day and the night are such that you greet them with joy, and life emits a fragrance like flowers and sweet-scented herbs, is more elastic, more starry, more immortal--that is your success.
  • It is a little star-dust caught, a segment of the rainbow which I have clutched.
  • Yet, for my part, I was never unusually squeamish; I could sometimes eat a fried rat with a good relish, if it were necessary.
  • I believe that water is the only drink for a wise man; wine is not so noble a liquor; and think of dashing the hopes of a morning with a cup of warm coffee, or of an evening with a dish of tea!
  • A puritan may go to his brown-bread crust with as gross an appetite as ever an alderman to his turtle.
  • Not that food which entereth into the mouth defileth a man, but the appetite with which it is eaten.
  • Many an irksome noise, go a long way off, is heard as music, a proud, sweet satire on the meanness of our lives.
  • I fear that it may enjoy a certain health of its own; that we may be well, yet not pure.
  • "That in which men differ from brute beasts," says Mencius, "is a thing very inconsiderable; the common herd lose it very soon; superior men preserve it carefully."
  • If I knew so wise a man as could teach me purity I would go to seek him forthwith.
  • It is the same whether a man eat, or drink, or cohabit, or sleep sensually.
  • They are but one appetite, and we only need to see a person do any one of these things to know how great a sensualist he is.
  • How shall a man know if he is chaste?
  • In the student sensuality is a sluggish habit of mind.
  • An unclean person is universally a slothful one, one who sits by a stove, whom the sun shines on prostrate, who reposes without being fatigued.
  • If you would avoid uncleanness, and all the sins, work earnestly, though it be at cleaning a stable.
  • Every man is the builder of a temple, called his body, to the god he worships, after a style purely his own, nor can he get off by hammering marble instead.
  • Any nobleness begins at once to refine a man's features, any meanness or sensuality to imbrute them.
  • John Farmer sat at his door one September evening, after a hard day's work, his mind still running on his labor more or less.
  • It was a rather cool evening, and some of his neighbors were apprehending a frost.
  • He had not attended to the train of his thoughts long when he heard some one playing on a flute, and that sound harmonized with his mood.
  • But the notes of the flute came home to his ears out of a different sphere from that he worked in, and suggested work for certain faculties which slumbered in him.
  • A voice said to him--Why do you stay here and live this mean moiling life, when a glorious existence is possible for you?
  • A voice said to him--Why do you stay here and live this mean moiling life, when a glorious existence is possible for you?
  • Sometimes I had a companion in my fishing, who came through the village to my house from the other side of the town, and the catching of the dinner was as much a social exercise as the eating of it.
  • I have not heard so much as a locust over the sweet-fern these three hours.
  • Was that a farmer's noon horn which sounded from beyond the woods just now?
  • Better not keep a house.
  • Only a woodpecker tapping.
  • I have water from the spring, and a loaf of brown bread on the shelf.--Hark!
  • I hear a rustling of the leaves.
  • That's a true Mediterranean sky.
  • I thought, as I have my living to get, and have not eaten to-day, that I might go a-fishing.
  • I will go with you gladly soon, but I am just concluding a serious meditation.
  • Leave me alone, then, for a while.
  • Shall I go to heaven or a-fishing?
  • It was a very hazy day.
  • I know not whether it was the dumps or a budding ecstasy.
  • Those village worms are quite too large; a shiner may make a meal off one without finding the skewer.
  • Why do precisely these objects which we behold make a world?
  • Why has man just these species of animals for his neighbors; as if nothing but a mouse could have filled this crevice?
  • It probably had never seen a man before; and it soon became quite familiar, and would run over my shoes and up my clothes.
  • It could readily ascend the sides of the room by short impulses, like a squirrel, which it resembled in its motions.
  • At length, as I leaned with my elbow on the bench one day, it ran up my clothes, and along my sleeve, and round and round the paper which held my dinner, while I kept the latter close, and dodged and played at bopeep with it; and when at last I held still a piece of cheese between my thumb and finger, it came and nibbled it, sitting in my hand, and afterward cleaned its face and paws, like a fly, and walked away.
  • A phÅ“be soon built in my shed, and a robin for protection in a pine which grew against the house.
  • A phÅ“be soon built in my shed, and a robin for protection in a pine which grew against the house.
  • The parent will sometimes roll and spin round before you in such a dishabille, that you cannot, for a few moments, detect what kind of creature it is.
  • You may even tread on them, or have your eyes on them for a minute, without discovering them.
  • They suggest not merely the purity of infancy, but a wisdom clarified by experience.
  • The woods do not yield another such a gem.
  • The traveller does not often look into such a limpid well.
  • It is said that when hatched by a hen they will directly disperse on some alarm, and so are lost, for they never hear the mother's call which gathers them again.
  • I had dug out the spring and made a well of clear gray water, where I could dip up a pailful without roiling it, and thither I went for this purpose almost every day in midsummer, when the pond was warmest.
  • I was witness to events of a less peaceful character.
  • Looking farther, I was surprised to find that the chips were covered with such combatants, that it was not a duellum, but a bellum, a war between two races of ants, the red always pitted against the black, and frequently two red ones to one black.
  • I watched a couple that were fast locked in each other's embraces, in a little sunny valley amid the chips, now at noonday prepared to fight till the sun went down, or life went out.
  • I took up the chip on which the three I have particularly described were struggling, carried it into my house, and placed it under a tumbler on my window-sill, in order to see the issue.
  • A similar engagement between great and small ants is recorded by Olaus Magnus, in which the small ones, being victorious, are said to have buried the bodies of their own soldiers, but left those of their giant enemies a prey to the birds.
  • A similar engagement between great and small ants is recorded by Olaus Magnus, in which the small ones, being victorious, are said to have buried the bodies of their own soldiers, but left those of their giant enemies a prey to the birds.
  • Once I was surprised to see a cat walking along the stony shore of the pond, for they rarely wander so far from home.
  • Once, when berrying, I met with a cat with young kittens in the woods, quite wild, and they all, like their mother, had their backs up and were fiercely spitting at me.
  • They gave me a pair of her "wings," which I keep still.
  • When I went to get a pail of water early in the morning I frequently saw this stately bird sailing out of my cove within a few rods.
  • If I endeavored to overtake him in a boat, in order to see how he would manoeuvre, he would dive and be completely lost, so that I did not discover him again, sometimes, till the latter part of the day.
  • But I was more than a match for him on the surface.
  • He commonly went off in a rain.
  • I pursued with a paddle and he dived, but when he came up I was nearer than before.
  • He manoeuvred so cunningly that I could not get within half a dozen rods of him.
  • It was a pretty game, played on the smooth surface of the pond, a man against a loon.
  • He was indeed a silly loon, I thought.
  • In October I went a-graping to the river meadows, and loaded myself with clusters more precious for their beauty and fragrance than for food.
  • The barberry's brilliant fruit was likewise food for my eyes merely; but I collected a small store of wild apples for coddling, which the proprietor and travellers had overlooked.
  • When chestnuts were ripe I laid up half a bushel for winter.
  • It was very exciting at that season to roam the then boundless chestnut woods of Lincoln--they now sleep their long sleep under the railroad--with a bag on my shoulder, and a stick to open burs with in my hand, for I did not always wait for the frost, amid the rustling of leaves and the loud reproofs of the red squirrels and the jays, whose half-consumed nuts I sometimes stole, for the burs which they had selected were sure to contain sound ones.
  • They grew also behind my house, and one large tree, which almost overshadowed it, was, when in flower, a bouquet which scented the whole neighborhood, but the squirrels and the jays got most of its fruit; the last coming in flocks early in the morning and picking the nuts out of the burs before they fell, I relinquished these trees to them and visited the more distant woods composed wholly of chestnut.
  • These nuts, as far as they went, were a good substitute for bread.
  • It has a sweetish taste, much like that of a frost-bitten potato, and I found it better boiled than roasted.
  • Already, by the first of September, I had seen two or three small maples turned scarlet across the pond, beneath where the white stems of three aspens diverged, at the point of a promontory, next the water.
  • Ah, many a tale their color told!
  • Each morning, when they were numbed with cold, I swept some of them out, but I did not trouble myself much to get rid of them; I even felt complimented by their regarding my house as a desirable shelter.
  • I thus warmed myself by the still glowing embers which the summer, like a departed hunter, had left.
  • My bricks, being second-hand ones, required to be cleaned with a trowel, so that I learned more than usual of the qualities of bricks and trowels.
  • Many of the villages of Mesopotamia are built of second-hand bricks of a very good quality, obtained from the ruins of Babylon, and the cement on them is older and probably harder still.
  • When I began to have a fire at evening, before I plastered my house, the chimney carried smoke particularly well, because of the numerous chinks between the boards.
  • My dwelling was small, and I could hardly entertain an echo in it; but it seemed larger for being a single apartment and remote from neighbors.
  • All the attractions of a house were concentrated in one room; it was kitchen, chamber, parlor, and keeping-room; and whatever satisfaction parent or child, master or servant, derive from living in a house, I enjoyed it all.
  • Cato says, the master of a family (patremfamilias) must have in his rustic villa "cellam oleariam, vinariam, dolia multa, uti lubeat caritatem expectare, et rei, et virtuti, et gloriae erit," that is, "an oil and wine cellar, many casks, so that it may be pleasant to expect hard times; it will be for his advantage, and virtue, and glory."
  • I had in my cellar a firkin of potatoes, about two quarts of peas with the weevil in them, and on my shelf a little rice, a jug of molasses, and of rye and Indian meal a peck each.
  • There is as much secrecy about the cooking as if he had a design to poison you.
  • The dinner even is only the parable of a dinner, commonly.
  • As if only the savage dwelt near enough to Nature and Truth to borrow a trope from them.
  • I brought over some whiter and cleaner sand for this purpose from the opposite shore of the pond in a boat, a sort of conveyance which would have tempted me to go much farther if necessary.
  • In lathing I was pleased to be able to send home each nail with a single blow of the hammer, and it was my ambition to transfer the plaster from the board to the wall neatly and rapidly.
  • I remembered the story of a conceited fellow, who, in fine clothes, was wont to lounge about the village once, giving advice to workmen.
  • I was surprised to see how thirsty the bricks were which drank up all the moisture in my plaster before I had smoothed it, and how many pailfuls of water it takes to christen a new hearth.
  • I had the previous winter made a small quantity of lime by burning the shells of the Unio fluviatilis, which our river affords, for the sake of the experiment; so that I knew where my materials came from.
  • I might have got good limestone within a mile or two and burned it myself, if I had cared to do so.
  • There may be thirty or forty of them to a square inch.
  • One day when I came to the same place forty-eight hours afterward, I found that those large bubbles were still perfect, though an inch more of ice had formed, as I could see distinctly by the seam in the edge of a cake.
  • Being curious to know what position my great bubbles occupied with regard to the new ice, I broke out a cake containing a middling sized one, and turned it bottom upward.
  • My employment out of doors now was to collect the dead wood in the forest, bringing it in my hands or on my shoulders, or sometimes trailing a dead pine tree under each arm to my shed.
  • An old forest fence which had seen its best days was a great haul for me.
  • In the course of the summer I had discovered a raft of pitch pine logs with the bark on, pinned together by the Irish when the railroad was built.
  • I amused myself one winter day with sliding this piecemeal across the pond, nearly half a mile, skating behind with one end of a log fifteen feet long on my shoulder, and the other on the ice; or I tied several logs together with a birch withe, and then, with a longer birch or alder which had a hook at the end, dragged them across.
  • Though completely waterlogged and almost as heavy as lead, they not only burned long, but made a very hot fire; nay, I thought that they burned better for the soaking, as if the pitch, being confined by the water, burned longer, as in a lamp.
  • After all our discoveries and inventions no man will go by a pile of wood.
  • Mechanics and tradesmen who come in person to the forest on no other errand, are sure to attend the wood auction, and even pay a high price for the privilege of gleaning after the woodchopper.
  • It is now many years that men have resorted to the forest for fuel and the materials of the arts: the New Englander and the New Hollander, the Parisian and the Celt, the farmer and Robin Hood, Goody Blake and Harry Gill; in most parts of the world the prince and the peasant, the scholar and the savage, equally require still a few sticks from the forest to warm them and cook their food.
  • Every man looks at his wood-pile with a kind of affection.
  • As for the axe, I was advised to get the village blacksmith to "jump" it; but I jumped him, and, putting a hickory helve from the woods into it, made it do.
  • A few pieces of fat pine were a great treasure.
  • A few pieces of fat pine were a great treasure.
  • In previous years I had often gone prospecting over some bare hillside, where a pitch pine wood had formerly stood, and got out the fat pine roots.
  • Stumps thirty or forty years old, at least, will still be sound at the core, though the sapwood has all become vegetable mould, as appears by the scales of the thick bark forming a ring level with the earth four or five inches distant from the heart.
  • Green hickory finely split makes the woodchopper's kindlings, when he has a camp in the woods.
  • I sometimes left a good fire when I went to take a walk in a winter afternoon; and when I returned, three or four hours afterward, it would be still alive and glowing.
  • It was as if I had left a cheerful housekeeper behind.
  • But my house occupied so sunny and sheltered a position, and its roof was so low, that I could afford to let the fire go out in the middle of almost any winter day.
  • It would be easy to cut their threads any time with a little sharper blast from the north.
  • The next winter I used a small cooking-stove for economy, since I did not own the forest; but it did not keep fire so well as the open fireplace.
  • Cooking was then, for the most part, no longer a poetic, but merely a chemic process.
  • The stove not only took up room and scented the house, but it concealed the fire, and I felt as if I had lost a companion.
  • You can always see a face in the fire.
  • But I could no longer sit and look into the fire, and the pertinent words of a poet recurred to me with new force.
  • In some places, within my own remembrance, the pines would scrape both sides of a chaise at once, and women and children who were compelled to go this way to Lincoln alone and on foot did it with fear, and often ran a good part of the distance.
  • Though mainly but a humble route to neighboring villages, or for the woodman's team, it once amused the traveller more than now by its variety, and lingered longer in his memory.
  • Where now firm open fields stretch from the village to the woods, it then ran through a maple swamp on a foundation of logs, the remnants of which, doubtless, still underlie the present dusty highway, from the Stratton, now the Alms-House Farm, to Brister's Hill.
  • East of my bean-field, across the road, lived Cato Ingraham, slave of Duncan Ingraham, Esquire, gentleman, of Concord village, who built his slave a house, and gave him permission to live in Walden Woods;--Cato, not Uticensis, but Concordiensis.
  • There are a few who remember his little patch among the walnuts, which he let grow up till he should be old and need them; but a younger and whiter speculator got them at last.
  • Cato's half-obliterated cellar-hole still remains, though known to few, being concealed from the traveller by a fringe of pines.
  • Here, by the very corner of my field, still nearer to town, Zilpha, a colored woman, had her little house, where she spun linen for the townsfolk, making the Walden Woods ring with her shrill singing, for she had a loud and notable voice.
  • She led a hard life, and somewhat inhumane.
  • Not long since I read his epitaph in the old Lincoln burying-ground, a little on one side, near the unmarked graves of some British grenadiers who fell in the retreat from Concord--where he is styled "Sippio Brister"--Scipio Africanus he had some title to be called--"a man of color," as if he were discolored.
  • Farther down the hill, on the left, on the old road in the woods, are marks of some homestead of the Stratton family; whose orchard once covered all the slope of Brister's Hill, but was long since killed out by pitch pines, excepting a few stumps, whose old roots furnish still the wild stocks of many a thrifty village tree.
  • I had just sunk my head on this when the bells rung fire, and in hot haste the engines rolled that way, led by a straggling troop of men and boys, and I among the foremost, for I had leaped the brook.
  • At first we thought to throw a frog-pond on to it; but concluded to let it burn, it was so far gone and so worthless.
  • It chanced that I walked that way across the fields the following night, about the same hour, and hearing a low moaning at this spot, I drew near in the dark, and discovered the only survivor of the family that I know, the heir of both its virtues and its vices, who alone was interested in this burning, lying on his stomach and looking over the cellar wall at the still smouldering cinders beneath, muttering to himself, as is his wont.
  • He gazed into the cellar from all sides and points of view by turns, always lying down to it, as if there was some treasure, which he remembered, concealed between the stones, where there was absolutely nothing but a heap of bricks and ashes.
  • I felt it, and still remark it almost daily in my walks, for by it hangs the history of a family.
  • One day in midsummer, when I was hoeing, a man who was carrying a load of pottery to market stopped his horse against my field and inquired concerning Wyman the younger.
  • He had long ago bought a potter's wheel of him, and wished to know what had become of him.
  • His trade here was that of a ditcher.
  • He was a man of manners, like one who had seen the world, and was capable of more civil speech than you could well attend to.
  • He wore a greatcoat in midsummer, being affected with the trembling delirium, and his face was the color of carmine.
  • He died in the road at the foot of Brister's Hill shortly after I came to the woods, so that I have not remembered him as a neighbor.
  • His pipe lay broken on the hearth.
  • The skin of a woodchuck was freshly stretched upon the back of the house, a trophy of his last Waterloo; but no warm cap or mittens would he want more.
  • Sometimes the well dent is visible, where once a spring oozed; now dry and tearless grass; or it was covered deep--not to be discovered till some late day--with a flat stone under the sod, when the last of the race departed.
  • What a sorrowful act must that be--the covering up of wells! coincident with the opening of wells of tears.
  • The vivacious lilac still grows, unfolding its sweet-scented flowers each spring.
  • Little did the dusky children think that the puny slip with its two eyes only, which they stuck in the ground in the shadow of the house and daily watered, would root itself so, and outlive them, and house itself in the rear that shaded it, and grown man's garden and orchard, and tell their story faintly to the lone wanderer a half-century after they had grown up and died--blossoming as fair, and smelling as sweet, as in that first spring.
  • They were universally a thirsty race.
  • Might not the basket, stable-broom, mat-making, corn-parching, linen-spinning, and pottery business have thrived here, making the wilderness to blossom like the rose, and a numerous posterity have inherited the land of their fathers?
  • Again, perhaps, Nature will try, with me for a first settler, and my house raised last spring to be the oldest in the hamlet.
  • Deliver me from a city built on the site of a more ancient city, whose materials are ruins, whose gardens cemeteries.
  • One afternoon I amused myself by watching a barred owl (Strix nebulosa) sitting on one of the lower dead limbs of a white pine, close to the trunk, in broad daylight, I standing within a rod of him.
  • I too felt a slumberous influence after watching him half an hour, as he sat thus with his eyes half open, like a cat, winged brother of the cat.
  • For I came to town still, like a friendly Indian, when the contents of the broad open fields were all piled up between the walls of the Walden road, and half an hour sufficed to obliterate the tracks of the last traveller.
  • Sometimes, notwithstanding the snow, when I returned from my walk at evening I crossed the deep tracks of a woodchopper leading from my door, and found his pile of whittlings on the hearth, and my house filled with the odor of his pipe.
  • We talked of rude and simple times, when men sat about large fires in cold, bracing weather, with clear heads; and when other dessert failed, we tried our teeth on many a nut which wise squirrels have long since abandoned, for those which have the thickest shells are commonly empty.
  • His words and attitude always suppose a better state of things than other men are acquainted with, and he will be the last man to be disappointed as the ages revolve.
  • A true friend of man; almost the only friend of human progress.
  • A blue-robed man, whose fittest roof is the overarching sky which reflects his serenity.
  • There we worked, revising mythology, rounding a fable here and there, and building castles in the air for which earth offered no worthy foundation.
  • Great Expecter! to converse with whom was a New England Night's Entertainment.
  • The Vishnu Purana says, "The house-holder is to remain at eventide in his courtyard as long as it takes to milk a cow, or longer if he pleases, to await the arrival of a guest."
  • I often performed this duty of hospitality, waited long enough to milk a whole herd of cows, but did not see the man approaching from the town.
  • One night in the beginning of winter, before the pond froze over, about nine o'clock, I was startled by the loud honking of a goose, and, stepping to the door, heard the sound of their wings like a tempest in the woods as they flew low over my house.
  • They passed over the pond toward Fair Haven, seemingly deterred from settling by my light, their commodore honking all the while with a regular beat.
  • I also heard the whooping of the ice in the pond, my great bed-fellow in that part of Concord, as if it were restless in its bed and would fain turn over, were troubled with flatulency and had dreams; or I was waked by the cracking of the ground by the frost, as if some one had driven a team against my door, and in the morning would find a crack in the earth a quarter of a mile long and a third of an inch wide.
  • Sometimes one came near to my window, attracted by my light, barked a vulpine curse at me, and then retreated.
  • In the twilight and the night the rabbits came regularly and made a hearty meal.
  • A little flock of these titmice came daily to pick a dinner out of my woodpile, or the crumbs at my door, with faint flitting lisping notes, like the tinkling of icicles in the grass, or else with sprightly day day day, or more rarely, in spring-like days, a wiry summery phe-be from the woodside.
  • A little flock of these titmice came daily to pick a dinner out of my woodpile, or the crumbs at my door, with faint flitting lisping notes, like the tinkling of icicles in the grass, or else with sprightly day day day, or more rarely, in spring-like days, a wiry summery phe-be from the woodside.
  • It is frequently covered up by drifts, and, it is said, "sometimes plunges from on wing into the soft snow, where it remains concealed for a day or two."
  • They will come regularly every evening to particular trees, where the cunning sportsman lies in wait for them, and the distant orchards next the woods suffer thus not a little.
  • In dark winter mornings, or in short winter afternoons, I sometimes heard a pack of hounds threading all the woods with hounding cry and yelp, unable to resist the instinct of the chase, and the note of the hunting-horn at intervals, proving that man was in the rear.
  • And perhaps at evening I see the hunters returning with a single brush trailing from their sleigh for a trophy, seeking their inn.
  • They tell me that if the fox would remain in the bosom of the frozen earth he would be safe, or if he would run in a straight line away no foxhound could overtake him; but, having left his pursuers far behind, he stops to rest and listen till they come up, and when he runs he circles round to his old haunts, where the hunters await him.
  • Sometimes, however, he will run upon a wall many rods, and then leap off far to one side, and he appears to know that water will not retain his scent.
  • A hunter told me that he once saw a fox pursued by hounds burst out on to Walden when the ice was covered with shallow puddles, run part way across, and then return to the same shore.
  • A hunter told me that he once saw a fox pursued by hounds burst out on to Walden when the ice was covered with shallow puddles, run part way across, and then return to the same shore.
  • Thus they circle until they fall upon the recent trail of a fox, for a wise hound will forsake everything else for this.
  • He had lost a dog, but found a man.
  • They waited in silence while he skinned the fox, then followed the brush a while, and at length turned off into the woods again.
  • The hunter who told me this could remember one Sam Nutting, who used to hunt bears on Fair Haven Ledges, and exchange their skins for rum in Concord village; who told him, even, that he had seen a moose there.
  • Nutting had a famous foxhound named Burgoyne--he pronounced it Bugine--which my informant used to borrow.
  • The hunters were formerly a numerous and merry crew here.
  • I remember well one gaunt Nimrod who would catch up a leaf by the roadside and play a strain on it wilder and more melodious, if my memory serves me, than any hunting-horn.
  • At midnight, when there was a moon, I sometimes met with hounds in my path prowling about the woods, which would skulk out of my way, as if afraid, and stand silent amid the bushes till I had passed.
  • These trees were alive and apparently flourishing at midsummer, and many of them had grown a foot, though completely girdled; but after another winter such were without exception dead.
  • When I opened my door in the evening, off they would go with a squeak and a bounce.
  • What is a country without rabbits and partridges?
  • It is hardly as if you had seen a wild creature when a rabbit or a partridge bursts away, only a natural one, as much to be expected as rustling leaves.
  • That must be a poor country indeed that does not support a hare.
  • The night veils without doubt a part of this glorious creation; but day comes to reveal to us this great work, which extends from earth even into the plains of the ether.
  • First I take an axe and pail and go in search of water, if that be not a dream.
  • After a cold and snowy night it needed a divining-rod to find it.
  • Such a man has some right to fish, and I love to see nature carried out in him.
  • He would perhaps have placed alder branches over the narrow holes in the ice, which were four or five rods apart and an equal distance from the shore, and having fastened the end of the line to a stick to prevent its being pulled through, have passed the slack line over a twig of the alder, a foot or more above the ice, and tied a dry oak leaf to it, which, being pulled down, would show when he had a bite.
  • It is remarkable how long men will believe in the bottomlessness of a pond without taking the trouble to sound it.
  • But I can assure my readers that Walden has a reasonably tight bottom at a not unreasonable, though at an unusual, depth.
  • I fathomed it easily with a cod-line and a stone weighing about a pound and a half, and could tell accurately when the stone left the bottom, by having to pull so much harder before the water got underneath to help me.
  • This is a remarkable depth for so small an area; yet not an inch of it can be spared by the imagination.
  • I am thankful that this pond was made deep and pure for a symbol.
  • A factory-owner, hearing what depth I had found, thought that it could not be true, for, judging from his acquaintance with dams, sand would not lie at so steep an angle.
  • They are not like cups between the hills; for this one, which is so unusually deep for its area, appears in a vertical section through its centre not deeper than a shallow plate.
  • William Gilpin, who is so admirable in all that relates to landscapes, and usually so correct, standing at the head of Loch Fyne, in Scotland, which he describes as "a bay of salt water, sixty or seventy fathoms deep, four miles in breadth," and about fifty miles long, surrounded by mountains, observes, "If we could have seen it immediately after the diluvian crash, or whatever convulsion of nature occasioned it, before the waters gushed in, what a horrid chasm must it have appeared!
  • So high as heaved the tumid hills, so low Down sunk a hollow bottom broad and deep, Capacious bed of waters.
  • But if, using the shortest diameter of Loch Fyne, we apply these proportions to Walden, which, as we have seen, appears already in a vertical section only like a shallow plate, it will appear four times as shallow.
  • No doubt many a smiling valley with its stretching cornfields occupies exactly such a "horrid chasm," from which the waters have receded, though it requires the insight and the far sight of the geologist to convince the unsuspecting inhabitants of this fact.
  • But it is easiest, as they who work on the highways know, to find the hollows by the puddles after a shower.
  • We know that a hill is not highest at its narrowest part.
  • In order to see how nearly I could guess, with this experience, at the deepest point in a pond, by observing the outlines of a surface and the character of its shores alone, I made a plan of White Pond, which contains about forty-one acres, and, like this, has no island in it, nor any visible inlet or outlet; and as the line of greatest breadth fell very near the line of least breadth, where two opposite capes approached each other and two opposite bays receded, I ventured to mark a point a short distance from the latter line, but still on the line of greatest length, as the deepest.
  • Of course, a stream running through, or an island in the pond, would make the problem much more complicated.
  • Our notions of law and harmony are commonly confined to those instances which we detect; but the harmony which results from a far greater number of seemingly conflicting, but really concurring, laws, which we have not detected, is still more wonderful.
  • The particular laws are as our points of view, as, to the traveller, a mountain outline varies with every step, and it has an infinite number of profiles, though absolutely but one form.
  • Such a rule of the two diameters not only guides us toward the sun in the system and the heart in man, but draws lines through the length and breadth of the aggregate of a man's particular daily behaviors and waves of life into his coves and inlets, and where they intersect will be the height or depth of his character.
  • But a low and smooth shore proves him shallow on that side.
  • In our bodies, a bold projecting brow falls off to and indicates a corresponding depth of thought.
  • Also there is a bar across the entrance of our every cove, or particular inclination; each is our harbor for a season, in which we are detained and partially land-locked.
  • At the advent of each individual into this life, may we not suppose that such a bar has risen to the surface somewhere?
  • It is true, we are such poor navigators that our thoughts, for the most part, stand off and on upon a harborless coast, are conversant only with the bights of the bays of poesy, or steer for the public ports of entry, and go into the dry docks of science, where they merely refit for this world, and no natural currents concur to individualize them.
  • They also showed me in another place what they thought was a "leach-hole," through which the pond leaked out under a hill into a neighboring meadow, pushing me out on a cake of ice to see it.
  • It was a small cavity under ten feet of water; but I think that I can warrant the pond not to need soldering till they find a worse leak than that.
  • One has suggested, that if such a "leach-hole" should be found, its connection with the meadow, if any existed, might be proved by conveying some colored powder or sawdust to the mouth of the hole, and then putting a strainer over the spring in the meadow, which would catch some of the particles carried through by the current.
  • While I was surveying, the ice, which was sixteen inches thick, undulated under a slight wind like water.
  • It is well known that a level cannot be used on ice.
  • At one rod from the shore its greatest fluctuation, when observed by means of a level on land directed toward a graduated staff on the ice, was three quarters of an inch, though the ice appeared firmly attached to the shore.
  • When two legs of my level were on the shore and the third on the ice, and the sights were directed over the latter, a rise or fall of the ice of an almost infinitesimal amount made a difference of several feet on a tree across the pond.
  • This was somewhat like cutting a hole in the bottom of a ship to let the water out.
  • When such holes freeze, and a rain succeeds, and finally a new freezing forms a fresh smooth ice over all, it is beautifully mottled internally by dark figures, shaped somewhat like a spider's web, what you may call ice rosettes, produced by the channels worn by the water flowing from all sides to a centre.
  • Sometimes, also, when the ice was covered with shallow puddles, I saw a double shadow of myself, one standing on the head of the other, one on the ice, the other on the trees or hillside.
  • These ice-cutters are a merry race, full of jest and sport, and when I went among them they were wont to invite me to saw pit-fashion with them, I standing underneath.
  • I did not know whether they had come to sow a crop of winter rye, or some other kind of grain recently introduced from Iceland.
  • They said that a gentleman farmer, who was behind the scenes, wanted to double his money, which, as I understood, amounted to half a million already; but in order to cover each one of his dollars with another, he took off the only coat, ay, the skin itself, of Walden Pond in the midst of a hard winter.
  • To speak literally, a hundred Irishmen, with Yankee overseers, came from Cambridge every day to get out the ice.
  • They told me that in a good day they could get out a thousand tons, which was the yield of about one acre.
  • This heap, made in the winter of '46-7 and estimated to contain ten thousand tons, was finally covered with hay and boards; and though it was unroofed the following July, and a part of it carried off, the rest remaining exposed to the sun, it stood over that summer and the next winter, and was not quite melted till September, 1848.
  • Like the water, the Walden ice, seen near at hand, has a green tint, but at a distance is beautifully blue, and you can easily tell it from the white ice of the river, or the merely greenish ice of some ponds, a quarter of a mile off.
  • Sometimes one of those great cakes slips from the ice-man's sled into the village street, and lies there for a week like a great emerald, an object of interest to all passers.
  • I have noticed that a portion of Walden which in the state of water was green will often, when frozen, appear from the same point of view blue.
  • So the hollows about this pond will, sometimes, in the winter, be filled with a greenish water somewhat like its own, but the next day will have frozen blue.
  • Why is it that a bucket of water soon becomes putrid, but frozen remains sweet forever?
  • Perhaps I shall hear a solitary loon laugh as he dives and plumes himself, or shall see a lonely fisher in his boat, like a floating leaf, beholding his form reflected in the waves, where lately a hundred men securely labored.
  • In the morning I bathe my intellect in the stupendous and cosmogonal philosophy of the Bhagvat-Geeta, since whose composition years of the gods have elapsed, and in comparison with which our modern world and its literature seem puny and trivial; and I doubt if that philosophy is not to be referred to a previous state of existence, so remote is its sublimity from our conceptions.
  • The opening of large tracts by the ice-cutters commonly causes a pond to break up earlier; for the water, agitated by the wind, even in cold weather, wears away the surrounding ice.
  • But such was not the effect on Walden that year, for she had soon got a thick new garment to take the place of the old.
  • I never knew it to open in the course of a winter, not excepting that of '52-3, which gave the ponds so severe a trial.
  • It commonly opens about the first of April, a week or ten days later than Flint's Pond and Fair Haven, beginning to melt on the north side and in the shallower parts where it began to freeze.
  • A severe cold of a few days' duration in March may very much retard the opening of the former ponds, while the temperature of Walden increases almost uninterruptedly.
  • A severe cold of a few days' duration in March may very much retard the opening of the former ponds, while the temperature of Walden increases almost uninterruptedly.
  • A thermometer thrust into the middle of Walden on the 6th of March, 1847, stood at 32º, or freezing point; near the shore at 33º; in the middle of Flint's Pond, the same day, at 32º; at a dozen rods from the shore, in shallow water, under ice a foot thick, at 36º.
  • A thermometer thrust into the middle of Walden on the 6th of March, 1847, stood at 32º, or freezing point; near the shore at 33º; in the middle of Flint's Pond, the same day, at 32º; at a dozen rods from the shore, in shallow water, under ice a foot thick, at 36º.
  • This difference of three and a half degrees between the temperature of the deep water and the shallow in the latter pond, and the fact that a great proportion of it is comparatively shallow, show why it should break up so much sooner than Walden.
  • So, also, every one who has waded about the shores of the pond in summer must have perceived how much warmer the water is close to the shore, where only three or four inches deep, than a little distance out, and on the surface where it is deep, than near the bottom.
  • Ice has its grain as well as wood, and when a cake begins to rot or "comb," that is, assume the appearance of honeycomb, whatever may be its position, the air cells are at right angles with what was the water surface.
  • The phenomena of the year take place every day in a pond on a small scale.
  • The cracking and booming of the ice indicate a change of temperature.
  • One pleasant morning after a cold night, February 24th, 1850, having gone to Flint's Pond to spend the day, I noticed with surprise, that when I struck the ice with the head of my axe, it resounded like a gong for many rods around, or as if I had struck on a tight drum-head.
  • It took a short siesta at noon, and boomed once more toward night, as the sun was withdrawing his influence.
  • In the right stage of the weather a pond fires its evening gun with great regularity.
  • Who would have suspected so large and cold and thick-skinned a thing to be so sensitive?
  • On the 13th of March, after I had heard the bluebird, song sparrow, and red-wing, the ice was still nearly a foot thick.
  • When the warmer days come, they who dwell near the river hear the ice crack at night with a startling whoop as loud as artillery, as if its icy fetters were rent from end to end, and within a few days see it rapidly going out.
  • It was a warm day, and he was surprised to see so great a body of ice remaining.
  • At length the sun's rays have attained the right angle, and warm winds blow up mist and rain and melt the snowbanks, and the sun, dispersing the mist, smiles on a checkered landscape of russet and white smoking with incense, through which the traveller picks his way from islet to islet, cheered by the music of a thousand tinkling rills and rivulets whose veins are filled with the blood of winter which they are bearing off.
  • The material was sand of every degree of fineness and of various rich colors, commonly mixed with a little clay.
  • When the frost comes out in the spring, and even in a thawing day in the winter, the sand begins to flow down the slopes like lava, sometimes bursting out through the snow and overflowing it where no sand was to be seen before.
  • Innumerable little streams overlap and interlace one with another, exhibiting a sort of hybrid product, which obeys half way the law of currents, and half way that of vegetation.
  • As it flows it takes the forms of sappy leaves or vines, making heaps of pulpy sprays a foot or more in depth, and resembling, as you look down on them, the laciniated, lobed, and imbricated thalluses of some lichens; or you are reminded of coral, of leopard's paws or birds' feet, of brains or lungs or bowels, and excrements of all kinds.
  • The whole cut impressed me as if it were a cave with its stalactites laid open to the light.
  • The whole bank, which is from twenty to forty feet high, is sometimes overlaid with a mass of this kind of foliage, or sandy rupture, for a quarter of a mile on one or both sides, the produce of one spring day.
  • I feel as if I were nearer to the vitals of the globe, for this sandy overflow is something such a foliaceous mass as the vitals of the animal body.
  • What is man but a mass of thawing clay?
  • The ball of the human finger is but a drop congealed.
  • Who knows what the human body would expand and flow out to under a more genial heaven?
  • Is not the hand a spreading palm leaf with its lobes and veins?
  • The ear may be regarded, fancifully, as a lichen, Umbilicaria, on the side of the head, with its lobe or drop.
  • The chin is a still larger drop, the confluent dripping of the face.
  • The cheeks are a slide from the brows into the valley of the face, opposed and diffused by the cheek bones.
  • The Maker of this earth but patented a leaf.
  • What Champollion will decipher this hieroglyphic for us, that we may turn over a new leaf at last?
  • These foliaceous heaps lie along the bank like the slag of a furnace, showing that Nature is "in full blast" within.
  • They were wholly deaf to my arguments, or failed to perceive their force, and fell into a strain of invective that was irresistible.
  • What at such a time are histories, chronologies, traditions, and all written revelations?
  • There is a canal two rods wide along the northerly and westerly sides, and wider still at the east end.
  • A great field of ice has cracked off from the main body.
  • I hear a song sparrow singing from the bushes on the shore,--olit, olit, olit,--chip, chip, chip, che char,--che wiss, wiss, wiss.
  • It is unusually hard, owing to the recent severe but transient cold, and all watered or waved like a palace floor.
  • It is glorious to behold this ribbon of water sparkling in the sun, the bare face of the pond full of glee and youth, as if it spoke the joy of the fishes within it, and of the sands on its shore.
  • The change from storm and winter to serene and mild weather, from dark and sluggish hours to bright and elastic ones, is a memorable crisis which all things proclaim.
  • I heard a robin in the distance, the first I had heard for many a thousand years, methought, whose note I shall not forget for many a thousand more--the same sweet and powerful song as of yore.
  • But when I stood on the shore they at once rose up with a great flapping of wings at the signal of their commander, and when they had got into rank circled about over my head, twenty-nine of them, and then steered straight to Canada, with a regular honk from the leader at intervals, trusting to break their fast in muddier pools.
  • A "plump" of ducks rose at the same time and took the route to the north in the wake of their noisier cousins.
  • For a week I heard the circling, groping clangor of some solitary goose in the foggy mornings, seeking its companion, and still peopling the woods with the sound of a larger life than they could sustain.
  • A single gentle rain makes the grass many shades greener.
  • In a pleasant spring morning all men's sins are forgiven.
  • Such a day is a truce to vice.
  • While such a sun holds out to burn, the vilest sinner may return.
  • In like manner the evil which one does in the interval of a day prevents the germs of virtues which began to spring up again from developing themselves and destroys them.
  • The tenant of the air, it seemed related to the earth but by an egg hatched some time in the crevice of a crag;--or was its native nest made in the angle of a cloud, woven of the rainbow's trimmings and the sunset sky, and lined with some soft midsummer haze caught up from earth?
  • Beside this I got a rare mess of golden and silver and bright cupreous fishes, which looked like a string of jewels.
  • All things must live in such a light.
  • Early in May, the oaks, hickories, maples, and other trees, just putting out amidst the pine woods around the pond, imparted a brightness like sunshine to the landscape, especially in cloudy days, as if the sun were breaking through mists and shining faintly on the hillsides here and there.
  • On the third or fourth of May I saw a loon in the pond, and during the first week of the month I heard the whip-poor-will, the brown thrasher, the veery, the wood pewee, the chewink, and other birds.
  • The sulphur-like pollen of the pitch pine soon covered the pond and the stones and rotten wood along the shore, so that you could have collected a barrelful.
  • To the sick the doctors wisely recommend a change of air and scenery.
  • The wild goose is more of a cosmopolite than we; he breaks his fast in Canada, takes a luncheon in the Ohio, and plumes himself for the night in a southern bayou.
  • Even the bison, to some extent, keeps pace with the seasons cropping the pastures of the Colorado only till a greener and sweeter grass awaits him by the Yellowstone.
  • How long, pray, would a man hunt giraffes if he could?
  • Is it the source of the Nile, or the Niger, or the Mississippi, or a Northwest Passage around this continent, that we would find?
  • Nay, be a Columbus to whole new continents and worlds within you, opening new channels, not of trade, but of thought.
  • Patriotism is a maggot in their heads.
  • He declared that "a soldier who fights in the ranks does not require half so much courage as a footpad"--"that honor and religion have never stood in the way of a well-considered and a firm resolve."
  • I left the woods for as good a reason as I went there.
  • It is remarkable how easily and insensibly we fall into a particular route, and make a beaten track for ourselves.
  • I had not lived there a week before my feet wore a path from my door to the pond-side; and though it is five or six years since I trod it, it is still quite distinct.
  • I learned this, at least, by my experiment: that if one advances confidently in the direction of his dreams, and endeavors to live the life which he has imagined, he will meet with a success unexpected in common hours.
  • It is a ridiculous demand which England and America make, that you shall speak so that they can understand you.
  • Who that has heard a strain of music feared then lest he should speak extravagantly any more forever?
  • Sometimes we are inclined to class those who are once-and-a-half-witted with the half-witted, because we appreciate only a third part of their wit.
  • "They pretend," as I hear, "that the verses of Kabir have four different senses; illusion, spirit, intellect, and the exoteric doctrine of the Vedas"; but in this part of the world it is considered a ground for complaint if a man's writings admit of more than one interpretation.
  • A living dog is better than a dead lion.
  • A living dog is better than a dead lion.
  • Shall a man go and hang himself because he belongs to the race of pygmies, and not be the biggest pygmy that he can?
  • If a man does not keep pace with his companions, perhaps it is because he hears a different drummer.
  • We will not be shipwrecked on a vain reality.
  • Shall we with pains erect a heaven of blue glass over ourselves, though when it is done we shall be sure to gaze still at the true ethereal heaven far above, as if the former were not?
  • One day it came into his mind to make a staff.
  • He proceeded instantly to the forest for wood, being resolved that it should not be made of unsuitable material; and as he searched for and rejected stick after stick, his friends gradually deserted him, for they grew old in their works and died, but he grew not older by a moment.
  • Before he had found a stock in all respects suitable the city of Kouroo was a hoary ruin, and he sat on one of its mounds to peel the stick.
  • He had made a new system in making a staff, a world with full and fair proportions; in which, though the old cities and dynasties had passed away, fairer and more glorious ones had taken their places.
  • No face which we can give to a matter will stead us so well at last as the truth.
  • For the most part, we are not where we are, but in a false position.
  • "Tell the tailors," said he, "to remember to make a knot in their thread before they take the first stitch."
  • You may perhaps have some pleasant, thrilling, glorious hours, even in a poorhouse.
  • I do not see but a quiet mind may live as contentedly there, and have as cheering thoughts, as in a palace.
  • Cultivate poverty like a garden herb, like sage.
  • If I were confined to a corner of a garret all my days, like a spider, the world would be just as large to me while I had my thoughts about me.
  • You are defended from being a trifler.
  • No man loses ever on a lower level by magnanimity on a higher.
  • I live in the angle of a leaden wall, into whose composition was poured a little alloy of bell-metal.
  • Often, in the repose of my mid-day, there reaches my ears a confused tintinnabulum from without.
  • The interest and the conversation are about costume and manners chiefly; but a goose is a goose still, dress it as you will.
  • There is a solid bottom everywhere.
  • We read that the traveller asked the boy if the swamp before him had a hard bottom.
  • But presently the traveller's horse sank in up to the girths, and he observed to the boy, "I thought you said that this bog had a hard bottom."
  • I would not be one of those who will foolishly drive a nail into mere lath and plastering; such a deed would keep me awake nights.
  • Give me a hammer, and let me feel for the furring.
  • Drive a nail home and clinch it so faithfully that you can wake up in the night and think of your work with satisfaction--a work at which you would not be ashamed to invoke the Muse.
  • I sat at a table where were rich food and wine in abundance, and obsequious attendance, but sincerity and truth were not; and I went away hungry from the inhospitable board.
  • They talked to me of the age of the wine and the fame of the vintage; but I thought of an older, a newer, and purer wine, of a more glorious vintage, which they had not got, and could not buy.
  • I called on the king, but he made me wait in his hall, and conducted like a man incapacitated for hospitality.
  • There was a man in my neighborhood who lived in a hollow tree.
  • This generation inclines a little to congratulate itself on being the last of an illustrious line; and in Boston and London and Paris and Rome, thinking of its long descent, it speaks of its progress in art and science and literature with satisfaction.
  • There is not one of my readers who has yet lived a whole human life.
  • We are acquainted with a mere pellicle of the globe on which we live.
  • There are such words as joy and sorrow, but they are only the burden of a psalm, sung with a nasal twang, while we believe in the ordinary and mean.
  • Who does not feel his faith in a resurrection and immortality strengthened by hearing of this?
  • The sun is but a morning star.
  • Witness the present Mexican war, the work of comparatively a few individuals using the standing government as their tool; for, in the outset, the people would not have consented to this measure.
  • It has not the vitality and force of a single living man; for a single man can bend it to his will.
  • It is a sort of wooden gun to the people themselves.
  • After all, the practical reason why, when the power is once in the hands of the people, a majority are permitted, and for a long period continue, to rule, is not because they are most likely to be in the right, nor because this seems fairest to the minority, but because they are physically the strongest.
  • But a government in which the majority rule in all cases cannot be based on justice, even as far as men understand it.
  • Why has every man a conscience, then?
  • It is not desirable to cultivate a respect for the law, so much as for the right.
  • The only obligation which I have a right to assume is to do at any time what I think right.
  • It is truly enough said that a corporation has no conscience; but a corporation of conscientious men is a corporation with a conscience.
  • Law never made men a whit more just; and, by means of their respect for it, even the well-disposed are daily made the agents of injustice.
  • They have no doubt that it is a damnable business in which they are concerned; they are all peaceably inclined.
  • Such command no more respect than men of straw or a lump of dirt.
  • A very few, as heroes, patriots, martyrs, reformers in the great sense, and men, serve the state with their consciences also, and so necessarily resist it for the most part; and they are commonly treated as enemies by it.
  • How does it become a man to behave toward this American government to-day?
  • At any rate, it is a great evil to make a stir about it.
  • If I have unjustly wrested a plank from a drowning man, I must restore it to him though I drown myself.
  • But he that would save his life, in such a case, shall lose it.
  • At most, they give only a cheap vote, and a feeble countenance and Godspeed, to the right, as it goes by them.
  • All voting is a sort of gaming, like checkers or backgammon, with a slight moral tinge to it, a playing with right and wrong, with moral questions; and betting naturally accompanies it.
  • A wise man will not leave the right to the mercy of chance, nor wish it to prevail through the power of the majority.
  • Oh for a man who is a man, and, as my neighbor says, has a bone in his back which you cannot pass your hand through!
  • How many men are there to a square thousand miles in this country?
  • It is not a man's duty, as a matter of course, to devote himself to the eradication of any, even the most enormous wrong; he may still properly have other concerns to engage him; but it is his duty, at least, to wash his hands of it, and, if he gives it no thought longer, not to give it practically his support.
  • How can a man be satisfied to entertain an opinion merely, and enjoy it?
  • Men generally, under such a government as this, think that they ought to wait until they have persuaded the majority to alter them.
  • They take too much time, and a man's life will be gone.
  • I came into this world, not chiefly to make this a good place to live in, but to live in it, be it good or bad.
  • A man has not everything to do, but something; and because he cannot do everything, it is not necessary that he should do something wrong.
  • I do not hesitate to say, that those who call themselves Abolitionists should at once effectually withdraw their support, both in person and property, from the government of Massachusetts, and not wait till they constitute a majority of one, before they suffer the right to prevail through them.
  • Under a government which imprisons any unjustly, the true place for a just man is also a prison.
  • Cast your whole vote, not a strip of paper merely, but your whole influence.
  • A minority is powerless while it conforms to the majority; it is not even a minority then; but it is irresistible when it clogs by its whole weight.
  • A minority is powerless while it conforms to the majority; it is not even a minority then; but it is irresistible when it clogs by its whole weight.
  • If a thousand men were not to pay their tax-bills this year, that would not be a violent and bloody measure, as it would be to pay them, and enable the State to commit violence and shed innocent blood.
  • Is there not a sort of blood shed when the conscience is wounded?
  • Through this wound a man's real manhood and immortality flow out, and he bleeds to an everlasting death.
  • To such the State renders comparatively small service, and a slight tax is wont to appear exorbitant, particularly if they are obliged to earn it by special labor with their hands.
  • Absolutely speaking, the more money, the less virtue; for money comes between a man and his objects, and obtains them for him; and it was certainly no great virtue to obtain it.
  • The best thing a man can do for his culture when he is rich is to endeavor to carry out those schemes which he entertained when he was poor.
  • This makes it impossible for a man to live honestly, and at the same time comfortably in outward respects.
  • You must hire or squat somewhere, and raise but a small crop, and eat that soon.
  • You must live within yourself, and depend upon yourself always tucked up and ready for a start, and not have many affairs.
  • A man may grow rich in Turkey even, if he will be in all respects a good subject of the Turkish government.
  • A man may grow rich in Turkey even, if he will be in all respects a good subject of the Turkish government.
  • Confucius said, "If a state is governed by the principles of reason, poverty and misery are subjects of shame; if a state is not governed by the principles of reason, riches and honors are the subjects of shame."
  • Some years ago, the State met me in behalf of the Church, and commanded me to pay a certain sum toward the support of a clergyman whose preaching my father attended, but never I myself.
  • If I had known how to name them, I should then have signed off in detail from all the societies which I never signed on to; but I did not know where to find a complete list.
  • I did not for a moment feel confined, and the walls seemed a great waste of stone and mortar.
  • I saw that the State was half-witted, that it was timid as a lone woman with her silver spoons, and that it did not know its friends from its foes, and I lost all my remaining respect for it, and pitied it.
  • What force has a multitude?
  • They only can force me who obey a higher law than I. They force me to become like themselves.
  • When I meet a government which says to me, "Your money or your life," why should I be in haste to give it my money?
  • It may be in a great strait, and not know what to do: I cannot help that.
  • If a plant cannot live according to its nature, it dies; and so a man.
  • The prisoners in their shirt-sleeves were enjoying a chat and the evening air in the doorway, when I entered.
  • The rooms were whitewashed once a month; and this one, at least, was the whitest, most simply furnished, and probably the neatest apartment in the town.
  • As near as I could discover, he had probably gone to bed in a barn when drunk, and smoked his pipe there; and so a barn was burnt.
  • Probably this is the only house in the town where verses are composed, which are afterward printed in a circular form, but not published.
  • It was like travelling into a far country, such as I had never expected to behold, to lie there for one night.
  • It was to see my native village in the light of the Middle Ages, and our Concord was turned into a Rhine stream, and visions of knights and castles passed before me.
  • I was an involuntary spectator and auditor of whatever was done and said in the kitchen of the adjacent village-inn--a wholly new and rare experience to me.
  • It was a closer view of my native town.
  • Soon after he was let out to work at haying in a neighboring field, whither he went every day, and would not be back till noon; so he bade me good-day, saying that he doubted if he should see me again.
  • It was formerly the custom in our village, when a poor debtor came out of jail, for his acquaintances to salute him, looking through their fingers, which were crossed to represent the grating of a jail window, "How do ye do?"
  • My neighbors did not thus salute me, but first looked at me, and then at one another, as if I had returned from a long journey.
  • If they pay the tax from a mistaken interest in the individual taxed, to save his property, or prevent his going to jail, it is because they have not considered wisely how far they let their private feelings interfere with the public good.
  • But I think, again, This is no reason why I should do as they do, or permit others to suffer much greater pain of a different kind.
  • You do not resist cold and hunger, the winds and the waves, thus obstinately; you quietly submit to a thousand similar necessities.
  • It is not many moments that I live under a government, even in this world.
  • If a man is thought-free, fancy-free, imagination-free, that which is not never for a long time appearing to be to him, unwise rulers or reformers cannot fatally interrupt him.
  • He is not a leader, but a follower.
  • Associations formed elsewhere, springing from a feeling of humanity, or any other cause, have nothing whatever to do with it.
  • Is a democracy, such as we know it, the last improvement possible in government?
  • Is it not possible to take a step further towards recognizing and organizing the rights of man?
  • Anna Pavlovna had had a cough for some days.
  • In the midst of a conversation on political matters Anna Pavlovna burst out:
  • And I don't believe a word that Hardenburg says, or Haugwitz either.
  • This famous Prussian neutrality is just a trap.
  • The baron by all accounts is a poor creature.
  • Don't joke; I mean to have a serious talk with you.
  • The prince answered nothing, but she looked at him significantly, awaiting a reply.
  • You know I did all a father could for their education, and they have both turned out fools.
  • Hippolyte is at least a quiet fool, but Anatole is an active one.
  • If you were not a father there would be nothing I could reproach you with, said Anna Pavlovna, looking up pensively.
  • He said no more, but expressed his resignation to cruel fate by a gesture.
  • She is a relation of yours, Princess Mary Bolkonskaya.
  • She has a brother; I think you know him, he married Lise Meinen lately.
  • Prince Vasili's daughter, the beautiful Helene, came to take her father to the ambassador's entertainment; she wore a ball dress and her badge as maid of honor.
  • And each visitor, though politeness prevented his showing impatience, left the old woman with a sense of relief at having performed a vexatious duty and did not return to her the whole evening.
  • The young Princess Bolkonskaya had brought some work in a gold- embroidered velvet bag.
  • As is always the case with a thoroughly attractive woman, her defect--the shortness of her upper lip and her half-open mouth--seemed to be her own special and peculiar form of beauty.
  • Everyone brightened at the sight of this pretty young woman, so soon to become a mother, so full of life and health, and carrying her burden so lightly.
  • The little princess went round the table with quick, short, swaying steps, her workbag on her arm, and gaily spreading out her dress sat down on a sofa near the silver samovar, as if all she was doing was a pleasure to herself and to all around her.
  • "Mind, Annette, I hope you have not played a wicked trick on me," she added, turning to her hostess.
  • And she spread out her arms to show her short-waisted, lace-trimmed, dainty gray dress, girdled with a broad ribbon just below the breast.
  • "You know," said the princess in the same tone of voice and still in French, turning to a general, "my husband is deserting me?
  • "What a delightful woman this little princess is!" said Prince Vasili to Anna Pavlovna.
  • One of the next arrivals was a stout, heavily built young man with close-cropped hair, spectacles, the light-colored breeches fashionable at that time, a very high ruffle, and a brown dress coat.
  • This stout young man was an illegitimate son of Count Bezukhov, a well-known grandee of Catherine's time who now lay dying in Moscow.
  • On his way to the aunt he bowed to the little princess with a pleased smile, as to an intimate acquaintance.
  • He is a most interesting man.
  • First he had left a lady before she had finished speaking to him, and now he continued to speak to another who wished to get away.
  • "We will talk of it later," said Anna Pavlovna with a smile.
  • He knew that all the intellectual lights of Petersburg were gathered there and, like a child in a toyshop, did not know which way to look, afraid of missing any clever conversation that was to be heard.
  • The vicomte was a nice-looking young man with soft features and polished manners, who evidently considered himself a celebrity but out of politeness modestly placed himself at the disposal of the circle in which he found himself.
  • Anna Pavlovna was obviously serving him up as a treat to her guests.
  • Anna Pavlovna arranged a group round him, inviting everyone to listen to his tale.
  • "The vicomte is a wonderful raconteur," said she to another.
  • "How evidently he belongs to the best society," said she to a third; and the vicomte was served up to the company in the choicest and most advantageous style, like a well-garnished joint of roast beef on a hot dish.
  • The vicomte wished to begin his story and gave a subtle smile.
  • She rose with the same unchanging smile with which she had first entered the room--the smile of a perfectly beautiful woman.
  • The princess rested her bare round arm on a little table and considered a reply unnecessary.
  • Wait a moment, I'll get my work....
  • His eyes, nose, and mouth all seemed puckered into a vacant, wearied grimace, and his arms and legs always fell into unnatural positions.
  • He was dressed in a dark-green dress coat, knee breeches of the color of cuisse de nymphe effrayee, as he called it, shoes, and silk stockings.
  • Pierre had managed to start a conversation with the abbe about the balance of power, and the latter, evidently interested by the young man's simple-minded eagerness, was explaining his pet theory.
  • He was a very handsome young man, of medium height, with firm, clearcut features.
  • Everything about him, from his weary, bored expression to his quiet, measured step, offered a most striking contrast to his quiet, little wife.
  • He turned away from her with a grimace that distorted his handsome face, kissed Anna Pavlovna's hand, and screwing up his eyes scanned the whole company.
  • May I? he added in a low voice so as not to disturb the vicomte who was continuing his story.
  • This unfortunate fete at the ambassador's deprives me of a pleasure, and obliges me to interrupt you.
  • Nothing is so necessary for a young man as the society of clever women.
  • She knew his father to be a connection of Prince Vasili's.
  • Influence in society, however, is a capital which has to be economized if it is to last.
  • Wait--just a word!
  • "And what do you think of this latest comedy, the coronation at Milan?" asked Anna Pavlovna, "and of the comedy of the people of Genoa and Lucca laying their petitions before Monsieur Buonaparte, and Monsieur Buonaparte sitting on a throne and granting the petitions of the nations?
  • Prince Andrew looked Anna Pavlovna straight in the face with a sarcastic smile.
  • Guai a chi la tocchi!'
  • Pierre wished to make a remark, for the conversation interested him, but Anna Pavlovna, who had him under observation, interrupted:
  • "Bonaparte has said so," remarked Prince Andrew with a sarcastic smile.
  • "'I showed them the path to glory, but they did not follow it,'" Prince Andrew continued after a short silence, again quoting Napoleon's words.
  • "The execution of the Duc d'Enghien," declared Monsieur Pierre, "was a political necessity, and it seems to me that Napoleon showed greatness of soul by not fearing to take on himself the whole responsibility of that deed."
  • Mon Dieu! muttered Anna Pavlovna in a terrified whisper.
  • "Yes, if having obtained power, without availing himself of it to commit murder he had restored it to the rightful king, I should have called him a great man," remarked the vicomte.
  • The people only gave him power that he might rid them of the Bourbons and because they saw that he was a great man.
  • "Rousseau's Contrat Social," said the vicomte with a tolerant smile.
  • But when she saw that Pierre's sacrilegious words had not exasperated the vicomte, and had convinced herself that it was impossible to stop him, she rallied her forces and joined the vicomte in a vigorous attack on the orator.
  • "But, my dear Monsieur Pierre," said she, "how do you explain the fact of a great man executing a duc--or even an ordinary man who--is innocent and untried?"
  • It was a swindle, and not at all like the conduct of a great man!
  • "He's a low fellow, say what you will," remarked Prince Hippolyte.
  • Besides, in the actions of a statesman one has to distinguish between his acts as a private person, as a general, and as an emperor.
  • Prince Andrew, who had evidently wished to tone down the awkwardness of Pierre's remarks, rose and made a sign to his wife that it was time to go.
  • I was told a charming Moscow story today and must treat you to it.
  • And Prince Hippolyte began to tell his story in such Russian as a Frenchman would speak after spending about a year in Russia.
  • There is in Moscow a lady, une dame, and she is very stingy.
  • And she had a lady's maid, also big.
  • She said, 'Girl,' to the maid, 'put on a livery, get up behind the carriage, and come with me while I make some calls.'
  • Suddenly there was a great wind.
  • Stout, about the average height, broad, with huge red hands; he did not know, as the saying is, how to enter a drawing room and still less how to leave one; that is, how to say something particularly agreeable before going away.
  • All his absent-mindedness and inability to enter a room and converse in it was, however, redeemed by his kindly, simple, and modest expression.
  • "It is settled," she added in a low voice.
  • "I rely on you, my dear," said Anna Pavlovna, also in a low tone.
  • The princess as usual spoke smilingly and listened with a laugh.
  • It has been a delightful evening, has it not?
  • "Do you know, you are a terrible chap for all your innocent airs," continued the vicomte.
  • I pity the poor husband, that little officer who gives himself the airs of a monarch.
  • In my opinion perpetual peace is possible but--I do not know how to express it... not by a balance of political power....
  • Are you going to be a guardsman or a diplomatist? asked Prince Andrew after a momentary silence.
  • Here is a letter to Prince Vasili, and here is money.
  • There is a war now against Napoleon.
  • If it were a war for freedom I could understand it and should be the first to enter the army; but to help England and Austria against the greatest man in the world is not right.
  • The rustle of a woman's dress was heard in the next room.
  • She had changed her gown for a house dress as fresh and elegant as the other.
  • Prince Andrew rose and politely placed a chair for her.
  • The other day at the Apraksins' I heard a lady asking, 'Is that the famous Prince Andrew?'
  • (she looked significantly at her husband) "I'm afraid, I'm afraid!" she whispered, and a shudder ran down her back.
  • Just for a whim of his own, goodness only knows why, he leaves me and locks me up alone in the country.
  • Her tone was now querulous and her lip drawn up, giving her not a joyful, but an animal, squirrel-like expression.
  • But that one word expressed an entreaty, a threat, and above all conviction that she would herself regret her words.
  • You treat me like an invalid or a child.
  • Suddenly the angry, squirrel-like expression of the princess' pretty face changed into a winning and piteous look of fear.
  • Her beautiful eyes glanced askance at her husband's face, and her own assumed the timid, deprecating expression of a dog when it rapidly but feebly wags its drooping tail.
  • "Good night, Lise," said he, rising and courteously kissing her hand as he would have done to a stranger.
  • "Let us go and have supper," he said with a sigh, going to the door.
  • But tie yourself up with a woman and, like a chained convict, you lose all freedom!
  • "It seems funny to me," said Pierre, "that you, you should consider yourself incapable and your life a spoiled life.
  • And if Pierre was often struck by Andrew's lack of capacity for philosophical meditation (to which he himself was particularly addicted), he regarded even this not as a defect but as a sign of strength.
  • Let us talk about you, he added after a silence, smiling at his reassuring thoughts.
  • "But what is there to say about me?" said Pierre, his face relaxing into a careless, merry smile.
  • He suddenly blushed crimson, and it was plain that he had made a great effort to say this.
  • Without a name and without means...
  • Women who are comme il faut, that's a different matter; but the Kuragins' set of women, 'women and wine' I don't understand!
  • Leading such a life I can't decide or think properly about anything.
  • It was a cloudless, northern, summer night.
  • But the nearer he drew to the house the more he felt the impossibility of going to sleep on such a night.
  • It was light enough to see a long way in the deserted street and it seemed more like morning or evening than night.
  • A footman, thinking no one saw him, was drinking on the sly what was left in the glasses.
  • From the third room came sounds of laughter, the shouting of familiar voices, the growling of a bear, and general commotion.
  • Three others were romping with a young bear, one pulling him by the chain and trying to set him at the others.
  • "I bet a hundred on Stevens!" shouted one.
  • "I bet on Dolokhov!" cried a third.
  • "At one draught, or he loses!" shouted a fourth.
  • "Jacob, bring a bottle!" shouted the host, a tall, handsome fellow who stood in the midst of the group, without a coat, and with his fine linen shirt unfastened in front.
  • Wait a bit, you fellows....
  • Another voice, from a man of medium height with clear blue eyes, particularly striking among all these drunken voices by its sober ring, cried from the window: "Come here; part the bets!"
  • This was Dolokhov, an officer of the Semenov regiment, a notorious gambler and duelist, who was living with Anatole.
  • Wait a bit, he is not drunk yet!
  • A bottle here, said Anatole, taking a glass from the table he went up to Pierre.
  • A bottle here, said Anatole, taking a glass from the table he went up to Pierre.
  • Anatole kept on refilling Pierre's glass while explaining that Dolokhov was betting with Stevens, an English naval officer, that he would drink a bottle of rum sitting on the outer ledge of the third floor window with his legs hanging out.
  • Dolokhov was a man of small means and no connections.
  • He smashed a pane.
  • "You have a try, Hercules," said he, turning to Pierre.
  • Pierre seized the crossbeam, tugged, and wrenched the oak frame out with a crash.
  • Fifty imperials... that I will drink a whole bottle of rum without taking it from my mouth, sitting outside the window on this spot" (he stooped and pointed to the sloping ledge outside the window) "and without holding on to anything.
  • Wait a bit, Kuragin.
  • If anyone else does the same, I will pay him a hundred imperials.
  • One man, older than the others present, suddenly pushed forward with a scared and angry look and wanted to seize hold of Dolokhov's shirt.
  • The man who had wished to stop the affair ran to a corner of the room and threw himself on a sofa with his face to the wall.
  • Pierre hid his face, from which a faint smile forgot to fade though his features now expressed horror and fear.
  • Suddenly Dolokhov made a backward movement with his spine, and his arm trembled nervously; this was sufficient to cause his whole body to slip as he sat on the sloping ledge.
  • Suddenly he was aware of a stir all around.
  • He looked up: Dolokhov was standing on the window sill, with a pale but radiant face.
  • There's a bet for you!...
  • Even without a bet, there!
  • Tell them to bring me a bottle.
  • Why, you go giddy even on a staircase, exclaimed several voices.
  • Wait a bit and I'll get round him....
  • The countess was a woman of about forty-five, with a thin Oriental type of face, evidently worn out with childbearing--she had had twelve.
  • A languor of motion and speech, resulting from weakness, gave her a distinguished air which inspired respect.
  • A languor of motion and speech, resulting from weakness, gave her a distinguished air which inspired respect.
  • The countess reflected a moment and took a pinch from a gold snuffbox with her husband's portrait on it.
  • Ask her in," she said to the footman in a sad voice, as if saying: "Very well, finish me off."
  • A tall, stout, and proud-looking woman, with a round-faced smiling daughter, entered the drawing room, their dresses rustling.
  • A tall, stout, and proud-looking woman, with a round-faced smiling daughter, entered the drawing room, their dresses rustling.
  • "That's what comes of a modern education," exclaimed the visitor.
  • He is a son of Marya Ivanovna Dolokhova, such a worthy woman, but there, just fancy!
  • Those three got hold of a bear somewhere, put it in a carriage, and set off with it to visit some actresses!
  • "What a nice figure the policeman must have cut, my dear!" shouted the count, dying with laughter.
  • The visitor made a gesture with her hand.
  • I should think he has a score of them.
  • "The fact of the matter is," said she significantly, and also in a half whisper, "everyone knows Count Cyril's reputation....
  • "How handsome the old man still was only a year ago!" remarked the countess.
  • I have never seen a handsomer man.
  • "Yes, but between ourselves," said the princess, "that is a pretext.
  • "But do you know, my dear, that was a capital joke," said the count; and seeing that the elder visitor was not listening, he turned to the young ladies.
  • I can just imagine what a funny figure that policeman cut!
  • And as he waved his arms to impersonate the policeman, his portly form again shook with a deep ringing laugh, the laugh of one who always eats well and, in particular, drinks well.
  • "Ma chere, there is a time for everything," said the countess with feigned severity.
  • "What a charming child," she added, addressing the mother.
  • She leaned against her mother and burst into such a loud, ringing fit of laughter that even the prim visitor could not help joining in.
  • Natasha, raising her face for a moment from her mother's mantilla, glanced up at her through tears of laughter, and again hid her face.
  • "Tell me, my dear," said she to Natasha, "is Mimi a relation of yours?
  • A daughter, I suppose?
  • Boris on the contrary at once found his footing, and related quietly and humorously how he had known that doll Mimi when she was still quite a young lady, before her nose was broken; how she had aged during the five years he had known her, and how her head had cracked right across the skull.
  • Do you want the carriage? he asked his mother with a smile.
  • The only young people remaining in the drawing room, not counting the young lady visitor and the countess' eldest daughter (who was four years older than her sister and behaved already like a grown-up person), were Nicholas and Sonya, the niece.
  • By the grace of her movements, by the softness and flexibility of her small limbs, and by a certain coyness and reserve of manner, she reminded one of a pretty, half-grown kitten which promises to become a beautiful little cat.
  • And there was a place and everything waiting for him in the Archives Department!
  • It can't be helped! said the count, shrugging his shoulders and speaking playfully of a matter that evidently distressed him.
  • As he spoke he kept glancing with the flirtatiousness of a handsome youth at Sonya and the young lady visitor.
  • What a pity you weren't at the Arkharovs' on Thursday.
  • He waited for the first pause in the conversation, and then with a distressed face left the room to find Sonya.
  • * Cousinhood is a dangerous neighborhood.
  • "What a charming creature your younger girl is," said the visitor; "a little volcano!"
  • "Yes, a regular volcano," said the count.
  • And what a voice she has; though she's my daughter, I tell the truth when I say she'll be a singer, a second Salomoni!
  • "Yes, I was brought up quite differently," remarked the handsome elder daughter, Countess Vera, with a smile.
  • Boris paused in the middle of the room, looked round, brushed a little dust from the sleeve of his uniform, and going up to a mirror examined his handsome face.
  • He stood a little while before the glass, smiled, and walked toward the other door.
  • How can you torture me and yourself like that, for a mere fancy? said Nicholas taking her hand.
  • "Boris, come here," said she with a sly and significant look.
  • She caught the young officer by his cuffs, and a look of solemnity and fear appeared on her flushed face.
  • Suddenly she jumped up onto a tub to be higher than he, embraced him so that both her slender bare arms clasped him above his neck, and, tossing back her hair, kissed him full on the lips.
  • A smile of joy and satisfaction lit up her eager face.
  • She took his arm and with a happy face went with him into the adjoining sitting room.
  • The countess wished to have a tête-à-tête talk with the friend of her childhood, Princess Anna Mikhaylovna, whom she had not seen properly since she returned from Petersburg.
  • "Vera," she said to her eldest daughter who was evidently not a favorite, "how is it you have so little tact?
  • "You have a room of your own," and she took the inkstand from Nicholas.
  • "In a minute, in a minute," he said, dipping his pen.
  • You are a Madame de Genlis and nothing more" (this nickname, bestowed on Vera by Nicholas, was considered very stinging), "and your greatest pleasure is to be unpleasant to people!
  • All four, like a flock of scared birds, got up and left the room.
  • "Ah, my love," answered Anna Mikhaylovna, "God grant you never know what it is to be left a widow without means and with a son you love to distraction!
  • One learns many things then, she added with a certain pride.
  • You see yours is already an officer in the Guards, while my Nicholas is going as a cadet.
  • He paid me attentions in those days, said the countess, with a smile.
  • Yes, he is a fine fellow and a very kind relation.
  • And my affairs are in such a bad way that my position is now a terrible one, continued Anna Mikhaylovna, sadly, dropping her voice.
  • Would you believe it, I have literally not a penny and don't know how to equip Boris.
  • "I often think, though, perhaps it's a sin," said the princess, "that here lives Count Cyril Vladimirovich Bezukhov so rich, all alone... that tremendous fortune... and what is his life worth?
  • It's a burden to him, and Bory's life is only just beginning....
  • And like a practical Petersburg lady who knows how to make the most of time, Anna Mikhaylovna sent someone to call her son, and went into the anteroom with him.
  • He says Count Orlov never gave such a dinner as ours will be!
  • I am a relation.
  • The hall porter sullenly pulled a bell that rang upstairs, and turned away.
  • "Princess Drubetskaya to see Prince Vasili Sergeevich," he called to a footman dressed in knee breeches, shoes, and a swallow-tail coat, who ran downstairs and looked over from the halfway landing.
  • The mother smoothed the folds of her dyed silk dress before a large Venetian mirror in the wall, and in her trodden-down shoes briskly ascended the carpeted stairs.
  • "My dear," she said to her son, once more stimulating him by a touch, "you promised me!"
  • "Prince, humanum est errare, * but..." replied the doctor, swallowing his r's, and pronouncing the Latin words with a French accent.
  • Seeing Anna Mikhaylovna and her son, Prince Vasili dismissed the doctor with a bow and approached them silently and with a look of inquiry.
  • Believe me, Prince, a mother's heart will never forget what you have done for us.
  • A perfectly absurd and stupid fellow, and a gambler too, I am told.
  • A perfectly absurd and stupid fellow, and a gambler too, I am told.
  • "What do the doctors say?" asked the princess after a pause, her worn face again expressing deep sorrow.
  • She bent her head and continued in a whisper: Has he performed his final duty, Prince?
  • "Would not such a meeting be too trying for him, dear Anna Mikhaylovna?" said he.
  • The doctors are expecting a crisis.
  • But one cannot delay, Prince, at such a moment!
  • Ah, it is awful: the duties of a Christian...
  • A door of one of the inner rooms opened and one of the princesses, the count's niece, entered with a cold, stern face.
  • A door of one of the inner rooms opened and one of the princesses, the count's niece, entered with a cold, stern face.
  • "Still the same; but what can you expect, this noise..." said the princess, looking at Anna Mikhaylovna as at a stranger.
  • A footman conducted Boris down one flight of stairs and up another, to Pierre's rooms.
  • Pierre had taken part in tying a policeman to a bear.
  • Entering the drawing room, where the princesses spent most of their time, he greeted the ladies, two of whom were sitting at embroidery frames while a third read aloud.
  • The two younger ones were embroidering: both were rosy and pretty and they differed only in that one had a little mole on her lip which made her much prettier.
  • Pierre was received as if he were a corpse or a leper.
  • Mr. Pitt, as a traitor to the nation and to the rights of man, is sentenced to...
  • But before Pierre--who at that moment imagined himself to be Napoleon in person and to have just effected the dangerous crossing of the Straits of Dover and captured London--could pronounce Pitt's sentence, he saw a well-built and handsome young officer entering his room.
  • He had left Moscow when Boris was a boy of fourteen, and had quite forgotten him, but in his usual impulsive and hearty way he took Boris by the hand with a friendly smile.
  • "Do you remember me?" asked Boris quietly with a pleasant smile.
  • "Count Rostov asks you to come to dinner today," said he, after a considerable pause which made Pierre feel uncomfortable.
  • "You are mistaken," said Boris deliberately, with a bold and slightly sarcastic smile.
  • If only Villeneuve doesn't make a mess of things!
  • For a long time Pierre could not understand, but when he did, he jumped up from the sofa, seized Boris under the elbow in his quick, clumsy way, and, blushing far more than Boris, began to speak with a feeling of mingled shame and vexation.
  • I always make it a rule to speak out.
  • "No, but I say," said Pierre, calming down, "you are a wonderful fellow!
  • We have not met for such a long time... not since we were children.
  • It's queer," he added after a pause, "that you should have suspected me!"
  • I am sorry for him as a man, but what can one do?
  • "And so you think Napoleon will manage to get an army across?" asked Boris with a smile.
  • A footman came in to summon Boris--the princess was going.
  • After he had gone Pierre continued pacing up and down the room for a long time, no longer piercing an imaginary foe with his imaginary sword, but smiling at the remembrance of that pleasant, intelligent, and resolute young man.
  • As often happens in early youth, especially to one who leads a lonely life, he felt an unaccountable tenderness for this young man and made up his mind that they would be friends.
  • She held a handkerchief to her eyes and her face was tearful.
  • Perhaps God will help me to find a way to prepare him!...
  • "Oh, he is in a dreadful state," said the mother to her son when they were in the carriage.
  • After Anna Mikhaylovna had driven off with her son to visit Count Cyril Vladimirovich Bezukhov, Countess Rostova sat for a long time all alone applying her handkerchief to her eyes.
  • The count came waddling in to see his wife with a rather guilty look as usual.
  • What a saute of game au madere we are to have, my dear!
  • "It's the saute, most likely," she added with a smile.
  • I want a great deal, Count!
  • Hey, who's there? he called out in a tone only used by persons who are certain that those they call will rush to obey the summons.
  • "Bring me..." he reflected a moment, "yes, bring me seven hundred rubles, yes!
  • But, don't be uneasy, he added, noticing that the count was beginning to breathe heavily and quickly which was always a sign of approaching anger.
  • That's a thing I hate!
  • When Anna Mikhaylovna returned from Count Bezukhov's the money, all in clean notes, was lying ready under a handkerchief on the countess' little table, and Anna Mikhaylovna noticed that something was agitating her.
  • Oh, what a terrible state he is in!
  • "Annette, for heaven's sake don't refuse me," the countess began, with a blush that looked very strange on her thin, dignified, elderly face, and she took the money from under the handkerchief.
  • One of them was a sallow, clean-shaven civilian with a thin and wrinkled face, already growing old, though he was dressed like a most fashionable young man.
  • This was an old bachelor, Shinshin, a cousin of the countess', a man with "a sharp tongue" as they said in Moscow society.
  • The latter, a fresh, rosy officer of the Guards, irreproachably washed, brushed, and buttoned, held his pipe in the middle of his mouth and with red lips gently inhaled the smoke, letting it escape from his handsome mouth in rings.
  • His favorite occupation when not playing boston, a card game he was very fond of, was that of listener, especially when he succeeded in setting two loquacious talkers at one another.
  • "Well, then, old chap, mon tres honorable Alphonse Karlovich," said Shinshin, laughing ironically and mixing the most ordinary Russian expressions with the choicest French phrases--which was a peculiarity of his speech.
  • It was just the moment before a big dinner when the assembled guests, expecting the summons to zakuska, * avoid engaging in any long conversation but think it necessary to move about and talk, in order to show that they are not at all impatient for their food.
  • "Herself," came the answer in a rough voice, and Marya Dmitrievna entered the room.
  • (Marya Dmitrievna always called Natasha a Cossack) and she stroked the child's arm as she came up fearless and gay to kiss her hand.
  • I know she's a scamp of a girl, but I like her.
  • She took a pair of pear-shaped ruby earrings from her huge reticule and, having given them to the rosy Natasha, who beamed with the pleasure of her saint's-day fete, turned away at once and addressed herself to Pierre.
  • Come here a bit, said she, assuming a soft high tone of voice.
  • Pierre approached, looking at her in a childlike way through his spectacles.
  • All were silent, expectant of what was to follow, for this was clearly only a prelude.
  • His father lies on his deathbed and he amuses himself setting a policeman astride a bear!
  • At the ladies' end an even chatter of voices was heard all the time, at the men's end the voices sounded louder and louder, especially that of the colonel of hussars who, growing more and more flushed, ate and drank so much that the count held him up as a pattern to the other guests.
  • Pierre spoke little but examined the new faces, and ate a great deal.
  • Of the two soups he chose turtle with savory patties and went on to the game without omitting a single dish or one of the wines.
  • These latter the butler thrust mysteriously forward, wrapped in a napkin, from behind the next man's shoulders and whispered: "Dry Madeira"...
  • The German tutor was trying to remember all the dishes, wines, and kinds of dessert, in order to send a full description of the dinner to his people in Germany; and he felt greatly offended when the butler with a bottle wrapped in a napkin passed him by.
  • "The young man's a real hussar!" shouted the colonel, again thumping the table.
  • What are you making such a noise about over there?
  • You may die in your bed or God may spare you in a battle, replied Marya Dmitrievna's deep voice, which easily carried the whole length of the table.
  • She half rose, by a glance inviting Pierre, who sat opposite, to listen to what was coming, and turning to her mother:
  • After she had played a little air with variations on the harp, she joined the other young ladies in begging Natasha and Nicholas, who were noted for their musical talent, to sing something.
  • "Nicholas is going away in a week's time, his... papers... have come... he told me himself... but still I should not cry," and she showed a paper she held in her hand--with the verses Nicholas had written, "still, I should not cry, but you can't... no one can understand... what a soul he has!"
  • And she began to cry again because he had such a noble soul.
  • The little kitten brightened, its eyes shone, and it seemed ready to lift its tail, jump down on its soft paws, and begin playing with the ball of worsted as a kitten should.
  • "Really, truly!" answered Natasha, pushing in a crisp lock that had strayed from under her friend's plaits.
  • And she set off at a run along the passage.
  • Then Nicholas sang a song he had just learned:
  • A day or two, then bliss unspoilt, But oh! till then I cannot live!...
  • Natasha was perfectly happy; she was dancing with a grown-up man, who had been abroad.
  • She was sitting in a conspicuous place and talking to him like a grown-up lady.
  • She had a fan in her hand that one of the ladies had given her to hold.
  • Assuming quite the pose of a society woman (heaven knows when and where she had learned it) she talked with her partner, fanning herself and smiling over the fan.
  • "Look at Papa!" shouted Natasha to the whole company, and quite forgetting that she was dancing with a grown-up partner she bent her curly head to her knees and made the whole room ring with her laughter.
  • As soon as the provocatively gay strains of Daniel Cooper (somewhat resembling those of a merry peasant dance) began to sound, all the doorways of the ballroom were suddenly filled by the domestic serfs--the men on one side and the women on the other--who with beaming faces had come to see their master making merry.
  • A regular eagle he is! loudly remarked the nurse, as she stood in one of the doorways.
  • The other couples could not attract a moment's attention to their own evolutions and did not even try to do so.
  • "That was a Daniel Cooper!" exclaimed Marya Dmitrievna, tucking up her sleeves and puffing heavily.
  • While in the Rostovs' ballroom the sixth anglaise was being danced, to a tune in which the weary musicians blundered, and while tired footmen and cooks were getting the supper, Count Bezukhov had a sixth stroke.
  • Outside the house, beyond the gates, a group of undertakers, who hid whenever a carriage drove up, waited in expectation of an important order for an expensive funeral.
  • When the Military Governor had gone, Prince Vasili sat down all alone on a chair in the ballroom, crossing one leg high over the other, leaning his elbow on his knee and covering his face with his hand.
  • "The limits of human life... are fixed and may not be o'erpassed," said an old priest to a lady who had taken a seat beside him and was listening naively to his words.
  • "Ah, madam, it is a great sacrament," replied the priest, passing his hand over the thin grizzled strands of hair combed back across his bald head.
  • The second princess had just come from the sickroom with her eyes red from weeping and sat down beside Dr. Lorrain, who was sitting in a graceful pose under a portrait of Catherine, leaning his elbow on a table.
  • "Beautiful," said the doctor in answer to a remark about the weather.
  • "Yes, indeed," replied the princess with a sigh.
  • "And who will inherit his wealth?" he added in a whisper.
  • "It von't go begging," replied the German with a smile.
  • Lorrain, pursing up his lips, waved a severely negative finger before his nose.
  • In this room it was almost dark; only two tiny lamps were burning before the icons and there was a pleasant scent of flowers and burnt pastilles.
  • The quilt of a high, white feather bed was just visible behind a screen.
  • A small dog began to bark.
  • Well, sit down: let's have a talk.
  • I wished to get a nap, mon cousin, but I can't.
  • Then she shook her head and glanced up at the icons with a sigh.
  • Prince Vasili said no more and his cheeks began to twitch nervously, now on one side, now on the other, giving his face an unpleasant expression which was never to be seen on it in a drawing room.
  • "And then of course my family has also to be considered," Prince Vasili went on, testily pushing away a little table without looking at her.
  • But... in short, the fact is... you know yourself that last winter the count made a will by which he left all his property, not to us his direct heirs, but to Pierre.
  • "My dear Princess Catherine Semenovna," began Prince Vasili impatiently, "I came here not to wrangle with you, but to talk about your interests as with a kinswoman, a good, kind, true relation.
  • "That would be a fine thing!" said she.
  • Yes, I was a fool!
  • You must remember, Catiche, that it was all done casually in a moment of anger, of illness, and was afterwards forgotten.
  • No, I have a wicked heart.
  • It's that protege of yours, that sweet Princess Drubetskaya, that Anna Mikhaylovna whom I would not take for a housemaid... the infamous, vile woman!
  • Last winter she wheedled herself in here and told the count such vile, disgraceful things about us, especially about Sophie--I can't repeat them--that it made the count quite ill and he would not see us for a whole fortnight.
  • Yes; if I have a sin, a great sin, it is hatred of that vile woman! almost shrieked the princess, now quite changed.
  • But I will give her a piece of my mind.
  • Pausing for a moment, Pierre noticed several other men of the same kind hiding in the shadow of the house on both sides.
  • "Yes," replied a footman in a bold loud voice, as if anything were now permissible; "the door to the left, ma'am."
  • "Ah, my friend!" she said, touching his arm as she had done her son's when speaking to him that afternoon, "believe me I suffer no less than you do, but be a man!"
  • I have loved you like a son from the first.
  • Pierre did not understand a word, but the conviction that all this had to be grew stronger, and he meekly followed Anna Mikhaylovna who was already opening a door.
  • This door led into a back anteroom.
  • An old man, a servant of the princesses, sat in a corner knitting a stocking.
  • Anna Mikhaylovna, addressing a maid who was hurrying past with a decanter on a tray as "my dear" and "my sweet," asked about the princess' health and then led Pierre along a stone passage.
  • Seeing them pass, Prince Vasili drew back with obvious impatience, while the princess jumped up and with a gesture of desperation slammed the door with all her might.
  • Be a man, my friend.
  • From the passage they went into a large, dimly lit room adjoining the count's reception room.
  • They were met by a deacon with a censer and by a servant who passed out on tiptoe without heeding them.
  • With the air of a practical Petersburg lady she now, keeping Pierre close beside her, entered the room even more boldly than that afternoon.
  • What a terrible moment!
  • The doctor cast a rapid glance upwards and silently shrugged his shoulders.
  • To him, in a particularly respectful and tenderly sad voice, she said:
  • He noticed that they whispered to one another, casting significant looks at him with a kind of awe and even servility.
  • A deference such as he had never before received was shown him.
  • He went up to him, took his hand (a thing he never used to do), and drew it downwards as if wishing to ascertain whether it was firmly fixed on.
  • Pierre's mind was in such a confused state that the word "stroke" suggested to him a blow from something.
  • He looked at Prince Vasili in perplexity, and only later grasped that a stroke was an attack of illness.
  • The part of the room behind the columns, with a high silk-curtained mahogany bedstead on one side and on the other an immense case containing icons, was brightly illuminated with red light like a Russian church during evening service.
  • Anna Mikhaylovna, with a meek, sorrowful, and all-forgiving expression on her face, stood by the door near the strange lady.
  • His face wore a calm look of piety and resignation to the will of God.
  • The French doctor held no taper; he was leaning against one of the columns in a respectful attitude implying that he, a foreigner, in spite of all differences of faith, understood the full importance of the rite now being performed and even approved of it.
  • The sick man was given something to drink, there was a stir around him, then the people resumed their places and the service continued.
  • On leaving the bed both Prince Vasili and the princess passed out by a back door, but returned to their places one after the other before the service was concluded.
  • The sick man was so surrounded by doctors, princesses, and servants that Pierre could no longer see the reddish-yellow face with its gray mane-- which, though he saw other faces as well, he had not lost sight of for a single moment during the whole service.
  • "Catch hold of my arm or you'll drop him!" he heard one of the servants say in a frightened whisper.
  • After a few minutes' bustle beside the high bedstead, those who had carried the sick man dispersed.
  • When Pierre came up the count was gazing straight at him, but with a look the significance of which could not be understood by mortal man.
  • Anna Mikhaylovna made a hurried sign with her eyes, glancing at the sick man's hand and moving her lips as if to send it a kiss.
  • Neither the hand nor a single muscle of the count's face stirred.
  • Anna Mikhaylovna with her eyes indicated a chair that stood beside the bed.
  • While the count was being turned over, one of his arms fell back helplessly and he made a fruitless effort to pull it forward.
  • To Pierre he said nothing, merely giving his arm a sympathetic squeeze below the shoulder.
  • Pierre concluded that this also was essential, and after a short interval followed her.
  • "But, my dear princess," answered Anna Mikhaylovna blandly but impressively, blocking the way to the bedroom and preventing the other from passing, "won't this be too much for poor Uncle at a moment when he needs repose?
  • Worldly conversation at a moment when his soul is already prepared...
  • His cheeks, which were so flabby that they looked heavier below, were twitching violently; but he wore the air of a man little concerned in what the two ladies were saying.
  • All I know is that his real will is in his writing table, and this is a paper he has forgotten....
  • I think he will not be out of place in a family consultation; is it not so, Prince?
  • Why do you remain silent when heaven knows who permits herself to interfere, making a scene on the very threshold of a dying man's room?
  • But Anna Mikhaylovna went forward a step or two to keep her hold on the portfolio, and changed her grip.
  • "But, Prince," said Anna Mikhaylovna, "after such a solemn sacrament, allow him a moment's peace!
  • A few minutes later the eldest sister came out with a pale hard face, again biting her underlip.
  • A few minutes later the eldest sister came out with a pale hard face, again biting her underlip.
  • "Ah, my friend!" said he, taking Pierre by the elbow; and there was in his voice a sincerity and weakness Pierre had never observed in it before.
  • Yes, my dear, this is a great loss for us all, not to speak of you.
  • I know you well enough to be sure that this will not turn your head, but it imposes duties on you, and you must be a man.
  • Of the behavior of the eldest princess and Prince Vasili she spoke disapprovingly, but in whispers and as a great secret.
  • He was himself always occupied: writing his memoirs, solving problems in higher mathematics, tur